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(searched for: Review of Corporate Governance Theories)
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Umar Bello, Nile University of Nigeria, Martins Mustapha ABU
Nile Journal of Business and Economics, Volume 7, pp 93-99; https://doi.org/10.20321/nilejbe.v7i17.05

Abstract:
The aim of the paper is to further understand corporate governance by looking at Shareholder theory and Stakeholder theory to improve corporate governance practices in companies and to enable achieving set objectives. A conceptual approach of examining the concepts of corporate governance, shareholder theory and stakeholder theory, their similarities and differences for corporate governance purposes. Secondary sources and reviewed journal articles that discussed concepts were selected and used for the study through Content analysis and use of empirical evidence. The stakeholders’ theory has been proven to promote an inclusive system, that benefits stakeholders in any business or company in a globalised environment. Using both theories from a corporate governance perspective alone without consideration for other areas of the corporation is a limitation of study. Discussion of the theories contribute to understanding of corporate governance practice by corporations and the study will provide guidance for related research in the near future.
, University for Foreigners ", Dante Alighieri", Via del Torrione 95 Of Reggio Calabria
Abstract:
This society has faced many sorts of global challenges, especially the world of business and technological innovation, there's no greater aroused general argument nowadays than digital transformation (DT). Among production-oriented Corporates which many of them have begun to integrate digital technology into most areas of their business. How to well fulfill Corporate Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) while expanding existing businesses in the dramatic growth in DT environment has become a major challenge for all Corporates. Through a review of previous studying works and based on existing gaps the author evaluated whether there could be the feasibility of a blockchain-based technology being integrated as a solution to Corporate GRC-Management together with the theory of entire personnel's GRC responsibility system which would be parts of an agenda for the future research on this field and also contribute to Corporates in an overall strategic height level to embrace the coming of DT.
Modest Assenga, College of Business Education (CBE)
Published: 11 August 2021
Business Education Journal, Volume 10, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.54156/cbe.bej.10.1.249

Abstract:
This study investigates the impact of foreign directors on the financial performance of the Tanzanian listed firms. The study applies balanced panel data Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis on 120 firm-years observations obtained from the firms’ audited annual reports and from the OSIRIS database from 2006 to 2018. The study findings support agency and resource dependence theories that foreign directors have a positive relationship with the firms’ financial performance. The findings indicate further that foreign directors enhance firm performance by providing the firm’s Board of Directors with effective and efficient overseeing and advice to the CEO and the top management. This study contributes to the understanding of the impact of foreign directors on firm performance and provides researched based evidence to Tanzanian policy makers on the importance of foreign members on the firm’s Board of Directors. Unlike the previous corporate governance studies, which focused on developed countries, this study examines the effects of foreign members on the Boards of Directors of listed firms in Tanzania, a developing country where very few corporate governance studies have been conducted. The study recommends policy makers in Tanzania to use the results of this original study while preparing or reviewing Corporate Governance Regulations.
, , University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee
Journal of Global Business Insights, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.5038/2640-6489.1.2.1013

Abstract:
The National Academies defines interdisciplinary research as “a mode of research by teams or individuals that integrates information, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, and/or theories from two or more disciplines or bodies of specialized knowledge to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline or area of research practice.” The fields of business and economics are very suitable for interdisciplinary research. For this reason, we decided to develop and publish an international double blind peer reviewed journal - International Interdisciplinary Business- Economics Advancement (IIBA) Journal - to feature business and economics research that spans more than one discipline. The International Interdisciplinary Business Economics Advancement (IIBA) Journal aims to publish new ideas, research and results concerning all aspects of Business and Economics, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered in the field as well as the solutions adopted. Hence, it will be a platform where numerous disciplines converge. For this reason, we invite scholars from different academic disciplines to collaborate with scholars from other disciplines, tackle issues to solve current and future problems, contribute to the body of knowledge and share their views and research findings. IIBA Journal also welcomes any conceptual papers in addition to contributions towards theory testing and development which will help future empirical studies. It is with a great pleasure that we welcome you to the second issue of the IIBA Journal. This issue presents five excellent contributions. The first paper by Sunaina Kanojia and Sawaliya Priya attempt to unearth quality of corporate governance practices of Indian Banking sector and highlight whether the corporate governance practices of listed public and private sector banks are symmetric post subprime crisis. In the second paper, Mehmet Cihan Yavuz, Muzaffer Sumbul, Nuket Elpeze Ergec, and Cetin Ibrahim Derdiyok conducted a qualitative analysis to assess various aspects of a city destination. On another dimension, the third paper by Weining Li, Jingyu Zhan, and Yuan Lu offers a theoretical model that examines strategic flexibility as an intermediate mechanism in the relationship between transformational leadership and firm performance. The fourth paper by Obed Rashdi Syed and Rosmini Omar attempts to conceptualize a holistic collaboration model that business schools could adapt and proposes method to develop collaborations with potential stakeholders. Last but not least, the fifth paper by Füsun Istanbul Dinçer, Mithat Zeki Dinçer, and Zehra Binnur Avunduk primarily focuses on the effective marketing strategies that
, Ural State University of Economics, Alexandr A. Zlygostev
Izvestiya of Saratov University. Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-271-287

Abstract:
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of stakeholder risks and the possibilities of their assessment. The methodological framework of the study was formed on the basis of the corporate governance theory and its stakeholder model. Theoretical analysis. On the basis of the the Russian-language and English-language publications’ general review, carried out by the authors, it is concluded that there is no clear generally accepted toolkit for assessing stakeholder risk. Assessment of stakeholder risks was most developed in project approaches. Methods. The authors propose an approach for assessing the stakeholder risks of an organization as a whole based on the search for a balance of interests through modeling the contributions and benefits of stakeholders and the gaps between contributions and benefits. The empirical base of the study was made up of data on flour-grinding and bakery enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region for 2010–2019. The unbalanced dashboard for analysis included 130 observations across 28 companies. Results. The methodology has been tested on the example of a comparative analysis of “more successful” and “less successful” companies in terms of revenue. Econometric models of the stakeholder contribution to revenue have been built. Stakeholder risk maps were built, which made it possible to identify the most influential stakeholders in terms of their contribution to revenue and the most risky ones in terms of the gap level. Conclusions. When assessing stakeholder risks, a broad outlook and a system of various methods for assessing stakeholder risks are required, as well as a willingness to take into account factors that may go beyond the framework of the models. The results and conclusions of the article can become a theoretical platform for further research. Further research on this topic can be related to expanding the understanding of the imbalance of interests by taking into account the subjective assessments of stakeholders and experts. For these purposes, it is necessary to adapt existing corporate surveys to accounting for stakeholder value and stakeholder risks.
, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Economics pp 144-153; https://doi.org/10.30970/ves.2019.56.0.3114

Abstract:
The article analyzes the key aspects of commercial bank lending operations in the post-crisis banking system recovery phase. In order to ensure stable economic growth, it is important to help increase lending to the real sector of the economy, since by increasing the volume of granted loans by 10%, experts estimate that it is possible to get 2% of GDP growth. Therefore, it is important and at the same time difficult to ensure an active resumption of corporate lending. The strategic goal of the National Bank of Ukraine and the Government is to restore real sector lending in the near future and will be a major factor in economic growth. The purpose of the article is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the field of bank lending to identify major weaknesses, obstacles that do not allow to achieve the desired economic effect. A structural analysis of the active operations of commercial banks was conducted to identify major obstacles and identify potential drivers of credit recovery. It was revealed that during the period under review for 2016-2019, assets grew due to the following factors: exchange rate revaluation of bank balance sheets and growth in consumer lending. In the structure of active operations, lending prevails, which is a reflection of the business model chosen by banks. The share of loans granted on bank balances ranges from 56 to 64% and reflects a downward trend. If you look at the structure of the loan portfolio by maturity, it should be noted that short-term loans predominate. This situation is caused by the fact that consumer lending is growing rapidly, and in this segment loans are granted for a period of mostly up to 1 year. In recent years, there has been a trend towards an increase in the volume of loans to indivi­duals. As of 01.09.2019 is 20.92%. This structure of the loan portfolio is not yet a threat to systemic stability, but banks should carefully and conservatively reserve for such loans. The main factor contributing to economic growth is the resumption of lending to the real economy. The current situation in this segment is such that it is not possible to achieve this quickly. The main disadvantages that prevent this are the following. A significant proportion of non-performing loans on banks' balance sheets. Absence of sufficient quality solvent borrowers. Unstable macroeconomic situation. Insufficient protection of the rights of creditors, borrowers. Therefore, in order to achieve the strategic goal of securing rapid economic growth, these factors need to be explored in detail to identify possible ways of leveling them. Keywords : bank lending, loan portfolio, consumer lending, corporate lending. The article deals with the application of the program-target budgeting method for managing the effectiveness of regional information programs. The aim of the research is to substantiate the approach to the development of models for managing the effectiveness of the regional informatization program implementation in the context of the development of information society on the basis of program-target budgeting, for as the worldwide experience testifies to the dependence of economic growth in the region on its level of informatization. Monitoring the implementation of state targeted programs in Ukraine indicates their low efficiency, which outlines the relevance of the research topics. In the process of scientific research the following scientific methods and theories have been applied: analysis (for understanding of tendencies and current state of regional informatization in Ukraine), knowledge engineering (for structuring the process of research and field of knowledge of the problem), system analysis (for structuring the conceptual model of the problem of regional informatization programs management efficiency), program-target budgeting (for outlining the set of parameters of the conceptual model of the problem), synthesis and set theory (for formalization the conceptual model of the problem of managing the regional informatization programs efficiency). The peculiarities of the informatization of regions of Ukraine in the context of efficiency have been analyzed; conceptualization principles of the problem of managing the efficiency of regional informatization processes have been substantiated. The conceptual model of managing the effectiveness of regional informatization programs based on their program-target budgeting has been substantiated. The components of the conceptual model are formally described with the use of the set theory. This conceptual model for managing the efficienvy of informatization programs outlines the knowledge space to assess the expected effect of informatization projects in the regions of Ukraine, thus creates the background for the development of practical tools for comparative analysis of the quality of informatization projects at the reasoning stage. Keywords : informatization, region of Ukraine, program of informatization, indices of informatization, program-target budgeting, conceptualization
Yeong-Seok Bae, Han-Bin Bae, Korean Society Of Tax Law
Published: 30 September 2022
Korean Society of Tax Law, Volume 7, pp 35-83; https://doi.org/10.37733/tkjt.2022.7.3.35

Abstract:
After completion of the reconstruction of a residential condominium (hereafter referred to as “Apartment or Real Estate”)(Usually, condominiums are called apartments in Korea) the association members’ apartments will be constructed together with the apartments to be sold to the general public upon approval of construction permit from the local government. After completion of construction, each member of an association will proceed to register under his or her own name at the government registry office and general public sales units will be registered under the name of the association of reconstruction. For construction permit aspect, the association of reconstruction(hereafter referred to as “association”) builds the apartments and provides to the member of reconstruction association(hereafter referred to as “member”), but another of view i.e. association members, this can be construed as a transfer of existing apartment (old house) to the association and receive a new house(an exchange of an old house for a newly built house) For preservation registration aspect, the association provides its name to use when they build apartments for the members of the association. But from the viewpoint of association members, they built their own apartments by themselves. At the real estate reconstruction(Reconstruction members’ portion+general public sales portion), ① acquisition tax, value added tax and capital gain tax will be imposed as if members built their own apartment. From the viewpoint of preservative registration of real estate, the obligator of acquisition tax is the association member, accordingly, value-added-tax is not imposed on the association member. Also this real estate is not considered a transfer of ownership. Accordingly there is no capital gain tax because the newly built apartment considered the same as existing apartment. ② An association tax will be imposed as if the member of reconstruction invests investment-in-kind by the existing real estate and buys a newly constructed apartment from the association(exchanging the existing old apartment and receiving newly built apartment). Accordingly the association will appraise the real estate property based on investment-in-kind and determine the value of land when the association sells a newly built apartment.(An association shall be taxed as a corporation entity) This existing real estate appraisal value is very important because the association tax (corporate tax) and dividend tax to the member of association will be determined by this appraisal value as tax basis for the gain on sale on the general public sale portion of real estate. This kind of two different aspect generate a few issues of taxation on acquisition tax, value added tax, and capital gain tax etc. This thesis presents a view of dual status position right on the association. The association is the original acquirer of the apartments sold to the general public but the original acquirer is the association member for the member portion of real estate, and the role of association is permitting to use the association’s name to build the new apartment. Given the dual status position right, the association can claim both positions: first as the supplier to the general public sale of newly constructed apart- ments, and second as the joint purchaser of real estate for the association members. This thesis reviews issues and dual status position right in connection with reconstruction projects under the current tax law and suggests an amendment for the Restriction of Special Taxation Act, Corporate Tax Act, and Value-added-Tax Act. If tax laws apply the following dual status position thesis, the grounded jurisprudence theory of acquisition tax, value-added tax and capital gain tax (original acquisition value of apartment for the member portion) will apply to the association tax. That means the theory of tax law will be consistent with the theory of that the member built
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