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Published: 17 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123618

Abstract:
Transmission expansion planning (TEP), the determination of new transmission lines to be added to an existing power network, is a key element in power system planning. Using classical optimization to define the most suitable reinforcements is the most desirable alternative. However, the extent of the under-study problems is growing, because of the uncertainties introduced by renewable generation or electric vehicles (EVs) and the larger sizes under consideration given the trends for higher renewable shares and stronger market integration. This means that classical optimization, even using efficient techniques, such as stochastic decomposition, can have issues when solving large-sized problems. This is compounded by the fact that, in many cases, it is necessary to solve a large number of instances of a problem in order to incorporate further considerations. Thus, it can be interesting to resort to metaheuristics, which can offer quick solutions at the expense of an optimality guarantee. Metaheuristics can even be combined with classical optimization to try to extract the best of both worlds. There is a vast literature that tests individual metaheuristics on specific case studies, but wide comparisons are missing. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA), orthogonal crossover based differential evolution (OXDE), grey wolf optimizer (GWO), moth–flame optimization (MFO), exchange market algorithm (EMA), sine cosine algorithm (SCA) optimization and imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA) are tested and compared. The algorithms are applied to the standard test systems of IEEE 24, and 118 buses. Results indicate that, although all metaheuristics are effective, they have diverging profiles in terms of computational time and finding optimal plans for TEP.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/ijgi10060418

Abstract:
Austria aims to meet 100% of its electricity demand from domestic renewable sources by 2030 which means, that an additional 27 TWh/a of renewable electricity generation are required, thereof 11 TWh/a from photovoltaic. While some federal states and municipalities released a solar rooftop cadastre, there is lacking knowledge on the estimation of the potential of both, ground mounted installations and rooftop modules, on a national level with a high spatial resolution. As a first, in this work data on agricultural land-use is combined with highly resolved data on buildings on a national level. Our results show significant differences between urban and rural areas, as well as between the Alpine regions and the Prealpine- and Easter Plain areas. Rooftop potential concentrates in the big urban areas, but also in densely populated areas in Lower- and Upper Austria, Styria and the Rhine valley of Vorarlberg. The ground mounted photovoltaic potential is highest in Eastern Austria. This potential is geographically consistent with the demand and allows for a production close to the consumer. In theory, the goal of meeting 11 TWh/a in 2030 can be achieved solely with the rooftop PV potential. However, considering the necessary installation efforts, the associated costs of small and dispersed production units and finally the inherent uncertainty with respect to the willingness of tens of thousands of individual households to install PV systems, installing the necessary solar PV on buildings alone is constrained.
European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 291, pp 862-870; doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2020.10.048

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Xiaolin Liang, Yulei Xie, Guohe Huang, Bing Wang
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy, Volume 225; doi:10.1016/j.energy.2021.120323

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Jakub Jurasz, Mohamed Chouai, Hannah Bloomfield, Benaissa Bekkouche
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 238; doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114170

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Paulina V. Escobar, Diego I. Oyarzun, Andrea Arias,
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 238; doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2021.113997

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Domenico Ferrero, Andrea Lanzini, Massimo Santarelli
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 238; doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114147

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Lei Zheng, , Po-Chih Kuo
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 238; doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114119

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 15 June 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13126776

Abstract:
Electrical energy and power demand will experience exponential increase with the rise of the global population. Power demand is predictable and can be estimated based on population and available historical data. However, renewable energy sources (RES) are intermittent, unpredictable, and environment-dependent. Interestingly, microgrids are becoming smarter but require adequate and an appropriate energy storage system (ESS) to support their smooth and optimal operation. The deep discharge caused by the charging–discharging operation of the ESS affects its state of health, depth of discharge (DOD), and life cycle, and inadvertently reduces its lifetime. Additionally, these parameters of the ESS are directly affected by the varying demand and intermittency of RES. This study presents an assessment of battery energy storage in wind-penetrated microgrids considering the DOD of the ESS. The study investigates two scenarios: a standalone microgrid, and a grid-connected microgrid. The problem is formulated based on the operation cost of the microgrid considering the DOD and the lifetime of the battery. The optimization problem is solved using non-linear programming. The scheduled operation cost of the microgrid, the daily scheduling cost of ESS, the power dispatch by distributed generators, and the DOD of the battery storage at any point in time are reported. Performance analysis showed that a power loss probability of less than 10% is achievable in all scenarios, demonstrating the effectiveness of the study.
F. Vitale, N. Rispoli, , , C. Pianese
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy, Volume 225; doi:10.1016/j.energy.2021.120304

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Philip R. Agee, , Andrew P. McCoy
Published: 15 June 2021
Energy and Buildings, Volume 241; doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.110919

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 15 June 2021
Applied Energy, Volume 292; doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116880

Abstract:
In order to achieve stringent greenhouse gas emission reductions, a transition of our entire energy system from fossil to renewable resources needs to be designed. Such an energy transition brings two main challenges: most renewables generate variable electric energy, yet most demand is currently not electric (carrier mismatch) and does not always manifest at the same time as supply (temporal mismatch). Integrating multiple energy infrastructures can address both challenges by using the synergy between different energy carriers; building on existing infrastructure, while allowing a robust and flexible integration of the new. This paper proposes an optimization framework for long-term, multi-period investment planning of urban energy systems in an integrated manner. We formulate it as a mixed-integer linear program, combining a capacitated facility location with a multi-dimensional, capacitated network design problem. It includes generation and network expansion planning as well as interconnections between networks and storage infrastructure for each energy system. It can incorporate pathway effects like techno-economic developments, policy measures, and weather variations. The intended use is to support urban decision makers with long-term investment planning, though it can be tailored to fit other geographical or temporal scales. We demonstrate the model using two cases based on an average city in The Netherlands, which wants to reduce its CO2-emissions with 95% by 2050. In the first case, we include explicit carbon-emission constraints to study the effects of the carrier mismatch. In the second case, we implement interannual weather variations to analyze the temporal mismatch. The results give valuable insights into the energy transition design strategy for urban decision makers. They also show the future potential, as well as the computational challenges of the optimization framework.
Published: 14 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123536

Abstract:
In order to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy technologies such as wind power and solar photovoltaic power systems have recently become more widespread. However, Japan as a nation faces high reliance on imported fossil fuels for electricity generation despite having great potential for further renewable energy development. The focus of this study examines untapped geographical locations in Japan’s northern most prefecture, Hokkaido, that possess large wind power potential. The possibility of exploiting this potential for the purpose of producing green hydrogen is explored. In particular, its integration with a year-round conversion of Kraft lignin into bio-oil from nearby paper pulp mills through a near critical water depolymerization process is examined. The proposed bio-oil and aromatic chemical production, as well as the process’ economics are calculated based upon the total available Kraft lignin in Hokkaido, including the magnitude of wind power capacity that would be required for producing the necessary hydrogen for such a large-scale process. Green hydrogen integration with other processes in Japan and in other regions is also discussed. Finally, the potential benefits and challenges are outlined from an energy policy point-of-view.
Published: 12 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123499

Abstract:
Oscillating water column (OWC) systems are water power generation plants that transform wave kinetic energy into electrical energy by a surrounded air column in a chamber that changes its pressure through the waves motion. The chamber pressure output spins a Wells turbine that is linked to a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), flexible devices that adjust the turbine speed to increase the efficiency. However, there are different nonlinearities associated with these systems such as weather conditions, uncertainties, and turbine stalling phenomenon. In this research, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) combined with an airflow reference generator (ARG) was designed and validated in a simulation environment to display the efficiency enhancement of an OWC system by the regulation of the turbine speed. Results show that the proposed framework not only increased the system output power, but the stalling is also avoided under different pressure profiles.
Published: 11 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123458

Abstract:
The variability in generation introduced in the electrical system by an increasing share of renewable technologies must be addressed by balancing mechanisms, demand response being a prominent one. In parallel, the massive introduction of smart meters allows for the use of high frequency energy use time series data to segment electricity customers according to their demand response potential. This paper proposes a smart meter time series clustering methodology based on a two-stage k-medoids clustering of normalized load-shape time series organized around the day divided into 48 time points. Time complexity is drastically reduced by first applying the k-medoids on each customer separately, and second on the total set of customer representatives. Further time complexity reduction is achieved using time series representation with low computational needs. Customer segmentation is undertaken with only four easy-to-interpret features: average energy use, energy–temperature correlation, entropy of the load-shape representative vector, and distance to wind generation patterns. This last feature is computed using the dynamic time warping distance between load and expected wind generation shape representative medoids. The two-stage clustering proves to be computationally effective, scalable and performant according to both internal validity metrics, based on average silhouette, and external validation, based on the ground truth embedded in customer surveys.
Published: 11 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123460

Abstract:
With the introduction of the renewable energy communities in the current electrical market environment, it becomes possible to aggregate small generation resources and users’ loads to exchange power within the aggregation and at the same time provide services to the electrical system. The renewable energy community of users equipped with nanogrid technology allows performing an adequate level of flexibility. It may be the solution to coordinate in the best possible way the energy resources in order to increase the community self-consumption and to provide ancillary services to the grid. In this paper, a model for the interaction between the Distribution System Operator (DSO)—Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the energy community based on nanogrids is proposed and an operational example is presented.
Published: 10 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123426

Abstract:
China intends to develop its renewable energy sector in order to cut down on its pollution levels. Concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies are expected to play a key role in this agenda. This study evaluated the technical and economic performance of a 100 MW solar tower CSP in Tibet, China, under different heat transfer fluids (HTF), i.e., Salt (60% NaNO3 40% KNO3) or HTF A, and Salt (46.5% LiF 11.5% NaF 42% KF) or HTF B under two different power cycles, namely supercritical CO2 and Rankine. Results from the study suggest that the Rankine power cycle with HTF A and B recorded capacity factors (CF) of 39% and 40.3%, respectively. The sCO2 power cycle also recorded CFs of 41% and 39.4% for HTF A and HTF B, respectively. A total of 359 GWh of energy was generated by the sCO2 system with HTF B, whereas the sCO2 system with HTF A generated a total of 345 GWh in the first year. The Rankine system with HTF A generated a total of 341 GWh, while the system with B as its HTF produced a total of 353 GWh of electricity in year one. Electricity to grid mainly occurred between 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. throughout the year. According to the results, the highest levelized cost of energy (LCOE) (real) of 0.1668 USD/kWh was recorded under the Rankine cycle with HTF A. The lowest LCOE (real) of 0.1586 USD/kWh was obtained under the sCO2 cycle with HTF B. In general, all scenarios were economically viable at the study area; however, the sCO2 proved to be more economically feasible according to the simulated results.
Published: 10 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123453

Abstract:
The growing adoption of decentralised renewable energy generation (such as solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and low-carbon technologies will increase the strain experienced by the distribution networks in the near future. In such a scenario, energy storage is becoming a key alternative to traditional expensive reinforcements to network infrastructure, due to its flexibility, decreasing costs and fast deployment capabilities. In this work, an end-to-end data-driven solution to optimally design the control of a battery unit with the aim of reducing the peak electricity demand is presented. The proposed solution uses state-of-the-art machine learning methods for forecasting electricity demand and PV generation, combined with an optimisation strategy to maximise the use of photovoltaic energy to charge the energy storage unit. To this end, historical demand, weather, and solar energy generation data collected at the Stentaway Primary substation near Plymouth, UK, and at other six locations were employed.
Published: 10 June 2021
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 301; doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126978

Abstract:
Coal-intensive power supply systems, along with a fast-growing electricity demand driven by industry has caused serious air pollution and health concerns. These concerns are particularly prominent in countries where electricity use is likewise dominated by industry and heavily dependent on coal-based electricity. A more efficient industry and coal-free electricity systems are the core components of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Previous studies rarely reflect on the impacts of the electricity savings of industrial consumers on the electricity supply sector with respect to future air emission changes, and also neglect the potential benefits of reducing investments in new generation capacity. Here, a comprehensive modeling framework is newly developed to quantify the connections of electricity savings, coal-based electricity systems, air pollutant emissions, and control investments in China, a country exposed to poor air quality. The modeling framework includes 175 energy efficiency technologies (covering multiple industrial sectors) and detailed information of power generation units (thermal efficiency, environmental performance, and lifespan), and allows for unit-by-unit assessment. We find that industrial efficiency improvements can significantly decrease the dependence on coal-fired power generation, particularly the most polluting power fleet. Efficient use of electricity in industry can drive all small high-polluting coal generation units (i.e. units below 300 MW, in total 753 units) to be phased out and effectively curb less efficient coal-fired plants to come online in China. Meanwhile, the air pollutant emissions can be significantly avoided because of the closed coal-fired power units. Developed cost portfolios demonstrate that improving industrial energy efficiency is more cost-effective than installing flue gas controls in coal-fired plants. We further reveal that a sustainable industry could contribute to climate change mitigation even if less remarkable than air quality improvement, while enabling the expansion of intermittent renewable power supply.
Springer Theses pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/978-981-16-2532-9_1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Mohamed Zine Zizoui, Bekheira Tabbache, Nouredine Hannini, Mohamed Benbouzid
2nd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2014) pp 295-302; doi:10.1007/978-981-16-0378-5_39

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Mokhtar Kobbi, Moubarek Saada, Mohammed Chenafa, Abdelkerim Souahlia
2nd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2014) pp 49-55; doi:10.1007/978-981-16-0378-5_7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
S. Bentouati, N. Henini, A. Tlemcani, Y. Chiba
2nd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2014) pp 193-199; doi:10.1007/978-981-16-0378-5_26

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 10 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123439

Abstract:
Facilitating high-RES (Renewable Energy Resources) penetration via integrated resource management is considered a promising strategy on different islands worldwide. For this work, the Portuguese island of Porto Santo is established as a test bench using actual data from the island. Given its geographical condition and energy needs, integrating the management of different resources (namely, the electric power grid with the water supply system, intensive in-land transportation electrification, and the energy storage applications) is analyzed by this work to achieve a power grid relying entirely on RES. The energy storage utilization and the purposeful manipulations in demand patterns have been perceived as instruments to reduce RES availability and consumption mismatch. Electric Vehicles (EV) could be perceived as a reliable alternative to centralized storage systems, acting either as a load or power resource (generator), providing the required flexibility for power systems to uptake the increased RES and maintaining the balance of supply and demand. This means that EVs could contribute to greening both the power system and the transport sectors. Hence, the impact of the EVs’ penetration level on the island was assessed through a gradual increase in the EVs’ total number (from 0 to a fleet containing 2500 vehicles). Furthermore, a collaboration between the water supply (seawater desalination) and the energy sector is proposed. The obtained results revealed that the optimized management of resources could significantly help the overall energy system (power grid) to rely only on RES (solar and wind energies). The curtailments decreased relatively (maximizing the RES share), while the polluter conventional power plant remained off over the simulation periods.
, Pedro M. M. Guerreiro, , André S. Pedro, João M. F. Rodrigues
Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency XV pp 333-346; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-77980-1_26

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Sajad Mahdavi, Reza Hemmati
Numerical Methods for Energy Applications pp 151-175; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-64631-8_6

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 9 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123397

Abstract:
Implementation of alternative energy supply solutions requires the broad involvement of local communities. Hence, smart energy solutions are primarily investigated on a local scale, resulting in integrated community energy systems (ICESs). Within this framework, the distributed generation can be optimally utilised, matching it with the local load via storage and demand response techniques. In this study, the boat demand flexibility in the Ballen marina on Samsø—a medium-sized Danish island—is analysed for improving the local grid operation. For this purpose, suitable electricity tariffs for the marina and sailors are developed based on the conducted demand analysis. The optimal scheduling of boats and battery energy storage system (BESS) is proposed, utilising mixed-integer linear programming. The marina’s grid-flexible operation is studied for three representative weeks—peak tourist season, late summer, and late autumn period—with the combinations of high/low load and photovoltaic (PV) generation. Several benefits of boat demand response have been identified, including cost savings for both the marina and sailors, along with a substantial increase in load factor. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm increases battery utilisation during summer, improving the marina’s cost efficiency. The cooperation of boat flexibility and BESS leads to improved grid operation of the marina, with profits for both involved parties. In the future, the marina’s demand flexibility could become an essential element of the local energy system, considering the possible increase in renewable generation capacity—in the form of PV units, wind turbines or wave energy.
, Juan José Milón Guzmán, Karim Cipriano Navarrete, Sergio Leal Braga
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Photovoltaic solar technology is undergoing remarkable progress and occupies an important place among the most used renewable energies. In the present study, the influence of dust, wind and rain on the performance of a photovoltaic system operating in Arequipa - Peru was evaluated. To determine the efficiency of photovoltaic panels influenced by external factors, a photovoltaic system was designed and installed, voltage, electric current, solar irradiance and temperatures were measured. For the dirt tests, three types of dust were used to simulate the atmospheric dust of the city: cement, ashlar (volcanic stone) and clay dust were used. The parameter considered for the deposition of the powders on the panels was surface density (g/m2). The particle size was determined by granulometry, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS), obtaining spectra, microphotographs and chemical composition.For the wind factor, three speeds were determined within a range of average speeds recorded in urban areas, and tests were carried out in natural rain conditions. The results show that from 06:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. the energy generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panels decreases due to the increase of dust deposition. As well, it is shown that the influence of the wind increases efficiency slightly and that the performance of photovoltaic panels is directly influenced in rainy conditions.
Muhammad Umair Mutarraf, Yacine Terriche, Mashood Nasir, Yajuan Guan, , Juan C. Vasquez, Josep M. Guerrero
IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, pp 1-1; doi:10.1109/tte.2021.3087722

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 9 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123412

Abstract:
Semi-transparent Building Integrated Photovoltaics provide a fresh approach to the renewable energy sector, combining the potential of energy generation with aesthetically pleasing, multi-functional building components. Employing a range of technologies, they can be integrated into the envelope of the building in different ways, for instance, as a key element of the roofing or façade in urban areas. Energy performance, measured by their ability to produce electrical power, at the same time as delivering thermal and optical efficiencies, is not only impacted by the system properties, but also by a variety of climatic and environmental factors. The analytical framework laid out in this paper can be employed to critically analyse the most efficient solution for a specific location; however, it is not always possible to mitigate energy losses, using commercially available materials. For this reason, a brief overview of new concept devices is provided, outlining the way in which they mitigate energy losses and providing innovative solutions for a sustainable energy future.
Dildar Ali Jafri
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Worldwide, off-grid remote areas are facing energy issues. The Canadian remote communities depend on diesel generation posing many issues including high fuel cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The government policy is to connect such communities to electricity grid that requires high cost and long time. In this situation renewable generators, including wind and solar, may be an appropriate solution. However, their intermittent nature is problematic that needs to be addressed. Therefore, this project investigated the integration of underground pumped hydro storage membrane system (UPHSM) to address the intermittency to provide steady and reliable power supply. A four step systematic methodology is proposed to examine the feasibility of UPHSM in a remote community. The case study results show an overall 64 percent reduction in diesel consumption and 295696 t in CO2 emission. The study results also confirmed that the proposed system is a viable solution for off-grid remote areas.
Hassan Haes Alhelou, Ehsan Heydarian-Forushani, Pierluigi Siano
Flexibility in Electric Power Distribution Networks; doi:10.1201/9781003122326

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Faizul Hasan, Darko Joksimovic
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
The electric power industry worldwide has been focusing towards increasing utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar to build and maintain clean, reliable and affordable electricity systems. Although these resources are environmentally clean, their uncertain and intermittent nature is a significant issue. Similarly, other energy generators such as nuclear and gas have serious environmental issues. These issues can be resolved with effective management of supply and demand using appropriate energy storage. Although various energy storage options are available, PHES is globally proven technology at grid level. Additionally, gravity power module (GPM) is a newly emerged technology in the power industry. However, its applications at full scale are still awaited. This research developed methodologies for integrated planning framework for PHES systems at grid level, employing a GIS-based model to identify feasible PHES sites, optimizing the scheduling of feasible PHES potential, and performing the financial analysis of PHES system. The methodologies were applied on grid-connected electricity area of Ontario that identified 285 feasible PHES and GPM sites with storage potential of 56,268 MWh. This research proposed the formation of a cooperative association namely „Pumped Hydro Storage Association (PHSA)‟ for integration of PHES system in the electricity market system operated by the IESO in Ontario. Using 2016 data, the optimization model resulted that PHSA supplied real-time energy 28,134 MWh/ day, provided ancillary services including variable operating reserve 23,914 MWh/ day, fixed operating reserve 4,220 MWh/ day, and purchased energy 65,060 MWh/ day. The optimization results and resultant financial indicators confirmed that proposed PHES system is technically and financially viable in a large electricity market system. As an initial step, partial development of PHES and GPM plants was proposed with an initial capital cost of C$ 1,052 Million utilizing 7,767 MWh/ day energy potential that resulted in a net profit share of C$ 13.36/ MWh for each participatory plant. Finally, the developed PHES planning framework for PHES system can certainly be found valuable to the policymakers, system operators, energy developers, research scholars, engineers, financial analysts and scientist community to work on future improvement in the PHES system.
Luiz Inacio Chaves, Carlos Alberto Favarin Murari, , Marcelo Jose da Silva, Marcelo Nanni, Pedro De Assis Sobreira Junior, Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Camargo Nogueira
IEEE Latin America Transactions, Volume 19, pp 660-668; doi:10.1109/tla.2021.9448549

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Lei Chen
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies; doi:10.1093/ijlct/ctab045

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to design a self-circulation residence near Greenland using fully renewable energy and dead water effect. Special values in terms of commercial for Greenland lead to the increase of local population. Previous investigations mainly study the particular dead water effect phenomenon neglecting the utilization of this influence, which may provide energy for local residence. This research implements electromagnetic induction to design a power generation equipment and self-circulation system. Final results show that the designed device could successfully produce power using dead water effect occurring in Greenland. In addition, a building utilizing self-circulation system is also devised to achieve energy circulation. In conclusion, dead water effect could be used to generate electricity and some special places have the potential to realize energy circulation.
Shahram Negari
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
The global energy consumption is soaring at an unprecedented rate over the past three decades, in part due to rapid socioeconomic advancement in developing countries. This enormous demand, in turn, has pushed the energy production methods to their limits. Therefore, huge investments are predicted to be put in the energy sector to increase production at one end and enhance consumption efficiency at the other. Currently a considerable portion of electric energy is produced by power plants who consume some kind of fossil based energy carrier. However, dependency on fossil based energy carriers has brought up its own serious drawbacks including ecological problems such as global warming, increased CO2 emission, and alarming pollution levels. As a remedy, many economies have diverted from traditional means of energy production by embracing new sustainable energy production methods and simultaneously improving consumption habits. Currently, among technically available and economically viable solutions, generating energy from renewable sources, in particular wind and solar are pioneering. Finding the appropriate locations and building large scale wind farms or solar farms in urban areas, which are already suffering from congestion, has turned to be a major challenge. Consequently, many investors are now turning toward construction of off-shore farms. Transferring the electric energy from the off-shore farm to the mainland in a safe and reliable way is the next challenge. Having taken into account several technical and economic reasons, laying submarine HVDC cables at sea substrate to evacuate the power from offshore wind farms is the best available method at the present. Utilizing HVDC requires installation of AC/DC converters, which due to grid characteristics in particular in remote areas, will be mainly based on utilizing voltage source converters. Yet, as to integration of antiparallel diodes in their valves, voltage source converters are intrinsically vulnerable against massive short circuit currents and backflow of energy from transmission line to the converter. Thus developing a reliable circuit breaker topology, which is the frontline protection device for both submarine transmission line and converter seems to be essential. In this research, existing topologies and solutions for circuit breakers, including their features and drawbacks are discussed and then a new topology for HVDC circuit breaker is introduced. Many solid-state topologies have been proposed by academia and rolled out by manufacturers so far. A feature common to all existing designs is utilization of surge arrester for absorbing the energy stored in the system. However, the new topology that is put forward in this research is based on a combination of solid-state switch and a mutual inductance, which diverts the energy stored in the transmission line at the time of short circuit current to a resistor. The resistor then damps and absorbs the energy which is finally dissipated as heat. Both simple and complex Simulink models are developed to test the performance of the proposed topology. Results of both simulation scenarios corroborate and validate the functionality and reliability of the suggested design.
Shahram Negari
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
The global energy consumption is soaring at an unprecedented rate over the past three decades, in part due to rapid socioeconomic advancement in developing countries. This enormous demand, in turn, has pushed the energy production methods to their limits. Therefore, huge investments are predicted to be put in the energy sector to increase production at one end and enhance consumption efficiency at the other. Currently a considerable portion of electric energy is produced by power plants who consume some kind of fossil based energy carrier. However, dependency on fossil based energy carriers has brought up its own serious drawbacks including ecological problems such as global warming, increased CO2 emission, and alarming pollution levels. As a remedy, many economies have diverted from traditional means of energy production by embracing new sustainable energy production methods and simultaneously improving consumption habits. Currently, among technically available and economically viable solutions, generating energy from renewable sources, in particular wind and solar are pioneering. Finding the appropriate locations and building large scale wind farms or solar farms in urban areas, which are already suffering from congestion, has turned to be a major challenge. Consequently, many investors are now turning toward construction of off-shore farms. Transferring the electric energy from the off-shore farm to the mainland in a safe and reliable way is the next challenge. Having taken into account several technical and economic reasons, laying submarine HVDC cables at sea substrate to evacuate the power from offshore wind farms is the best available method at the present. Utilizing HVDC requires installation of AC/DC converters, which due to grid characteristics in particular in remote areas, will be mainly based on utilizing voltage source converters. Yet, as to integration of antiparallel diodes in their valves, voltage source converters are intrinsically vulnerable against massive short circuit currents and backflow of energy from transmission line to the converter. Thus developing a reliable circuit breaker topology, which is the frontline protection device for both submarine transmission line and converter seems to be essential. In this research, existing topologies and solutions for circuit breakers, including their features and drawbacks are discussed and then a new topology for HVDC circuit breaker is introduced. Many solid-state topologies have been proposed by academia and rolled out by manufacturers so far. A feature common to all existing designs is utilization of surge arrester for absorbing the energy stored in the system. However, the new topology that is put forward in this research is based on a combination of solid-state switch and a mutual inductance, which diverts the energy stored in the transmission line at the time of short circuit current to a resistor. The resistor then damps and absorbs the energy which is finally dissipated as heat. Both simple and complex Simulink models are developed to test the performance of the proposed topology. Results of both simulation scenarios corroborate and validate the functionality and reliability of the suggested design.
Kamran Masteri Farahani
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Ontario in 21st century is progressing rapidly to source a bulk of its energy supply from green and renewable energy sources, including wind energy. However there are technical challenges. A significant limiting factor in the large-scale integration of wind energy is the inherent intermittent nature of wind supply. The purpose of the research project is to develop appropriate control systems to integrate energy storage into the Ontario electricity grid given that energy storage constitutes a fundamental component of a modernized electricity grid. The challenges are multiple. Given that wind generators driven by wind have an output that is intermittent and highly variable, as a result the power supply voltages on distribution lines change at a rapid rate. This research develops a control strategy for the flywheel system to inject or draw real power to or from the connected line on a voltage command, thereby mitigating voltage swings created by variable and intermittent power supply from wind generators.
International Journal of Energy Research; doi:10.1002/er.6908

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Mohammad M. El-Yamany, Sameh O. Abdullatif, Hani A. Ghali
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Volume 16, pp 104-120; doi:10.37394/232016.2021.16.11

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Published: 8 June 2021
Energies, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/en14123365

Abstract:
Recent trends in building energy systems such as local renewable energy generation have created a distinct demand for energy storage systems to reduce the influence and dependency on the electric power grid. Under the current market conditions, a range of commercially available residential energy storage systems with batteries has been produced. This paper addresses the area of energy storage systems from multiple directions to provide a broader view on the state-of-the-art developments and trends in the field. Present standards and associated limitations of storage implementation are briefly described, followed by the analysis of parameters and features of commercial battery systems for residential applications. Further, the power electronic converters are reviewed in detail, with the focus on existing and perspective non-isolated solutions. The analysis covers well-known standard topologies, including buck-boost and bridge, as well as emerging solutions based on the unfolding inverter and fractional/partial power converters. Finally, trends and future prospects of the residential battery storage technologies are evaluated.
, Hyosik Yang
IEEE Access, Volume 9, pp 1-1; doi:10.1109/access.2021.3087491

Abstract:
The microgrid is a solution for integrating renewable energy resources into the power system. However, overcoming the randomness of these nature-based resources requires a robust control system. Moreover, electricity market participation and ancillary service provision for the utility grid are other aspects, although intensify microgrid penetration makes its environment interactions more complex. Reinforcement learning is a technique vastly applied to such an intricate environment. Hence, in this paper, we deployed deep deterministic policy gradient and soft-actor critic methods to solve the high-dimensional, continuous, and stochastic problem of the microgrid’s energy management system and compared the performance of two methods. Additionally, we developed the microgrid interactions with the utility grid as a participant of system integrity protection schema responding promptly to the utility grid protection requirements based on its reliable available resources. Moreover, we applied actual data of Gasa Island microgrid in Korea to prove the efficiency of proposed method.
Arthur P. Cracknell, Costas Varotsos
Understanding Global Climate Change pp 171-199; doi:10.1201/9780429203329-5

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Dildar Ali Jafri
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Worldwide, off-grid remote areas are facing energy issues. The Canadian remote communities depend on diesel generation posing many issues including high fuel cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The government policy is to connect such communities to electricity grid that requires high cost and long time. In this situation renewable generators, including wind and solar, may be an appropriate solution. However, their intermittent nature is problematic that needs to be addressed. Therefore, this project investigated the integration of underground pumped hydro storage membrane system (UPHSM) to address the intermittency to provide steady and reliable power supply. A four step systematic methodology is proposed to examine the feasibility of UPHSM in a remote community. The case study results show an overall 64 percent reduction in diesel consumption and 295696 t in CO2 emission. The study results also confirmed that the proposed system is a viable solution for off-grid remote areas.
Kesavan Muthaiyan, Chidambaram Lakshmanan, Kaiwalya Raj, Mangat Ram Sharma, Rajamani Narayanasamy, Pandiyarajan Vellaichamy,
International Journal of Photoenergy, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; doi:10.1155/2021/6690128

Abstract:
In most developed and developing nations, nearly 40% of the energy generated is utilized in the building sector, in which nearly 50% of the energy is consumed by building cooling/heating systems. However, the energy requirement for building cooling/heating varies continuously with respect to time. Hence, in hot countries, if the cooling system is integrated with a storage system, the cooling system need not be designed for the peak load requirement. Further, this kind of storage system is very useful and economically beneficial in the scenario of dynamic electricity tariff, being introduced in many countries in the emerging renewable energy scenario to solve the grid stability issues. Further, it is very useful to promote microgrid with distributed renewable power generation. Considering the above, the major objective of the present research is to demonstrate the integration of the air-conditioning system with a sensible heat storage unit for residential applications. An experimental setup is constructed, and experiments were conducted to evaluate the heat exchange behavior during the charging and discharging process by varying the inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the heat exchange fluid through the circuit. It is observed that the set temperature of the cool storage tank is to be maintained above +5°C to achieve better efficiency during the charging process. During the discharging process, the room could be maintained at the required comfort condition for a duration of 285 min with 29 cycles of operations between the set point temperature limits of 25°C to 28°C. When the inlet brine temperature of the cooling unit reached 20°C, in the next cycle, bringing down the room temperature again to 25°C could not be achieved. The results shown in this work are beneficial for efficiently operating the cooling system and useful in promoting renewable energy in the near future in the building sector. Also, the low-temperature sensible heat storage system is capable of maintaining the storage temperature at approximately +4°C, instead of -4°C normally employed in the case of latent heat-based storage system that allows higher performance in the sensible heat storage system.
Faizul Hasan, Darko Joksimovic
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
The electric power industry worldwide has been focusing towards increasing utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar to build and maintain clean, reliable and affordable electricity systems. Although these resources are environmentally clean, their uncertain and intermittent nature is a significant issue. Similarly, other energy generators such as nuclear and gas have serious environmental issues. These issues can be resolved with effective management of supply and demand using appropriate energy storage. Although various energy storage options are available, PHES is globally proven technology at grid level. Additionally, gravity power module (GPM) is a newly emerged technology in the power industry. However, its applications at full scale are still awaited. This research developed methodologies for integrated planning framework for PHES systems at grid level, employing a GIS-based model to identify feasible PHES sites, optimizing the scheduling of feasible PHES potential, and performing the financial analysis of PHES system. The methodologies were applied on grid-connected electricity area of Ontario that identified 285 feasible PHES and GPM sites with storage potential of 56,268 MWh. This research proposed the formation of a cooperative association namely „Pumped Hydro Storage Association (PHSA)‟ for integration of PHES system in the electricity market system operated by the IESO in Ontario. Using 2016 data, the optimization model resulted that PHSA supplied real-time energy 28,134 MWh/ day, provided ancillary services including variable operating reserve 23,914 MWh/ day, fixed operating reserve 4,220 MWh/ day, and purchased energy 65,060 MWh/ day. The optimization results and resultant financial indicators confirmed that proposed PHES system is technically and financially viable in a large electricity market system. As an initial step, partial development of PHES and GPM plants was proposed with an initial capital cost of C$ 1,052 Million utilizing 7,767 MWh/ day energy potential that resulted in a net profit share of C$ 13.36/ MWh for each participatory plant. Finally, the developed PHES planning framework for PHES system can certainly be found valuable to the policymakers, system operators, energy developers, research scholars, engineers, financial analysts and scientist community to work on future improvement in the PHES system.
Yu Peng
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Power systems worldwide are embracing diverse supply mixes that incorporate a significant portion from renewables such as wind and solar energy. Wind energy is characterised by reliable equipment, but with an output that is uncertain and intermittent. In addition to equipment unreliability (system N-1 criterion), output uncertainties of wind electric generators (WEGs) introduce risk into daily power system schedules. This risk from the uncertainty of output from WEGs can be quantified as expected energy not served (EENS). Furthermore, the introduction of new forms of generation changes the methods of operating transmission systems, further necessitating the use of transmission security constraints in power systems optimization algorithms. This dissertation explores new approaches to stochastically model the real power output of WEGs and to efficiently tackle AC transmission system security constraints for power system optimization algorithms such as optimal power flow (OPF) and day-ahead unit commitment (UC). Usually, normal probabilistic distribution is used to model uncertainty in short-term wind power output forecast and compute EENS. In this dissertation, a new triangular approximate distribution (TAD) model is proposed which is a linear approximation of normal probabilistic distribution to model short-term wind power output forecast and compute EENS. This TAD model is used to formulate a practical risk-constrained fast OPF for transmission systems to simultaneously minimize: 1) risk due to uncertainties in power output from WEGs, and 2) the total operating cost. The integration of new energy resources causes transmission systems to operate in new, challenging, and often unforeseen operating states. Thus, it is imperative that UC algorithms incorporate AC transmission system security constraints and stochastically model output of WEGs to ensure reliable operation of transmission systems. As a first step, a successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method is proposed for AC transmission system security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) challenge. Fuzzy sets theory is used to model infeasible constraints in this MILP formulation. As a next step, the TAD model of WEGs is integrated into the MILP formulation of SCUC to create a fast security and risk constrained probabilistic UC algorithm. The two UC algorithms are tested on large systems.
Yu Peng
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Power systems worldwide are embracing diverse supply mixes that incorporate a significant portion from renewables such as wind and solar energy. Wind energy is characterised by reliable equipment, but with an output that is uncertain and intermittent. In addition to equipment unreliability (system N-1 criterion), output uncertainties of wind electric generators (WEGs) introduce risk into daily power system schedules. This risk from the uncertainty of output from WEGs can be quantified as expected energy not served (EENS). Furthermore, the introduction of new forms of generation changes the methods of operating transmission systems, further necessitating the use of transmission security constraints in power systems optimization algorithms. This dissertation explores new approaches to stochastically model the real power output of WEGs and to efficiently tackle AC transmission system security constraints for power system optimization algorithms such as optimal power flow (OPF) and day-ahead unit commitment (UC). Usually, normal probabilistic distribution is used to model uncertainty in short-term wind power output forecast and compute EENS. In this dissertation, a new triangular approximate distribution (TAD) model is proposed which is a linear approximation of normal probabilistic distribution to model short-term wind power output forecast and compute EENS. This TAD model is used to formulate a practical risk-constrained fast OPF for transmission systems to simultaneously minimize: 1) risk due to uncertainties in power output from WEGs, and 2) the total operating cost. The integration of new energy resources causes transmission systems to operate in new, challenging, and often unforeseen operating states. Thus, it is imperative that UC algorithms incorporate AC transmission system security constraints and stochastically model output of WEGs to ensure reliable operation of transmission systems. As a first step, a successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method is proposed for AC transmission system security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) challenge. Fuzzy sets theory is used to model infeasible constraints in this MILP formulation. As a next step, the TAD model of WEGs is integrated into the MILP formulation of SCUC to create a fast security and risk constrained probabilistic UC algorithm. The two UC algorithms are tested on large systems.
Kamran Masteri Farahani
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Ontario in 21st century is progressing rapidly to source a bulk of its energy supply from green and renewable energy sources, including wind energy. However there are technical challenges. A significant limiting factor in the large-scale integration of wind energy is the inherent intermittent nature of wind supply. The purpose of the research project is to develop appropriate control systems to integrate energy storage into the Ontario electricity grid given that energy storage constitutes a fundamental component of a modernized electricity grid. The challenges are multiple. Given that wind generators driven by wind have an output that is intermittent and highly variable, as a result the power supply voltages on distribution lines change at a rapid rate. This research develops a control strategy for the flywheel system to inject or draw real power to or from the connected line on a voltage command, thereby mitigating voltage swings created by variable and intermittent power supply from wind generators.
Maloth Ramesh, , Pawan Kumar Pathak
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects pp 1-25; doi:10.1080/15567036.2021.1931564

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