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(searched for: Polish Students in the Period of COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Education and Information Technologies pp 1-31; doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10539-7

Abstract:
The article was written as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, which had an impact not only on public health, but also on the functioning of the educational sector. The text is an attempt to summarize the challenges of crisis e-learning from the perspective of the challenges faced by teachers in Poland in the period of March-December 2020. The article reveals a number of new phenomena not present in the literature in the context of e-learning implemented in an intuitive, non-linear way, without methodological support, and thus referred to as crisis e-learning. The aim of the research was to explore the characteristics of crisis e-learning in Poland from the perspective of teachers' experiences. Due to epidemiological limitations, the research area was narrowed down to cyberspace. This text presents the results of research relating to statements made by teachers posting in the largest Polish discussion group on education. The group currently consists of over four thousand people. The study uses an analysis of several thousand posts and then identifies and categorizes statements related to crisis e-learning along with a phenomenological interpretation. The analyses made it possible to identify seven categories of challenges attributed to crisis e-learning, such as: technical problems, use of non-standard solutions, the search for solutions to increase the effectiveness of e-learning, the transfer of proven applications and programmes, problems with students, problems with parents, and the modernisation of workstations. The data presented show teacher micro-worlds in the time of the pandemic in Poland. The article is a response to the need to understand the processes occurring in the Polish educational system under the influence of crisis events related to the pandemic. The text may prove valuable for educating future generations of teachers in the field of e-learning and increasing the effectiveness of training activities aimed at strengthening the digital competence of current teachers.
, Krzysztof Polok
European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, Volume 2, pp 1-4; doi:10.24018/ejedu.2021.2.2.71

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to present the situation of Polish students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study, based on the voluntary participation of students, and having a clearly pilot nature was carried out using the self-made questionnaire consisting of 28 questions, each of them regarding the implementation of the objectives outlined in the study. The study involved 160 full-time and part-time students of state universities embedded in two voivodships with the highest COVID-19 infection rate, i.e. in the Upper Silesia and Mazovia voivodships. Our studies have shown that the COVID-19 pandemic time significantly impedes students' education and psychophysical functioning. Over 98% of students study remotely at universities. The dominant forms of such education were: e-mailing students with ready-to-study materials and tasks for self-implementation, remote learning platforms such as e-university, Microsoft Teams, Zoom, meet, Classroom, Moodle, Click-Meeting, as well as other distant e-learning platforms. For security reasons, libraries operating at the universities were also closed, which significantly hindered students from completing the process of remote education, as none of the universities provided a substitute form of using library collections.
, Dariusz Doliński, Paweł Muniak, Ali Derakhshan, Aidana Rizulla, Maciej Banach
Published: 2 October 2020
Archives of Medical Science, Volume 16; doi:10.5114/aoms.2020.99592

Abstract:
Introduction Optimism is boosted by leaders hoping for job creation, increased business spending, and a high consumption rate. In this research, we assessed the hazardous side effect for global health policies stemming from this optimism: unrealistic optimism (being unrealistically optimistic about future negative events), which may be responsible for new infections and may prevent the eradication of COVID-19. The goal of the research was not only to assess whether this effect exists and to find out whether such an effect is global but also to evaluate whether there are groups resistant to this effect (presenting a potential toolkit for reducing this effect). Material and methods In May and April of 2020, online surveys were administered among students in Iran, Kazakhstan, and Poland respectively to assess the unrealistic optimism/pessimism. In study 1/objective 1, the survey was conducted twice (in a period of about 3 weeks) to assess the potential change (due to the anonymous codes delivered by the participants, we were able to make follow-ups between the same participants) in time in the 3 countries. In the first wave, 1611 participants took the survey. In the second wave, there were 1426 respondents. In study 2, the survey was conducted among 207 Polish healthcare workers of the frontline hospital. Results In study 1 across the 3 cultures (the first wave for unmatched data by the code of the specific participant F(1, 1608) = 419.2; p < 0.001, and for matched data F(1, 372) = 167.195; p < 0.001; ηp² = 0.31; ηp² = 0.21; the second wave for unmatched data F(1, 1423) = 359.61; p < 0.001; ηp² = 0.2, and for matched F(1, 372) = 166.84; p < 0.001; ηp² = 0.31), unrealistic optimism is present, and importantly it is constant in time. In study 2, unrealistic optimism was not found among healthcare professionals, who we hypothesized due to the medical knowledge are not inclined to be unrealistically optimistic t(206) = 1.06; p = 0.290, d = 0.07. Conclusions Medical education of COVID-19 severity might reduce unrealistic optimism, which may be the reason why pandemic restrictions are not being respected.
Published: 30 August 2020
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12092640

Abstract:
During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice—to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 17; doi:10.3390/ijerph17165770

Abstract:
During the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the basic strategy that is recommended to reduce the spread of the disease is to practice proper hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors, but among adolescents, low adherence is common. The present study aimed to assess the gender-dependent hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors in a national sample of Polish adolescents. The Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study was conducted in a group of 2323 secondary school students (814 males, 1509 females). Schools were chosen based on the random quota sampling procedure. The participants were surveyed to assess their knowledge and beliefs associated with hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as their actual behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of respondents gave proper answers when asked about their knowledge. However, females displayed a higher level of knowledge (p < 0.05). Most of the respondents declared not leaving home, handwashing, using alcohol-based hand rub, avoiding contact with those who may be sick, and avoiding public places as their personal protective behaviors. They declared using face masks and gloves after the legal regulation requiring people to cover their nose and mouth in public places was enacted in Poland. Regarding the use of face masks and not touching the face, no gender-dependent differences were observed, while for all the other behaviors, females declared more adherence than males (p < 0.05). Females also declared a higher daily frequency of handwashing (p < 0.0001) and washing their hands always when necessary more often than males (68.2% vs. 54.1%; p < 0.0001). Males more often indicated various reasons for not handwashing, including that there is no need to do it, they do not feel like doing it, they have no time to do it, or they forget about it (p < 0.0001), while females pointed out side effects (e.g., skin problems) as the reason (p = 0.0278). Females more often declared handwashing in circumstances associated with socializing, being exposed to contact with other people and health (p < 0.05), and declared always including the recommended steps in their handwashing procedure (p < 0.05). The results showed that female secondary school students exhibited a higher level of knowledge on hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as better behaviors, compared to males. However, irrespective of gender, some false beliefs and improper behaviors were observed, which suggests that education is necessary, especially in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Published: 17 June 2020
Sustainability, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/su12124930

Abstract:
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization and other major authorities recommend frequent hand washing and applying proper hand hygiene procedures as one of the cheapest, easiest, and most important ways to prevent the spread of a virus. For adolescents it is especially important as it should become for them a lifelong habit. The aim of the study was to assess the hand hygiene behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a national Polish sample of secondary school adolescents and to verify the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on those behaviors. The study was conducted in April 2020 in a national sample of 2323 secondary school students recruited based on secondary school sampling procedure (random quota sampling with quotas for voivodeships). The hand hygiene behaviors that were assessed included: frequency of washing hands, reasons for not washing hands, circumstances of washing hands, and procedure of handwashing. Participants were asked each question twice—for the current period of the COVID-19 pandemic and for the period before the COVID-19 issue. The declared frequency of washing hands during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly higher than before (p < 0.0001), as the majority of respondents declared doing it 6–15 times a day (58.4%) while before the pandemic, it was 3–10 times a day (68.1%). The share of respondents declaring washing their hands always while it would be needed was significantly higher for the period during the COVID-19 pandemic (54.8%) than it was for the period before (35.6%; p < 0.0001), and there was a lower share of respondents declaring various reasons for not washing hands. For the majority of circumstances of washing hands, including those associated with meals, personal hygiene, leaving home, socializing, health, and household chores, the share of respondents declaring always washing their hands was significantly higher for the period during the COVID-19 pandemic than for the period before (p < 0.0001). For the majority of steps of handwashing procedure, the share of respondents declaring including them always was significantly higher for the period during the COVID-19 pandemic than for the period before (p < 0.0001), but a higher share declared not wearing a watch and bracelet (p = 0.0006), and rings (p = 0.0129). It was concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic all the assessed hand hygiene behaviors of Polish adolescents were improved, compared with those before, but hand hygiene education is still necessary.
Yuriy Klapkiv, Oleksandr Dluhopolskyi
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, Volume 12, pp 86-91; doi:10.18662/rrem/12.1sup2/250

Abstract:
The article discusses the challenges faced by universities during forced quarantine because of COVID-19. The article provides examples of successful online learning practices of Polish and Ukrainian universities, as well as the problematic aspects faced by HEIs. The focus of the article is on the forms of online learning, the specifics of their combination and the particularities of use in leading universities in Poland and Ukraine. The situation of the need for self-isolation has forced universities not only to shift the vector of providing educational services. Approaches to accounting of working hours and forms of direct communication between students and teachers were modernized. Vectors of changing approaches to university education, requirements for teachers and students are given in connection with the possible prolonged period of self-isolation because of coronavirus.
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