Refine Search

New Search

Results: 67

(searched for: Nutrition and Food in the Reproduction of Cattle)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo, Adrian E. Iglesias Reyes, Gustavo Ruiz Lang, Jorge Saltijeral Oaxaca, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Edmundo Abel Villa Mancera, Ma De Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Armando Gómez Vázquez, Pedro Sánchez Aparicio, Carlos J. Bedolla Cedeño, et al.
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 21-33; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.184

Abstract:
At the beginning of the 1980s, a series of very profound changes were initiated in the milk cow nutrition approaches, as a consequence of the highest levels of production per cow that were reached by the productive systems of the northern hemisphere. Nutrition is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions. When we consider the aspects that touch the field of nutrition of ruminants, we understand the importance of this group of animals of zootechnical interest, which are able to process plant components that are not consumed by other mammals, the structural carbohydrates (fiber). Ruminant comes from the word "rumen", which is the largest of the compartments in the stomach of four compartments of a bovine, sheep or goat. This structure is where microbial fermentation takes place. The ruminants, through evolutionary processes, developed life relationships with microorganisms which enabled them to use fiber as food, that is, they developed in some way their "food factory". They eat the forage to be transformed by the rumen's microbiota into substances that are the source of energy for the animal and for the microbial synthesis, the microbial cells are an excellent source of proteins for the animal. However, the processes that make the ruminal microbiota are, in a certain way, inefficient. Grass degradation produces volatile fatty acids, microbial protein and gases. Within these gases, some are environmental pollutants such as CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Millions of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi live in the rumen and degrade parts of the plant rich in energy, making them digestible to the animal host. After the forage has been digested in the rumen and degraded to smaller parts, it can pass through the reticulum and omasum, which function as colanders that trap large pieces of material preventing them from reaching the abomasum, or "true stomach", where digestion continues. The nutritional concern for ruminants focuses on energy (ie, carbohydrates), protein, minerals, vitamins, and water. The energy (carbohydrates) is responsible for the functions of growth and maintenance of the animal, and the generation of heat. The protein makes the tissue grow and performs other vital functions. Other nutrients and minerals such as vitamin A and E, calcium, phosphorus, and selenium can be fed to "free choice" as a mineral supplement. Dairy cows of high productive potential (9000-12000 / liters / lactation) currently represent a real challenge for nutrition. For many years, there has been evidence of the impact of nutrition on the reproductive behavior of the bovine female. The main factor that affects reproduction is the undernourishment due to the scarcity and quality of the food. Subsequent research has shown that nutritional effects are exerted through complex interrelations between various aspects such as: content and use of body reserves, distribution of nutrients between different systems and organs and prioritization of the use of nutrients for various functions in addition to reproduction.
, Germán J. Cantón, Enrique L. Louge Uriarte
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.679007

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research Topic Infectious Diseases Affecting Reproduction and the Neonatal Period in Cattle Even with the global scenario after the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, human population keeps growing, and therefore food safety and quality demand is increasing. So, it is required to improve the efficiency in most livestock production systems including the cattle industry. Because the efficiency of cattle industry is far away from optimum (1–3), the intensification of the production systems emerges as a challenge. Currently, over 1 billion heads are raised in our planet. Countries like Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, and United States extensively raise their cattle on pastures, which represents over 50% of the productive cattle stock worldwide. The main objective of cow-calf systems is to produce the largest quantity of calves per bred cow. Nevertheless, top beef producing countries in some cases achieve only above 50% of weaning rate. Common causes of this low weaning rate usually occur during the breeding season. In this period, cows are usually under suboptimal body condition, exposed to environmental stress and/or infectious diseases, and therefore low pregnancy rates are recorded. The diagnosis of the cause of this early reproductive failure is challenging, unless they are related with infectious diseases. Many research articles reports abortion and perinatal mortality varying from 5 to 12% and 2 to 5%, respectively (4–8) representing a huge loss of calves. During the period from pregnancy diagnosis to calf delivery, the efficiency of detecting the aetiological agents or diseases is still below 50% even though several studies and experimental models on this topic have been developed. Moreover, even when control, management, vaccination, and drug treatments are available, many risk factors still have a negative impact during the pregnancy and perinatal periods (3, 7, 9). Low conception rates, subfertility or stillbirths in cattle can be associated with different causes but the diagnosis of them is not always easy, either because the appropriate and specific sample was not sent or simple “an improper labeling.” Animal welfare must also be taken into account in every livestock production system. Reproductive efficiency is a direct indicator of the health and welfare situation of your animals. Therefore, low reproductive rates (prolonged anestrus, low conception rates, high reproductive losses, and high percentage of assisted deliveries and/or dystocia) may indicate animal welfare problems. Indeed, differential diagnosis is critical and essential to identify the causes of reproductive losses and perinatal mortality in cattle. Anamnesis is the first step in diagnosis. It should include the bull, the dam and its progeny. Whether the losses are sporadic or seem to be an outbreak (more than 10% of the herd affected during 45–60 days) may not only be associated with the occurrence of endemic or epidemic diseases but also the agent causing abortions or perinatal mortality. The existence of Animal Health Programs and the vaccination schedule must be requested. Secondly, serology can be assessed for studying affected animals and controls, then association among event and serological results can be statistically tested (9). Over 40 years, the Animal Health Group at INTA, Balcarce, Argentina, has been successful in detecting reproductive losses in the herds by following a sentinel group of females between the time of the pregnancy test and delivery. Both transrectal pregnancy test and blood sampling are performed monthly, and cervical-vaginal swabs are obtained from aborted cows/heifers. Third, the differential diagnosis must be based on running methodic diagnostic tests on different samples at the laboratory (6, 10). Here, a thorough fetal necropsy and carefully sampling is essential (9). Several laboratories performing bacteriology, virology, toxicology, biochemistry, and histopathology must be involved to perform a proper differential diagnosis. Finally, everyone including farmers, veterinarians, Lab's technicians, and researchers must work as a team to arrive at a diagnosis as fast as possible. Bovine abortion and perinatal mortality have multifactorial origin but they can be classified in: genetic, environmental and infectious (including parasites). Indeed, differential diagnosis gets relevance because the diversity of causes and risk factors involved (9). Genetic causes include chromosome or gene abnormalities but most of them are beyond routine diagnosis. The causes of environmental origin are poorly reported and probably underdiagnosed. They may include traumatic abortions, toxic, hormonal, nutritional (mineral and vitamin deficiencies), unusual high temperatures specially during the breeding season, and mechanical factors (uterine torsion, umbilical cord compression). Infectious agents represent 50% of the identified causes either for abortion or perinatal mortality. Brucellosis (4), campylobacteriosis (4), and leptospirosis (5) are the main bacterial causes of bovine abortion. Moreover, some of these bacterial reproductive diseases are zoonotic, therefore special caution and effort should be taken in order to prevent them. Viral agents are bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and more recently described, bovine herpesvirus-4, which associated with bacteria may cause infertility (2, 11). Among protozoal agents, Tritrichomonas fetus and Neospora caninum are responsible of embryo deaths and abortions, respectively (4, 12). Fungal infections associated with abortions are usually sporadic but no less important (6). Noteworthy, co-infections may be more frequent and relevant than previously though. Several studies report the occurrence of co-infections: many miscellaneous bacteria (4), Leptospira spp. and N. caninum (5), BHV-1 and N. caninum (13). This may be even more challenging and careful recommendations for controlling and...
Published: 25 February 2021
Animals, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/ani11030599

Abstract:
Genomics comprises a set of current and valuable technologies implemented as selection tools in dairy cattle commercial breeding programs. The intensive progeny testing for production and reproductive traits based on genomic breeding values (GEBVs) has been crucial to increasing dairy cattle productivity. The knowledge of key genes and haplotypes, including their regulation mechanisms, as markers for productivity traits, may improve the strategies on the present and future for dairy cattle selection. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) such as quantitative trait loci (QTL), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) methods have already been included in global dairy programs for the estimation of marker-assisted selection-derived effects. The increase in genetic progress based on genomic predicting accuracy has also contributed to the understanding of genetic effects in dairy cattle offspring. However, the crossing within inbred-lines critically increased homozygosis with accumulated negative effects of inbreeding like a decline in reproductive performance. Thus, inaccurate-biased estimations based on empirical-conventional models of dairy production systems face an increased risk of providing suboptimal results derived from errors in the selection of candidates of high genetic merit-based just on low-heritability phenotypic traits. This extends the generation intervals and increases costs due to the significant reduction of genetic gains. The remarkable progress of genomic prediction increases the accurate selection of superior candidates. The scope of the present review is to summarize and discuss the advances and challenges of genomic tools for dairy cattle selection for optimizing breeding programs and controlling negative inbreeding depression effects on productivity and consequently, achieving economic-effective advances in food production efficiency. Particular attention is given to the potential genomic selection-derived results to facilitate precision management on modern dairy farms, including an overview of novel genome editing methodologies as perspectives toward the future.
Published: 1 February 2021
Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 41, pp 18-29; doi:10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.11.001

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Benedito Isac Tinga
Tropical Animal Health and Production, Volume 53, pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s11250-020-02547-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
J. M. Sánchez, K. Keogh, A. K. Kelly, C. J. Byrne, P. Lonergan, D. A. Kenny
Reproduction, Fertility and Development, Volume 33, pp 127-128; doi:10.1071/rdv33n2ab41

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Debora Kana Hau, Philip Rido Dida, Dionisius Bria, Jefrianus Praing, Agustinus Dule Mata, Esnawan Budisantoso, Neal Dalgliesh, Simon Quigley, Lindsay Bell, et al.
Published: 1 January 2021
Animal Production Science, Volume 61; doi:10.1071/an20545

Abstract:
Context Increasing demand for livestock products in developing countries provides opportunities for smallholder farmers to increase and diversify their income through increased livestock production. However, livestock production in these systems is often limited by inadequate animal nutrition, and farmers need ways to increase the availability and quality of livestock feed without compromising yields of food crops or increasing the area of land planted to forages. Aim Using eastern Indonesia as a case study, we explore the potential for herbaceous legumes, integrated into existing mixed crop–livestock systems, to address specific production issues in smallholder beef systems. Methods Through a series of in-village feeding demonstrations, we tested three opportunities to increase livestock production through the use of herbaceous legumes: (i) increasing reproduction rates of cows by maintaining their liveweight (LW) and body condition score during the dry season; (ii) increasing the survival and LW gain of unweaned calves; and (iii) increasing LW gain of growing bulls. Key results Small amounts of legume (~10 g DM/kg LW) were enough to maintain LW of cows grazing poor-quality grasses and crop residues during the dry season. At higher levels of inclusion in the diet (~20 g DM/kg LW), feeding legumes increased the LW gain of growing cattle and survival of unweaned calves, providing benefits similar to a purchased concentrate, but at lower cost. Conclusions Our results demonstrate how strategic use of herbaceous legumes can increase beef production from low-input systems by maintaining LW of cows, and increasing survival of unweaned calves and LW gain of growing bulls. Implications Integration of herbaceous legumes into existing cropping systems removes many of the barriers to supplementary feeding. Improved livestock nutrition does not need to be based on purchased concentrates or increases in land used for forage production. The results are applicable to many other mixed crop–livestock systems throughout Southeast Asia.
, J. R. Young, S. Nampanya, I. B. MacPhillamy, S. Khounsy, P. C. Thomson, , R. D. Bush
Published: 1 January 2021
Animal Production Science; doi:10.1071/an19709

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 18 November 2020
Annals of Animal Science, Volume -1; doi:10.2478/aoas-2020-0096

Abstract:
The development of effective approaches for not only the in vitro maturation (IVM) of heifer/cow oocytes and their extracorporeal fertilization (IVF) but also the non-surgical collection and transfer of bovine embryos has given rise to optimizing comprehensive in vitro embryo production (IVP) technology and improving other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), such as cattle cloning by embryo bisection, embryonic cell nuclear transfer (ECNT) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The primary goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the progress and achievements in the strategies utilized for embryonic cell cloning and somatic cell cloning in cattle. Moreover, the current article is focused on recognizing and identifying the suitability and reliability of bovine cloning techniques for nutritional biotechnology, agri-food and biopharmaceutical industry, biomedical and transgenic research and for the genetic rescue of endangered or extinct breeds and species of domesticated or wild-living artiodactyl mammals (even-toed ungulates) originating from the family Bovidae.
Jeferson Da Silva Carvalho, Tatiane Rodrigues Da Silva, Paulo Vinícius De Moraes Santos, Fabio Franco Almeida, Taile Katiele Souza De Jesus,
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, Volume 14, pp 121-131; doi:10.21708/avb.2020.14.2.9247

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Jalel Fikadu Yadeta
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, Volume 10; doi:10.7176/jbah/10-8-02

Abstract:
DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/10-8-02 Publication date: April 30th 2020 INTRODUCTION Reproductive technology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others (Mapletoft and Hasler, 2005). Research into physiology and embryology has provided a basis for the development of technologies that increase productivity of farm animals through enhanced control of reproductive function. Animal Biotechnology represents an expanding collection of rapidly developing disciplines in science and information technologies. The livestock provides many opportunities to utilize these disciplines and evolving competencies. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis will provide even more significant changes in the next decade. Various techniques have been developed and refined to obtain a large number of offspring from genetically superior animals or obtain offspring from infertile (or sub fertile) animals (Naqvi et al., 2001; Blackburn, 2004). Based on the progress in scientific knowledge of endocrinology, reproductive physiology, cell biology and embryology during the last fifty years new bio techniques have been developed for and introduced into animal breeding and husbandry (Wrathall et al., 2004). Among them are estrus synchronization/induction, artificial insemination, Multiple Ovulation Induction and Embryo Transfer (MOET), in vitro embryo production (IVP) and cloning by Nuclear Transfer (NT) all are components of the tool box for present and future applications (Betteridge, 2003). Techniques are now available to get genetically improved farm animals in large numbers. This involves collection of the fertilized egg from genetically superior female which ovulate spontaneously or are induced to super ovulate (Wolf et al., 2000). The current efficiency for producing transgenic animals particularly farm animals, is low and the cost is high. Success in the production of transgenic farm animals requires an adequate animal facility and dedicated teams of embryologists, veterinarians, animal scientists and molecular biologists. Ethiopia has over 57.83 million indigenous cattle, and about 13.5million are breeder cows and 28.89 million sheep out of which about 14 Million are kept for breeder and 29.7 million goats out of this 12.6 million are kept for breeder (CSA, 2015/16). Average milk production from local cows is also low, estimated at 1.37 liters/cow per day (CSA, 2014). This result in a total annual milk production of 3.81 billion liters and about 50% of this goes to calves Per capita milk consumption is low and stands at 19 kg/year FAO (2011). Therefore, Ethiopia needs to work hard on improving the work of productive and reproductive performance improvements of cattle through appropriate breeding and related activities (CSA, 2006). In spite, of the presence of large and diverse animal genetic resources, the productivity (meat and milk) of livestock remains low in many developing countries including Ethiopia for various reasons, such as inadequate nutrition, poor genetic potential, inadequate animal health services and other management related problems (Lobago, 2007). Cattle breeding are mostly uncontrolled in Ethiopia making genetic improvement difficult and an appropriate bull selection criteria have not yet been established applied and controlled which makes genetic improvement difficult (Webb,2003; Abraham ,2014). Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector can contribute significantly to food security and nutrition of the country (Desalegn et al., 2009). On the other hand, artificial insemination (AI), the most commonly used and valuable biotechnology has been in operation in Ethiopia for over 30 years. Nevertheless, the efficiency and impact of the AI operation has not been well-documented (Engida, 2012). This paper is review status of reproductive technology to improved ruminant production in Ethiopia.
Víctor Fernando Torres-Aburto, Dinora Vázquez-Luna, Belisario Domínguez Mancera, Valentín Efrén Espinosa Ortiz
Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies pp 421-440; doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-9837-4.ch021

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Robin R. White
Published: 1 January 2020
Reference Module in Food Science; doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-818766-1.00009-x

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Geoffrey E. Dahl
Published: 1 January 2020
Animal Agriculture pp 121-129; doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-817052-6.00007-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Alejandro Córdova I
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000595

Abstract:
Alejandro Córdova I1* and Estela Rodriguez DB2 1Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Mexico 2Private practice, Mexico *Corresponding author: Alejandro Córdova I, Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Mexico Submission: December 09, 2019;Published: December 16, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000595 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 Animal nutrition is the part of animal husbandry that studies the use of different foods or more specifically, the immediate principles that constitute them to satisfy the needs of animals useful to man [1]. This is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions [2]. Nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract include volatile fatty acids, glucose, minerals, and vitamins. These are used in the synthesis of many different compounds found in meat, milk and wool, and to replace nutrients used to support living processes including reproduction. For the purposes of calculating nutrition, they are usually divided into two groups: The total food needs are calculated by adding the support and production needs [1], the nutritional needs of animals with respect to reproduction are critical, to achieve an adequate level of maintenance. Undernutrition during growth produces delays in sexual maturity. If there are nutrient deficiencies before the mating season, they can render animals sterile, produce low fertility or fail to maintain and establish pregnancy. On the other hand, nutritional requirements should be taken as basic and fundamental within the diet, taking into account the intake, which is defined as the ingestion of nutrients by the animal, and is regulated by factors that in turn interrelate as Rinehart, 2008. Palatability, it is the flavor and texture of the food. Ruminants seek sweetness in their food, probably because the sweet taste is an indicator of soluble carbohydrates, the most critical element of the diet for the animal after water. Ruminants avoid bitter flavors, which are usually associated with toxic secondary chemicals. The foraging behavior describes how the animal performs the foraging process. According to Fred Provenzano, a pastoralist researcher at UTA State University, the study of foraging behavior involves understanding: The bite size and the bite rate also influence the intake. The denser a pasture, the more forage the animal can take with each bite. This exemplifies the fact that the relationship between grazing management, animal behavior, and nutrient intake is not a simple relationship. It is a complex and constantly changing relationship that follows changes in seasons, forage quality and amount of forage. Chemical factors include nutrients, but also secondary chemicals that are usually associated with the defense of the plant. It usually refers to secondary chemicals as toxic substances, but the toxicity depends on the degree, or dosage. All plants contain secondary chemicals to some degree, but animals have evolved an innate sense of what is good to eat [3]. Animals limit the number of plants they consume that contain secondary chemicals through a feedback mechanism, which results in satiety, or the feeling that they have eaten enough. According to Webster, satiety is the "quality or state of being fed or gratified up to or beyond the capacity point, or the repulsion or disgust caused by overindulgence or excess. "When ruminants consume enough of a certain toxic substance, a feedback mechanism induces a switch to an alternative source of nutrients. This is the reason why cattle, sheep and goats graze more (have a higher intake) in a diverse pasture. Variety stimulates their appetite and provides alternative sources when they have reached the limit of their preferred source of food. Quantity, density and availability of forage directly influence the intake of forage, and intake is directly related to the density of the meadow. Ruminants can only take a limited number of bites per minute as they graze, and cattle only graze for 8 hours a day. Therefore, it is important to make sure that each bite taken by the animal is as large as possible. A bovine graze surrounding the forage with its tongue and then tearing it upwards; sheep and goats use their lips and teeth to select highly nutritious parts of the plant. Large bites of forage are therefore insured by maintaining high density of pastures. © 2019 Alejandro Córdova I. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Ky Pohler, Sydney T Reese, Gessica Aruajo Franco, Ramiro Oliveira Filho, Lohana Fernandez Montero, Gabriela Dalmaso De Melo, Ana Moraes
Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, pp 34-35; doi:10.1093/jas/skz258.068

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Alejandro Córdova-Izquierdo
American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research, Volume 6, pp 92-93; doi:10.34297/ajbsr.2019.06.001000

Abstract:
At the beginning of the 1980s, a series of very profound changes were initiated in the milk cow nutrition approaches, because of the highest levels of production per cow that were reached by the productive systems of the northern hemisphere. Nutrition is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues.
Daniel U Thomson
Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, pp 68-69; doi:10.1093/jas/skz053.155

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 June 2019
Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 205, pp 44-51; doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.04.002

Abstract:
The bioflavonoid quercetin is a component of food with numerous biological effects, but its function in reproductive processes and mechanisms in various species remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of quercetin on ovarian cells isolated from ovaries of two phytophagous mammalian species (i.e. pigs and cattle). There was analysis of the effect of quercetin (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) on cultured granulosa cells of pigs and cattle. Proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (bax) markers and release of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and IGF-I were quantified using quantitative immunocytochemistry, enzyme immunoassay, or radioimmunoassay. Treatments with quercetin reduced PCNA and bax accumulation and decreased P4 release from both granulosa cells of pigs and cattle. In cells of pigs, treatment with quercetin reduced T output, however, in cells of cattle quercetin increased T release. In cells of pigs, quercetin reduced IGF-I release. In cells of cattle, quercetin at smaller doses (1 or 10 ng/mL), promoted and at a large dose (100 ng/mL) reduced IGF-I secretions. There was no substantial E2 release from granulosa cells of pigs or cattle. These observations are the first to indicate there is a direct action of quercetin on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, and hormones release) which can be species-specific.
Journal of reproduction and fertility. Supplement, Volume 54; doi:10.1530/biosciprocs.4.033

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Andrea Bellingeri, , Antonio Gallo, Di Liang, Francesco Masoero
Italian Journal of Animal Science, Volume 18, pp 786-798; doi:10.1080/1828051x.2019.1580153

Abstract:
A survey regarding crop enterprise management, forages cost of production, dairy cattle management including reproductive management, housing, heat abatement, body condition scoring, nutrition, grouping strategies, and income over feed cost performance, was carried out from December 2016 to January 2018 on 50 dairy farms by the Department of Animal Science, Food and Nutrition of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Piacenza, Italy). A total of 41 herds (82%) completed the survey. Average herd size was 327 ± 162 lactating cows with the average land size of 160 ± 94 ha per farm. Herds were located in the provinces of Cremona (17), Brescia (8), Mantova (7), Piacenza (5), Cuneo (4), Bergamo (3), Lodi (3), Torino (2), and Venezia (1). These farms sold 32.8 ± 2.01 kg of milk/day per cow, had an annual culling rate of 34.0 ± 4.00%, a calving interval of 14.16 ± 0.58 months., and a 21-days pregnancy rate of 17.05 ± 2.58%. Implementing effective management strategies to contrast the damage caused by Ostrinia nubilalis, Diabrotica spp. and Myocastor coypus were identified as the main crop enterprise challenges. Main forages cultivated were alfalfa and corn silage second seeding with a total cost of production of (€/ha) 1968 ± 362 and 2,581 ± 221, with an average yield of 9.61 ± 1.24 and 17.22 ± 2.46 ton of DM per hectare, respectively. Results of this study can provide useful benchmark or reference for dairy management practices, crops and dairy performances, forages production costs on very well-managed North Italian dairy farms at the present time.
M. V. Hladiy, Yu. P. Polupan, S. I. Kovtun, S. V. Kuzebnij, L. V. Vyshnevskiy, Kirill Kopylov, О. V. Shcherbak
Animal Breeding and Genetics, Volume 56, pp 5-14; doi:10.31073/abg.56.01

Abstract:
The article highlights the main achievements, problems and directions of the further development of the landing stock of Ukraine, the prospects of scientific research of Institute of Animal breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of the NAAS in the areas of breeding, genetics, biotechnology of reproduction and preservation of the gene pool of farm animals. Institute is the initiator of four dairy herds (Ukrainian Red-and-White, Black-and-White, Red and Brown dairy bread) and four meat (Ukrainian, Volyn, Polissya and Southern meat) breeds of cattle. Its employees carry out scientific support of regional livestock development programs, development of systems for the creation and management of commercial herds of dairy and beef cattle, which contributes to solving the global food problem, and to ensure the nutrition security of Ukrainian population. The newly created Ukrainian Black-and-White, Red-and-White and Red dairy breeds for the predominantly intra-species breeding improvement and limited access to the gene pool of the Holstein breeding breed should remain the main areas of the breeding improvement of domestic dairy cattle breeding. The existing breeding system in cattle in Ukraine does not meet international standards and practically does not work in a complex way, and it threatens the final destruction of domestic breeding livestock, a significant dependence of the country on the import of breeding resources. To solve the problem, a new structure of the breeding service with a clear definition of the organizational basis for the management of tribal affairs and functional responsibilities of the subjects of its implementation was proposed, the formation of a centralized national information base for the identification, registration, origin and performance of animals, the keeping of state books of breeding animals as the basis estimation of their genetic value, and its realization is entrusted to the state enterprise created at the institute on Main scientific-production informational-elective center in livestock. Promising areas for farm animal breeding research are grouped into gene identification and the degree of development of quantitative attributes (QTL), early prediction and evaluation of breeding value of animals using markers (MAS). Research on molecular genetics is aimed at improving genetic analysis methods at individual and population levels, monitoring herds of cattle according to different types of genetic markers. Genetic systems for testing animals in 9 loci quantitative attributes, which are involved in the formation of qualitative indicators of dairy and meat productivity. A work is under way to test animals for the polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene of the major histocompatibility complex in animal populations for resistance to or susceptibility to mastitis. Biotechnology research focuses on reproductive biology methods, first of all, manipulations with gametes of farm animals, in vitro fertilization of pre-matured oocytes of cows and pigs, and others. The technology of obtaining oocyte cumulus complexes from ovaries of animals, the conditions of their storage, cultivation and fertilization out of the organism, which allows receiving a much larger number of embryos for both scientific and practical purposes, is developed. A separate direction is the work to improve the biotechnological methods of reproduction of farm animals using nanomaterials. It is based on the application in cryopreservation and sperm production of sperm and ovules of various variants of biologically active substances that are applied to highly dispersed silica molecules (albumin of blood serum of cattle, N-acetylneuramic acid – UFS / BSA / NANA). In order to monitor and preserve the diversity of genetic resources of agricultural animals in Ukraine, a complex of works under NAAS scientific program "System of work in populations and preservation of biological diversity of genetic resources of farm animals" ("Preservation of gene pool of breeds") with a coordination center on the basis of Institute of Animal breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS. The research resulted in the development of the Program for the preservation of the gene pool of local and endangered breeds of farm animals in Ukraine for 2017–2025, in which the methodological bases for preservation of the gene pool were generalized, animal breeds were classified according to the criteria of risk, the minimum sizes of herds (real and virtual) of faulting species were substantiated, the minimum the size of subsidies for the proper functioning of small-numbered breeds, general methodological approaches to assessing the specificity of genetic resources are specified.
World's Poultry Science Journal, Volume 74, pp 749-753; doi:10.1017/s0043933918000831

Abstract:
Paul Hocking 1948 - 2018 Paul Hocking was born in 1948 and grew up on a mixed farm near Exeter in Devon. He read agriculture at Reading University and obtained a postgraduate Diploma in Genetics at Edinburgh University in 1970. From 1970 to 1977 he worked for a secretariat providing services to cattle breeding societies. His work on a selection programme for dairy shorthorn cattle formed the basis for his PhD awarded in 1978 by Reading University. After 3 years lecturing at Reading he spent the next two years as a research fellow at the Animal Research Centre in Ottawa. It was there that he started to transfer his genetic interests from cattle to poultry. In 1983 he joined the Nutrition Department at the Poultry Research Centre in Edinburgh with the remit to study the topic of feed restriction in breeding birds. He remained there for the rest of his career seeing many changes, with the centre by the time of his retirement having been absorbed into the Roslin Institute and subsequently the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Science in the University of Edinburgh. Paul quickly made a name in what became known as the ‘broiler breeder paradox’. The large body of work that defined the reproductive biology of broiler breeders and its control by feed restriction made him the go-to person for broiler and turkey breeder reproductive and welfare research. All Paul’s work was characterised by well-designed experiments and careful conclusions that led to sound understanding. This standing was recognised by the European Food Standard agency, with him serving on their Panels on Animal Health and Welfare of broilers and broiler breeders and in judicial reviews in the UK on breeder welfare. Paul embraced the genomic revolution and was in the forefront of setting up the populations needed to identify genes for Mendelian and quantitative traits in poultry. He found new applications for his talents in understanding eye defects and disease susceptibility. His review, published in the WPSJ in 2008, on foot pad lesion scoring remains high in the cited papers list. Paul was diligent in carrying a piece of work through to its completion and was author or co-author of over 200 papers. He was a sought-after speaker and had travelled around the world on his reputation - travelling was something he much enjoyed. His work was recognised by the award of the Gordon Memorial Medal in 2013 giving his widely acclaimed lecture on the subject of ‘The unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys: problems and solutions’ Paul made a huge contribution to the committees and societies in our science community. He was a prominent figure in the UK branch of the World Poultry Science Association (WPSA). He served as its President and played an important role in several of the Poultry Science Symposia organised by the Branch. Paul also made a major contribution to the European Federation of WPSA. He was Vice President from 2006 to 2010 and the UK representative on Working Group 3 (Genetics). He organised the 7th Symposium of the Group in Scotland. He was a Council Member of British Poultry Science and in 2010 became its Joint Editor. Paul was popular with his colleagues and with his thoughtful, friendly demeanour was a welcome collaborator on many projects. His unique style of after-dinner jokes has been imitated but not matched. His service to the science and community that underpins such a major industry has left a lasting legacy. All these things, except the jokes, were recognised when Paul was elected to the International Poultry Hall of Fame at the World Poultry Congress in Beijing in 2016. He was a great scientist, contributing hugely to poultry research, as well as a friend and mentor to many. Paul had latterly decreased his work load to part time, preparatory to moving back to his roots in Devon. He had started his new life there, much preferring the milder climate to that of Edinburgh. It is a great pity that the rapid onset of a cancer deprived him of more years of retirement. He leaves a wife, Denise, son Chris and daughters Michelle and Jenny. He will be much missed by them and his many friends and colleagues around the world. Dr Ian Dunn and Professor Colin Whitehead Donald McQueen Shaver 12 August 1920 – 28 July 2018 One of the first Canadians inducted into the International Poultry Hall of Fame, Donald Shaver, founder of Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms Ltd., has died, a few days short of his 98th birthday. Donald Shaver was born and grew up in Galt, now part of Cambridge, Ontario. As a teenager he kept chickens in the backyard of his urban home, and in a vacant lot next door. He joined the Canadian army in the second World War, achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and was part of the force that liberated The Netherlands in 1945. After the war, he extended his interest in poultry breeding and established a hatchery and feed mill in Galt. He assembled a large collection of White Leghorn lines purchased from other breeders and began crossbreeding experiments that led to the development of the Shaver Starcross 288. The outstanding performance of this hybrid encouraged Shaver to expand his operations and begin selling parent stock to franchise hatcheries in Canada and the United States. He built a larger hatchery and established a breeding farm adjacent to his home on the outskirts of Galt. By the mid 1960’s new farms were added, and a much larger hatchery, as the business expanded around the world. At its height, Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms Ltd. was selling breeding stock in more than 90 countries. Subsidiary companies were established in the US, Great Britain, France, and Germany. There were joint ventures in Pakistan, New Zealand, India and Barbados. The company expanded into brown egg layers and meat chickens, which were sold alongside the highly successful white egg Starcross 288. By the mid 1970’s there were four breeding farms in...
Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 101, pp 8641-8661; doi:10.3168/jds.2018-14772

Abstract:
Mammals can synthesize all of the fatty acids (FA) necessary for proper health and functioning with the exception of FA in the n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which should be supplied in the diet. The PUFA are the predominant type of lipid in dairy cattle diets; however, common feedstuffs are rich in n-6 FA, whereas the supply of n-3 FA in the intensive dairy industry is mainly limited to flaxseed and fish oils. The n-3 FA are involved in many biological systems and processes, and therefore their dietary supplementation is of special interest in dairy cattle. Furthermore, because milk, milk products, and meat are among the most important and widely used components in traditional and modern human diets, enrichment of these food products with n-3 FA is of special importance. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of different aspects and outcomes involved in dietary n-3 FA supplementation in dairy cattle. I provide an inclusive review of the effects of n-3 FA on milk and milk solids and the FA profile in milk fat upon feeding a variety of flaxseed products or fish oil. Selective uptake of n-3 FA has been demonstrated in the ovary compartments, as well as in bull sperm and in the unborn calf through the placenta. Incorporation of these unique FA into the reproductive system influences many processes and exerts some positive effects on fertility. In addition, beneficial effects of feeding n-3 FA on the reproductive system of females and males can be achieved with supplementation of α-linolenic acid from flaxseed or from eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil. This work provides a broad perspective and demonstrates the importance and potential of n-3 FA dietary supplementation in dairy cattle on the animal itself, as well as its secondary effects, which are associated with human nutrition and health.
James S. Drouillard
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 31, pp 1007-1016; doi:10.5713/ajas.18.0428

Abstract:
USA beef production is characterized by a diversity of climates, environmental conditions, animal phenotypes, management systems, and a multiplicity of nutritional inputs. The USA beef herd consists of more than 80 breeds of cattle and crosses thereof, and the industry is divided into distinct, but ofttimes overlapping sectors, including seedstock production, cow-calf production, stocker/backgrounding, and feedlot. Exception for male dairy calves, production is predominantly pastoral-based, with young stock spending relatively brief portions of their life in feedlots. The beef industry is very technology driven, utilizing reproductive management strategies, genetic improvement technologies, exogenous growth promoting compounds, vaccines, antibiotics, and feed processing strategies, focusing on improvements in efficiency and cost of production. Young steers and heifers are grain-based diets fed for an average of 5 months, mostly in feedlots of 1,000 head capacity or more, and typically are slaughtered at 15 to 28 months of age to produce tender, well-marbled beef. Per capita beef consumption is nearly 26 kg annually, over half of which is consumed in the form of ground products. Beef exports, which are increasingly important, consist primarily of high value cuts and variety meats, depending on destination. In recent years, adverse climatic conditions (i.e., draught), a shrinking agricultural workforce, emergence of food-borne pathogens, concerns over development of antimicrobial resistance, animal welfare/well-being, environmental impact, consumer perceptions of healthfulness of beef, consumer perceptions of food animal production practices, and alternative uses of traditional feed grains have become increasingly important with respect to their impact on both beef production and demand for beef products. Similarly, changing consumer demographics and globalization of beef markets have dictated changes in the types of products demanded by consumers of USA beef, both domestically and abroad. The industry is highly adaptive, however, and responds quickly to evolving economic signals.
, Daiane Patricia Oldiges, Itabajara Da Silva Vaz Jr., Carlos Termignoni
ACTA SCIENTIAE VETERINARIAE, Volume 38, pp 95-111; doi:10.22456/1679-9216.16586

Abstract:
Background: : : : Ticks are distributed worldwide, with impacts on human and animal health. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main parasite that affects livestock in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing large economical losses. Tick control methods are based on the application of chemical acaricides, which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and a potential risk of environmental pollution and food contamination. Vaccines have showed to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmental friendly alternative to chemical control. However, more than ten years after the commercialization of the first vaccine against ticks, the identification of tick-protective antigens remains a limiting step in the development of an efficient formulation that would avoid the use of chemical acaricides. So, the study of parasite biology and understanding physiological mechanisms could be a good strategy to find new targets for an efficient vaccine. Review: It was reviewed the main insights about the reproductive process in ticks, emphasizing the hormonal control of vitellogenesis and enzymes involved in vitellin processing during embryogenesis. The processes of vitellogenesis and embryogenesis have been studied in various organisms, particularly in cockroaches, flies and ticks. Although the roles of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone have been well characterized for vitellogenesis in insects, we know much less about the hormonal control of vitellogenesis in ticks. Initially, it was hypothesized that juvenile hormone was involved in tick vitellogenin-synthesis. However, more critical studies uncovered no evidence for the occurrence of juvenile hormone or juvenile hormone-like molecules in several tick species. Current research shows that in ticks, it appears that ecdysteroids, and not juvenile hormone, regulate the expression of the vitellogenin gene and the synthesis and release of vitellogenin protein into the hemolymph. In general, the carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid composition of tick vitellogenin is similar to that of insect vitellogenin. Once in the hemolymph, oocytes uptake vitellogenin through receptor-mediated endocytosys. However, there are different strategies to control vitellogenin synthesis and uptake by ovary in ixodide ticks. In the oocytes, vitellogenin is partially processed in the endosomal compartment and then stored as vitellin, the main reserve of protein for embryo development, in specialized organelles, the yolk granules. Embryo development depends on the availability of yolk material stored into oocytes. So, the characterization of molecules involved in vitellogenesis and embryo development contribute to a better understanding of the tick parasite physiology. During embryogesesis, acidic enzymes are responsible for the availability of this material and embryo nutrition. The Vitellin-Degrading Cysteine Endopeptidase (VTDCE), Boophilus Yolk...
John A Plumb
Published: 18 January 2018
Health Maintenance Of Cultured Fishes pp 1-30; doi:10.1201/9781351073141-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Widjiati Widjiati, Trilas Sardjito, Nenny Harijani
Jurnal Layanan Masyarakat (Journal of Public Services), Volume 1; doi:10.20473/jlm.v1i1.2017.40-45

Abstract:
Mojokerto Regency is a region with a good economic level. The regency has fertile land and well-preserved Majapahit Kingdom remains. In addition, it has dairy cattle farm located around Pacet Sub-district. Milk produced from this area can support economy in East Java. However, there is no increased milk sale price of dairy processing to be food with high sale price. Dairy cattle community have not been touched by technology of dairy processing to produce high sale priced food such as yoghurt, ice-cream, or dairy candies. Therefore, science and technology are needed by the community in this area to increase their productivity and income in order to create independent economy. The social service is aimed to assist the community in order to increase their income by mastering science and technology in the form of increasing the sale price of milk and creating independent economy by increasing dairy cattle productivity and giving added value of milk to be processed food such as dairy candies or yoghurt. The social service is integrated, in order to give science and technology to the community, to motivate the students and community to keep their health and to take care of their teeth. The target of the activity is to lessen the community’s burden by improving management of cattle caring and dairy cattle productivity, making processed products from milk with higher economic value, creating small scaled industry, and improving public health. The activities conducted were as follows giving trainings to make yoghurt, dairy candies or herbs, giving cattle health service to increase cattle productivity by undergoing cattle fertility examination, treating infertile cattle, doing artificial insemination to cattle in their estrous cycle, giving vitamin to increase cattle appetite, improving cattle feed quality by giving trainings to process cattle feed. Briefing and service on health was given to educate the community in order to live healthily by keeping health and taking care of teeth.The conclusion drawn from the activity conducted in Pacet Sub-district Mojokerto is training on how to make yoghurt and dairy candies is able to give added value for the community in Pacet Sub-district. Many cases on cattle reproductive disorder in Pacet Sub-district are identified, and measurement on Elementary school children’s growth is needed to monitor nutritional status of the children. AbstrakKabupaten Mojokerto merupakan daerah dengan tingkat ekonomi yang baik. Kabupaten ini memiliki lahan subur dan Kerajaan Majapahit yang terpelihara dengan baik. Selain itu, ia memiliki peternakan sapi perah yang terletak di sekitar Kecamatan Pacet. Susu yang dihasilkan dari daerah ini bisa menunjang perekonomian di Jawa Timur. Namun, tidak ada kenaikan harga jual susu olahan susu menjadi makanan dengan harga jual tinggi. Komunitas sapi perah belum tersentuh oleh teknologi pengolahan susu untuk menghasilkan makanan dengan harga jual tinggi seperti yoghurt, es krim, atau permen susu. Oleh karena itu, sains dan teknologi sangat dibutuhkan oleh masyarakat di daerah ini untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan pendapatannya agar tercipta perekonomian mandiri. Pelayanan sosial ini bertujuan untuk membantu masyarakat dalam rangka meningkatkan pendapatan mereka dengan menguasai sains dan teknologi dalam bentuk kenaikan harga jual susu dan menciptakan ekonomi mandiri dengan meningkatkan produktivitas sapi perah dan memberi nilai tambah susu untuk diolah makanannya. seperti permen susu atau yoghurt. Pelayanan sosial terintegrasi, untuk memberi sains dan teknologi kepada masyarakat, untuk memotivasi siswa dan masyarakat agar tetap menjaga kesehatan dan merawat giginya. Sasaran kegiatan ini adalah mengurangi beban masyarakat dengan meningkatkan pengelolaan produktivitas sapi dan produktivitas sapi perah, membuat produk olahan dari susu dengan nilai ekonomi lebih tinggi, menciptakan industri skala kecil, dan meningkatkan kesehatan masyarakat. Kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah sebagai berikut memberikan pelatihan untuk membuat yoghurt, permen susu atau herbal, memberikan layanan kesehatan sapi untuk meningkatkan produktivitas ternak dengan menjalani pemeriksaan kesuburan ternak, mengobati ternak yang tidak subur, melakukan inseminasi buatan pada ternak dalam siklus estrus mereka, memberi vitamin untuk meningkatkan ternak. nafsu makan, meningkatkan kualitas pakan ternak dengan memberikan pelatihan untuk mengolah pakan ternak. Briefing dan pelayanan kesehatan diberikan untuk mendidik masyarakat agar dapat hidup sehat dengan menjaga kesehatan dan merawat gigi. Kesimpulan yang diambil dari kegiatan yang dilakukan di Kecamatan Pacet Mojokerto adalah pelatihan bagaimana membuat yoghurt dan permen susu mampu memberi nilai tambah bagi masyarakat di Kecamatan Pacet. Banyak kasus gangguan reproduksi ternak di Kecamatan Pacet diidentifikasi, dan pengukuran pertumbuhan anak sekolah dasar diperlukan untuk memantau status gizi anak-anak.
J. R. Young, S. Suon, L. Olmo, C. Bun, C. Hok, K. Ashley, R. D. Bush, P. A. Windsor
Published: 24 January 2017
by Wiley
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 64, pp 2000-2012; doi:10.1111/tbed.12609

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, M. Nath, J. J. Hyslop, C. A. Morgan, A. W. Stott
The Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 155, pp 156-170; doi:10.1017/s0021859616000496

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yukui Li, Qingchuan Liu, , Pengfei Zhu, Lichao Zhang, Xiujie Zhou, Chongyu Sun, Yunhuan Cheng
Published: 3 June 2016
PLOS ONE, Volume 11; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156492

Abstract:
Domestic sewage sludge and cattle manure are rich in nutrition elements, but without proper disposal, are harmful to the environment. Here with an indoor culture method, we used Eisenia fetida to dispose different ratios of sewage sludge and cattle manure, and thereby investigated the effects and acting rules of these sludge-manure mixtures on the growth and reproduction of E. fetida. We find these mixtures are food sources for E. fetida, and their physiochemical properties are significantly changed after disposal by earthworms. Paired samples t-test shows the average change after different treatments is -20.37% for total organic carbon, 85.71% for total Kjeldahl N, -6.67% for total P, 8.33% for pH, -24.78% for EC (ms·cm-1), and -57.10% for C/N ratio. The average growth rate after treatment CD-70 is 9.20 mg·worm-1·day-1; the average growth rates of E. fetida on day 0–28, day 29–56, and day 57–91 are 9.33, 11.90 and 6.95 mg·worm-1·day-1, respectively, indicating a trend of "rapid—rapidest—slow" growth. Other treatments all show this trend. Though all earthworms developed reproductive rings during the test periods, the appearing time and the cocoon production time both differed among these treatments. The cocoon production amount is maximized to 233 after treatment CD-70. The cocoon production rates are significantly different among these treatments, and the maximum and mean are 0.32 and 0.17–0.32, cocoons·worm-1· day-1, respectively. E. fetida can modestly enrich Cd, but is not very effective over Sb or other heavy metals. E. fetida can remove a part of heavy metals from sewage sludge and cattle manure. Generally, the mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle manure can largely affect the growth and propagation of E. fetida in a ratio-dependent way.
Published: 23 April 2016
Molecules, Volume 21; doi:10.3390/molecules21040545

Abstract:
This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.
Agriculture & Food Security, Volume 4; doi:10.1186/s40066-015-0043-3

Abstract:
Human population growth and rising income levels in developing countries are increasing demand for animal protein. One of the key enablers of the associated increase in global animal protein production has been biotechnology, defined as, “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof to make or modify products or processes for specific use.” Biotechnologies have directly benefitted the three core scientific disciplines of animal science—genetics, nutrition, and health. Significant potential remains to use biotechnologies to improve animal health. Globally, more than 20 % of animal protein is lost as a result of disease. A number of diseases have been targeted by using recombinant DNA (rDNA) techniques in the breeding process to develop disease-resistant food animals, although no such animals have yet been approved anywhere in the world. Part of the reason for this is that “modern” biotechnologies involving the use of rDNA are subject to a unique set of governance and regulatory requirements under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and other national regulatory frameworks. The Protocol defines “modern biotechnology” as the application of in vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family, that overcome natural physiological reproductive or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection. In considering the impact of this modern biotechnology trigger for additional governance and regulatory oversight, a case study is presented of the various biotechnological approaches that might be employed to address the important tropical disease problem of African trypanosomiasis. Some approaches involve the use of natural gene drive systems (“selfish” gene elements that skew inheritance in their favor) and irradiation-induced sterile insect technique. Others involve techniques that trigger the modern biotechnology definition and include the use of an rDNA-derived paratransgenesis, a strategy that employs symbiotic microbes to control pathogens in vector populations, and the development of genetically engineered trypanosomiasis-resistant cattle. Despite the fact that all of these approaches are associated with potential harms and potential benefits, only those that involve the use of modern biotechnology such as rDNA techniques are subject to exceptional regulatory requirements. Triggering governance and regulatory oversight based on an arbitrarily-defined subset of techniques rather than on the outcomes or products resulting from the use of those techniques, does nothing to address the potential harms that might be associated with non-governed processes and disadvantages governed technologies with unique regulatory burdens. Even-handed evaluation that agnostically weighs the potential benefits and risks of products rather than the techniques used to produce those products is essential to ensure that the biotechnology best suited to addressing a problem can be employed, rather than a potentially less efficient approach that is chosen solely because it avoids the complicated regulatory frameworks that are uniquely triggered by the use of a modern biotechnology.
Lg Ribeiro, Embrapa Dairy Cattle And Members Of Rumen Gases Network., Fernanda S Machado, Mariana M Campos, R Guimaraes, Thierry R Tomich, Larissa G Reis, Cassius Coombs, Embrapa Cerrados, “Science Without Borders” program, et al.
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, Volume 28; doi:10.17533/udea.rccp.v28n2a02

Abstract:
Summary Livestock farming in Latin America has been criticized because of its large greenhouse gas (GHG) production resulting from the use of degraded forage and low-efficiency production performance. Agriculture contributes a significant amount of the three main greenhouse gases: methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nitrous oxide (NO 2 ). Methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater than CO 2 . Enteric methane is an important greenhouse gas responsible for approximately 15% of global warming. The trend and legalobligation of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions will likely directly influence improved efficiency of livestock systems, including animal nutrition and handling. The development of mitigation strategies and the viability of their practical applications have been researched around the world. Various nutritional strategies to mitigate enteric methane have been studied and developed. All of them differ in terms of viability, cost, and acceptance by the producers. Their adoption should be based on the capacity to reduce methane emissions in association with economic viability and animal performance. Animal performance improvement will be achieved in production systems (mainly those related to efficient forage use) associated with good management of nutrition, health and reproduction. These are important strategies to consolidate Brazil as a food producer to the world, respecting the demands regarding land, water, biodiversity conservation and emission of greenhouse gases. Keywords: climate change, global warming, greenhouse gas, livestock, sustainability. Resumen La industria pecuaria latinoamericana ha sido criticada por la emisión significativa de gases con efecto invernadero (GHG). Dicha crítica se fundamenta en los bajos indicadores zootécnicos observados en los sistemas de producción animal basados en pasturas degradadas o que se encuentran por debajo de su potencial de producción. La industria agropecuaria contribuye de manera significativa con la emisión de los tres principales GHG: metano (CH 4 ), dióxido de carbono (CO 2 ) y óxido nitroso (NO 2 ). El gas metano tiene un potencial de calentamiento global 25 veces mayor que el de CO 2 . El metano entérico es un importante gas de efecto invernadero, que es responsable de aproximadamente el 15% del calentamiento global. La tendencia o la obligación legal de mitigar las emisiones de GHG tendrá una influencia directa sobre la necesidad del aumento de la eficiencia zootécnica en los sistemas pecuarios relacionado con el manejo nutricional de los animales que deberá ser adoptado. El desarrollo de estrategias de mitigación y la viabilidad de su aplicación práctica representan áreas de investigación alrededor del mundo. Existen diversas estrategias nutricionales que se han estudiado y desarrollado con el fin de mitigar el metano entérico. Dichas estrategias presentan diferentes viabilidades, costos y posibilidades para que sean aceptadas por los productores. La elección de la estrategia de mitigación a ser adoptada deberá estar centrada en la capacidad de reducción de las emisiones de metano asociada con la viabilidad económica y el mantenimiento del desempeño animal. El aumento de los indicadores zootécnicos que se obtendrán en los sistemas de producción (principalmente aquellos que utilicen de manera eficiente el forraje) asociado a una buena nutrición, salud y manejo reproductivo, son estrategias importantes para la consolidación de Brasil como un importante productor de alimentos para el mundo, teniendo en cuenta las demandas relacionadas con el uso del suelo, del agua, la conservación de la biodiversidad y de la emisión de gases con efecto invernadero. Palabras clave: calentamiento global, cambios climáticos, ganadería, gases de efecto invernadero, sostenibilidad. Resumo A pecuária da América Latina tem sido criticada por emitir quantidades significativas de gases de efeito estufa (GHG). Tal crítica tem sido fundamentada nos baixos índices zootécnicos verificados em sistemas de exploração animal baseados em pastagens degradadas ou que se encontram abaixo do seu potencial de produção. A agropecuária contribui de forma significativa com a emissão dos três principais GHG: metano (CH 4 ), dióxido de carbono (CO 2 ) e óxido nitroso (NO 2 ). O gás metano apresenta potencial de aquecimento global 25 vezes maior que o CO 2 . O metano entérico é um importante gás de efeito estufa, que é responsável por aproximadamente 15% do aquecimento global. A tendência ou obrigação legal de mitigar as emissões de GHG influenciará diretamente a necessidade de aumento da eficiência zootécnica nos sistemas pecuários, atrelado ao manejo nutricional dos animais a ser adotado. O desenvolvimento de estratégias de mitigação e a viabilidade da aplicação prática dessas estratégias são áreas atuais de pesquisa em todo o mundo. Existem várias estratégias de nutrição para mitigar metano entérico que têm sido estudados e desenvolvidos. Todos estes têm diferentes viabilidades, custos e possibilidades de serem adotadas pelos produtores. A escolha de qual vai ser utilizado deve basear-se na capacidade de reduzir as emissões de metano associadas com viabilidade econômica e a manutenção do desempenho do animal. O aumento nos índices zootécnicos que serão obtidos em sistemas de produção (principalmente os relacionados ao uso de forragem eficiente)...
, M. Kariuki Njenga, Thomas L. Marsh, Susan Noh, Elkanah Otiang, Peninah Munyua, Linus Ochieng, Eric Ogola, Jonathan Yoder, Allan Audi, et al.
Published: 23 March 2015
PLOS ONE, Volume 10; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120761

Abstract:
For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the incidence of human illness increased 1.31-fold for every 10 cases of animal illness or death observed (95% CI 1.16–1.49). Access and utilization of animal source foods such as milk and eggs were positively associated with the number of cattle and chickens owned by the household. Additionally, health care seeking was correlated with household incomes and wealth, which were in turn correlated with livestock herd size. This study platform provides a unique longitudinal dataset that allows for the determination and quantification of linkages between human and animal health, including the impact of healthy animals on human disease averted, malnutrition, household educational attainment, and income levels.
Rajib Deb, Sandip Chakrabort, Amit Kumar Verma, Ruchi Tiwari,
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 17, pp 329-334; doi:10.3923/pjbs.2014.329.334

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
J. R. Young, R. A. O'reilly, K. Ashley, S. Suon, I. V. Leoung, , R. D. Bush
Published: 3 January 2014
by Wiley
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 61, pp 11-24; doi:10.1111/tbed.12193

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, S. Khounsy, , J. R. Young, R. D. Bush,
Published: 1 January 2014
Animal Production Science, Volume 54, pp 899-907; doi:10.1071/an13180

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
R. L. Ereno, A. G. Pupulim, , M. G. Favoreto, , , C. M. Barros, And, R. L. Ereno, A. G. Pupulim, et al.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development, Volume 25, pp 236-236; doi:10.1071/rdv25n1ab175

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, C. McManus, K-J. Leeuw, , , C. B. De. Melo, A. Theunissen, F. W. C. Neser
Natural Science, Volume 05, pp 106-119; doi:10.4236/ns.2013.51a017

Abstract:
Developing countries from the southern hemisphere will be confronted by the same beef production challenges caused by global warming, because these countries are at the same geographical positions in southern latitudes. Global warming is expected to have a more extreme effect on the southern hemisphere than on other continents and will have a negative effect on the beef production environments in these countries. The negative effects will include high ambient temperatures, nutritional stress and altered patterns of animal diseases. Heat stress in beef cattle on veld/savannah is expected to increase as a result of changing weather patterns on a global and regional scale. This may negatively influence food production from beef cattle for the human food chain. Negative effects of increased temperatures and thus heat stress can include lower reproductive rates and weaning weights. The effect of heat stress can be partly addressed by nutritional strategies, such as replacing rapid fermentable carbohydrates with saturated fatty acids and the feeding of more by-pass protein and dietary electrolytes. Global warming will also alter the distribution pattern of animal diseases and the vectors of some of these diseases. This may even include the spread to South American countries. Likewise the nutritional value of natural pastures may be influenced. The effect of global warming on the quality of pastures will depend on whether the global warming is a result of increased carbon dioxide levels or not. An improved understanding of the adaptation of beef cattle to their production environments is important, but adaptation is complex and thus difficult to measure. Fortunately, several proxy-indicators for adaptation such as reproductive, production and health traits are available. The selection of animals and genotypes that are better adapted to the production system, including heat stress, is possible and should be persuade to ensure sustainable beef production in hotter climates.
R. Michael Roberts
Reproduction, Fertility and Development, Volume 25, pp 322-323; doi:10.1071/rdv25n1ab350

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Julia Klein, , Kerstin E. Müller, Juergen Lademann
Published: 31 October 2012
PLOS ONE, Volume 7; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047706

Abstract:
Maintaining the health of farm animals forms the basis for a sustainable and profitable production of food from animal origin. Recently, the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative status as well as on reproductive and immune functions in cattle have been demonstrated. The present study aimed at investigating dermal carotenoid levels in cattle recovering from abomasal displacement. For this purpose, serial in vivo measurements were undertaken using a miniaturized scanner system that relies on reflection spectroscopy (Opsolution GmbH, Kassel, Germany). In a first trial, repeated measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations were performed on the udder skin of healthy non-lactating cattle (n = 6) for one month in weekly intervals. In a second trial, in vivo dermal carotenoid concentrations were determined in intervals in 23 cows following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement. The results show that dermal carotenoid concentrations, determined on a weekly basis over a period of one month, showed variations of up to 18% in the healthy individuals kept under constant conditions with respect to housing and nutrition. Repeated measurements during the recovery period following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement resulted in an increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in 18 of 20 animals with a favourable outcome when compared with results obtained within 12 hours following surgery. The mean increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in subsequent measurements was 53±44%, whereas levels decreased (mean 31±27%) in cattle with a fatal outcome. These results indicate potential applications for reflection spectroscopy for non-invasive early detection of changes in the dermal carotenoid concentrations as a reflection of the antioxidant status in an animal.
, Robert P. Rhoads, , Nicholas K. Gabler, Jason W. Ross, Aileen F. Keating, Rebbeca L. Boddicker, Sangeeta Lenka,
Environmental Stress and Amelioration in Livestock Production pp 413-468; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29205-7_15

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 January 2012
Dairy herd health; doi:10.1079/9781845939977.0000

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Evolution: Education and Outreach, Volume 4, pp 567-573; doi:10.1007/s12052-011-0382-x

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Siobhan W. Walsh, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, , Pat Lonergan, , , Alexander C.O. Evans
Biology of Reproduction, Volume 85, pp 281-281; doi:10.1093/biolreprod/85.s1.281

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Byoung-Chul Yang, Nam-Jin Lee, Gi-Sun Im, Hwan-Hoo Seong, Jin-Ki Park, ,
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, Volume 92, pp 224-230; doi:10.1002/bdrb.20309

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Costel Ilie Culai Dascalu Alexandru T. Bogdan Cristinel Sonea, Sorin Sergiu Chelmu, Mihaela Rusu Simona Stan Ion Constantinescu Stefan Nastasie Dan Tapus
Published: 1 January 2011
by RePEc
Abstract:
Livestock production (milk, meat) depends heavily on reproductive activity, leading to scientific research and practice to find ways to optimize growth and livestock operation in order to achieve maximum economic efficiency. Research work in cattle reproduction, especially in family farms, are particularly important because understanding leads to increase capacity while the number of existing animals, meat and milk production, combating infertility, increased birth rates, increasing revenue and improving people's work throughout the year. In the area of reproduction, these goals are of particular importance, both theoretical and practical, especially after the introduction and expansion of artificial insemination technique, a method that has transformed animal reproduction activity in a process managed and controlled entirely by man. It should be noted that the farm is the main basis of agricultural production, so it is necessary to highlight issues affecting the animal reproduction in the investigated area. Being holdings, taking into account recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as well as those of romanian and foreign specialists in human nutrition. In this regard, we calculated the main nonlinear regression of correlations analysis that exist between the LU and the most important factors that affecting increased production of milk cows in the South East and North East economic region of Romania.
, Jie Lan, Yongli Song, Chenglong Lu, Yong Zhang
Published: 1 May 2010
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Volume 26

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Karen Brown, Daniel Gilfoyle
Published: 1 January 2010
Healing the Herds pp 59-75; doi:10.1353/chapter.319731

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top