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(searched for: Neuroendocrine Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: Rare and Aggressive Entity)
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Mustapha Ahsaini, Omar Riyach, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih, Hind Elfatmi, Afaf Amarti
Published: 18 August 2013
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2013, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2013/598325

Abstract:
Introduction. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary tract is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary tract (SCC-UT) is the association between bladder and urinary upper tract-small cell carcinoma (UUT-SCC). It characterized by an aggressive clinical course. The prognosis is poor due to local or distant metastases, and usually the muscle of the bladder is invaded. Case Presentation. We report a rare case of a 54-year-old Arab male native of moroccan; he is a smoker and was referred to our institution for intermittent hematuria. Following a diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ureter and the bladder, thoracoabdominal-pelvic CT was done, and the staging of the tumor was done in the bladder (T2N0M0) and (T1N0M0) in the ureter. Neoadjuvant alternating doublet chemotherapy with ifosfamide/doxorubicin and etoposide/cisplatin was realized, and nephroureterectomy associated to a cystoprostatectomy was carried out. After 24 months of followup, no local or distant metastasis was detected. Conclusion. The purpose of this review is to present a rare case of pure small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary tract and review the literature about the place of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in this rare tumors.
Nora I. Schneider, Cord Langner, Richard Zigeuner
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume 345, pp 155-157; doi:10.1097/maj.0b013e3182648759

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Sonia Gon, Bipasa Majumdar, Ranjan Kumar Dey, Subrata Kumar Mitra
Published: 1 January 2013
Urology Annals, Volume 5, pp 209-211; doi:10.4103/0974-7796.115751

Abstract:
Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.
Richard Mayhew, Jacqueline R. Jaggon, Trudy-Ann Brown
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 14, pp 147-149; doi:10.12659/AJCR.883908

Abstract:
Male, 59 Neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder Dysuria • hematuria – MRI • cystoscopy Urology • oncology Rare disease Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the genitourinary tract are rare but distinct and important entities because they are very aggressive tumors and are usually advanced or metastatic at the time of diagnosis. A high index of suspicion must be held by the pathologist viewing the specimen, as it can easily be misdiagnosed as a high grade urothelial carcinoma. Specific, proven treatment algorithms have been formulated over the years for the latter, whilst neuroendocrine carcinomas of the genitourinary tract are rare and treatment regimes have not yet been proven to show a significant improvement in survival in the majority of cases, so accurate diagnosis is important. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with a short history of dysuria and frank hematuria. Imaging and cystoscopy revealed a large exophytic mass in the base of the urinary bladder, which extended into the bladder neck. Metastatic deposits were already present in his liver and vertebrae. Histology revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma. A comprehensive review of the existing literature regarding this rare but aggressive tumor is presented, including advances in classification, pathogenesis, and treatment.
Tarik Chekrine, Berardino De Bari, P. Cassier, M. Kulisa, O. Chapet, F. Mornex
Published: 1 June 2011
Cancer/Radiothérapie, Volume 15, pp 250-253; doi:10.1016/j.canrad.2010.11.013

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Xiaoyan Wang, Gregory T. MacLennan, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology, Volume 15, pp 8-18; doi:10.1097/01.pai.0000213106.12731.d7

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