Refine Search

New Search

Results: 192

(searched for: Impact of Stress on Human Body: A Review)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 4
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Published: 29 July 2021
by MDPI
Endocrines, Volume 2, pp 226-240; doi:10.3390/endocrines2030022

Abstract:
Psychoneuroendocrineimmunology (PNEI) brings together knowledge acquired since the 1930s from endocrinology, immunology, neuroscience, and psychology. With PNEI, a model of research and interpretation of health and disease is emerging, which sees the human body as a structured and interconnected unit, where the psychological and biological systems are mutually coordinated. In the PNEI view, many factors could influence mental health, with the endocrine system involved in mediating the effects of environmental stress on mental health and inflammation in the onset and course of psychiatric disorders as a result of individual and collective conditions and behaviors. Among these, nutrition is one way by which the environment impacts physiology: indeed, many pieces of research showed that several elements (e.g., probiotics, fish oil, zinc) have a positive effect on mental disorders thus being potentially augmentation agents in treatment. Still, physical activity can moderate depressive symptoms, while prolonged stress increases the risk of psychopathology. Taken together, the PNEI-based approach may inform prevention and treatment strategies, also in the field of mental health care.
Published: 8 July 2021
by MDPI
Water, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/w13141898

Abstract:
Transitional waters straddle the interface between marine and terrestrial biomes and, among others, include fjords, bays, lagoons, and estuaries. These coastal systems are essential for transport and manufacturing industries and suffer extensive anthropogenic exploitation of their ecosystem services for aquaculture and recreational activities. These activities can have negative effects on the local biota, necessitating investigation and regulation. As a result of this, EcoQS (ecological quality status) assessment has garnered great attention as an essential aspect of governmental bodies’ legislative decision-making process. Assessing EcoQS in transitional water ecosystems is problematic because these systems experience high natural variability and organic enrichment and often lack information about their pre-human impact, baseline, or “pristine” reference conditions, knowledge of which is essential to many commonly used assessment methods. Here, foraminifera can be used as environmental sentinels, providing ecological data such as diversity and sensitivity, which can be used as the basis for EcoQS assessment indices. Fossil shells of foraminifera can also provide a temporal aspect to ecosystem assessment, making it possible to obtain reference conditions from the study site itself. These foraminifera-based indices have been shown to correlate not only with various environmental stressors but also with the most common macrofaunal-based indices currently employed by bodies such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this review, we firstly discuss the development of various foraminifera-based indices and address the challenge of how best to implement these synergistically to understand and regulate human environmental impact, particularly in transitional waters, which have historically suffered disproportionate levels of human impact or are difficult to assess with standard EcoQS methods. Further, we present some case studies to exemplify key issues and discuss potential solutions for those. Such key issues include, for example, the disparate performance of multiple indices applied to the same site and a proper assignment of EcoQS class boundaries (threshold values) for each index. Disparate aptitudes of indices to specific geomorphologic and hydrological regimes can be leveraged via the development of a site characteristics catalogue, which would enable the identification of the most appropriate index to apply, and the integration of multiple indices resulting in more representative EcoQS assessment in heterogenous transitional environments. In addition, the difficulty in assigning threshold values to systems without analogous unimpacted reference sites (a common issue among many transitional waters) can be overcome by recording EcoQS as an ecological quality ratio (EQR). Lastly, we evaluate the current status and future potential of an emerging field, genetic biomonitoring, focusing on how these new techniques can be used to increase the accuracy of EcoQS assessment in transitional systems by supplementing more established morphology-based methods.
P. Maharjan, D.A. Martinez, J. Weil, N. Suesuttajit, C. Umberson, G. Mullenix, K.M. Hilton, A. Beitia,
Published: 1 July 2021
Animal; doi:10.1016/j.animal.2021.100284

Abstract:
The food production system needs to be sustainable including poultry sector to feed the increasing global population. An accepted economical and environmental approach of broiler production is to produce larger broilers faster while using less feed. Broiler production is aimed at producing consumable meat and meat products. The global broiler meat market has evolved over the years with increasing selection pressure shifted toward attaining yield characteristics for increased cut-up parts such as breast and thighs. There is a shift toward a big bird market in the U.S. with approximately 70% of the broiler meat produced from large birds (>2.72 kg). Genetic selection of broilers for quantitative traits such as growth rate and lean muscle mass without increasing the fat mass has altered broiler physiological homeostasis to adapt toward the larger rates of muscle protein turnover. Physiological stresses created due to selection pressures in broilers have produced several muscle myopathies including an emerging one called woody breast myopathy. The sustainable broiler production practice may require humane consideration of raising broilers in less stressful grow-out regimes that will have minimal impact on broiler metabolic health. Another sustainability approach of broiler production toward feed efficiency lies on understanding dietary formulation approach of amino acids and energy that promote optimal nutrient utilization and minimal nutrient output to environment while also fulfilling the growth demands and body composition changes associated with increased protein gain in current meat broilers brought by the genetic progress.
G. V. Zaychenko, N. A. Gorchakova, O. V. Shumeiko, O. V. Klymenko, G. I. Doroshenko
Ukraïnsʹkij žurnal medicini, bìologìï ta sportu, Volume 6, pp 37-44; doi:10.26693/jmbs06.03.037

Abstract:
The review represents data about biochemical and physiological zinc properties, its pharmacological influence. Among the trace elements, zinc is one of the most used elements in biology and medicine. Zinc preserves molecular integration, influences the growth and division of cells, is included in some enzymes. Metallothioneins bind zinc with high affinity and serve as intracellular zinc reservoir. They may release free intracellular zinc when needed and mediate physiological zinc role, maintain zinc homeostasis in brain synaptic activity. Metallothioneins are strong radical scavengers that is why zinc plays the main role in oxidative stress. It is intracellular regulator, which influences apoptosis, osteogenesis, keratogenesis, provides intracellular support to proteins during molecular integration. It is a structural component in nucleonic acids and gene regulator proteins. Zinc deficiency has been detected in neurological and psychic diseases. Zinc supplement was effective in patients with stroke and brain injury. Zinc has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children. Zinc is involved in signals neurotransmission. Its deficiency in brain is connected with Alzheimer`s disease, depression, schizophrenia that is why it is used for the treatment of these diseases. Vitamin C is the zinc synergist in the treatment of neurological and psychic diseases as it has antioxidant properties, takes place in detoxication. Zinc plays the important role in autistic disorders in children and is included in the pharmacotherapy of this status. Zinc deficiency leads to liver diseases, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and gastrointestinal disturbances such as appetite loss, diarrhea, and anorexia. In chronic liver diseases, zinc corrects amino acids disbalance, capacity to synthesize albumin, metabolize ammonium. It was shown that zinc as a heavy metal has antimicrobial action in diarrheas, cholera and other gastrointestinal diseases. It was detected that zinc has antiviral effects in herpes diseases and diseases of upper respiratory ways. Conclusion. Zinc deficiency is connected with some autoimmune diseases such as asthma, eczema and other dermatological diseases. The supply of human organism with zinc and vitamins A, C, D and E is a promising approach because it is a cofactor of 118 proteins aimed at antiviral protection of the human body including interferon-1-dependent proteins against coronavirus. It was shown that zinc helps to inhibit «cytokine storm» characteristic of COVID-19, reduces chronic systemic inflammation and compensates for comorbid pathologies of cardiovascular system in patients with COVID-19. Zinc may influence other systems such as reproductive function, pregnancy, fetus, testosterone synthesis
Fushun Wang, Fang Pan, Yiyuan Tang, Jason H. Huang
Published: 24 June 2021
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.710691

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research Topic Stress Induced Neural Changes in Emotional Disorders Psychological processes include two equally important aspects of mental processes: cognition and emotion, emotional disorders might account for more than 90% of mental disorders. For example, major depression is a prevalent emotional disorder that affects more than 1/5 of the populations worldwide, making it one of the most prevalent health-related causes of human suffering. Moreover, it is a leading risk factor for the estimated one million deaths by suicide per year world-wide. Despite that emotion is critically important to us, emotion is one of the least studied biological phenomena of the brain, the mechanism of the emotional disorders is not clear. Thus, the treatment is not as effective as expected, which might be effective in only a subset of patients and acts slowly (1). Stress has been regarded as a critical causing factor for emotional disorders. Stress is an evolutionarily adaptive response to deal with situations that impact threat to the organism and require rapid “flight or fight” responses (2). Stress is evolutionarily important for survival and benefits to all lives, however, overwhelming stress is considered to one of the main risk factors for the development of many emotional disorders such and anxiety, depression. For example, the onset of major depression are often correlated with stressful events in earlier lives, many studies reported significant correlation between the onset of major depression and the number of traumatic events within 3 months before the onset of the disease. In addition, stress can happen very long ago, for example, early life stress can induce emotional depression in adult lives (3). This means stress can induce long term changes in the body to induce emotional disorders. The stress induced neural changes are very complicated. There is compelling evidence of a causal link between chronic stress and the sympathetic system as well as the HPA axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) and emotional disorders. Stress causes elevation of corticosteroids and other stress hormones, such as CRF (corticotropic-releasing factor), the known stress hormone. HPA dysregulation may be both a causative factor and a consequence of emotional disorders. In addition to hypothalamus, the locus Coerleus (central norepinephrine) also plays an important role in stress. The major function of norepinephrine (NE) system has been known as “fight or flight,” or “fear or anger” emotions (4). As we reported before, everything around us happens in an anticipated way (expected) or not anticipated way (surprising). If it happens as expected, people feel calm; if it happens unexpected, people will feel scared or angry (5). Therefore, chronic unpredictable stresses are most often used in animal models of depression. When the animals are faced with stress, they often respond with fear or anger emotions, and “fight or flight” responses trying to get rid of these stressors. After a long term of failure to deal with these stressors, they learned the “helplessness” and try to live with these stressors sadly. We say that these animals are depressed and the depression model is set up. Furthermore, stress can induce long term changes in the endocrine systems, which in turn induce behavior changes that habitually deal with the stressful situations, thus cytokine is also regarded as a causing mechanism for depression. Lymphocytes, mast cells and other immune system cells contain adrenoreceptors that respond to the peripheral release of NE. The central NE system innervates many vital parts of the immune system- the lymph organs, spleen, thymus. It is reported that lymphocyte activity was dramatically reduced in the depressed patients. There is evidence that sympathetic nervous, immune and endocrine systems are linked. Moreover, some epigenetic changes or neural changes induced by early life stress might be involved in the emotional disorders. The expression of all receptors for previous neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, cytokines can be affected by epigenetics. These changes have been suggested to be involved in the emotional diseases. In 2017, we proposed one topic “Stress Induced Neuroplasticity and Mental Disorders” for Neural Plasticity and got 41 submissions. In 2018, we proposed one topic titled “Early life stress and depression” for Frontiers in Psychiatry and got 42 submissions. This is a fast developing topic, therefore, here we continue to propose a similar topic to collect recent studies about the mechanisms of stress inducing emotional disorders, such as phobia, depression and anxiety. In this special issue, we received 27 submissions and got 18 papers accepted. In the review paper, titled “The Locus Coeruleus- Norepinephrine System in Arousal: Unraveling Historical, Current and Future Perspectives,” the authors Ross and Van Bockstaele from Drexel University gave a detailed review about the arousal function of locus-coeruleus (LC)-NE system. They discussed technological advancements that chronologically led to our current understanding of the arousal system. The paper was reviewed by professors Leszek Kubin from University of Pennsylvania, and Shahzad Khan from Stanford University, who gave a high praise for this paper: “A strength of this review is its detailed and thorough overview of stress and arousal research.” “To cover this broad topic based on several subfields of neuroscience that, traditionally, developed along their own separate paths is an ambitious undertaking. The authors have largely succeeded in producing a text that has superior educational value.” In an experimental paper, author Yang et al. from Zhejiang University, one of most famous universities in China, identified some specific genetic targets for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. They...
Smilz Cbd Gummies
Published: 10 June 2021
by Zenodo
Abstract:
Smilz CBD Gummies Sell CBD Oil Have you encountered the horrendous impacts of repulsiveness impacts, part pressing, or mixing? It is safe to say that you are feeling the loss of an ordinary evening of rest again because of pressure? Then again, you can confront a mix of these issues in your every day life. Without if, or potentially or, don't press. Do Smilz CBD Gummies sell CBD ? This may be the standard bundle you are searching for! CBD is presumably the most ideal approach to set your psyche and body against one another. It has conductive properties that help lessen endurance, joint agony, and legitimate body tumult, the two of which can cause genuine clinical issues. It likewise has a quieting impact on the material plan. Then, at that point, Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil will assist you with diminishing the pressure and stress of your most exceedingly awful days. Smilz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, is presumably the most remarkable cannabidiol oil accessible. It is utilized to give basic help from a wide scope of clinical issues including consistent torment, stress and apprehension, strain, transitory weakness, the meddling impacts of rest, and various issues Smilz CBD Gummies, Sales of CBD Oil Products join helpful advantages with CBD added substances into one particular thing. This is an exceptionally run of the mill dietary improvement that represents no danger to the outcomes. You just need to take the endorsed estimations individually to begin a consistent cooperation between loosening up the body and disposing of some of life's issues. A full serving of CBD supplements in a solitary pitcher of Smilz CBD gum selling CBD oil is 300 mg. The expansion happens very still and prompts the body to do as such. This upgrade improves the neurological, physical and mental issues of individuals. This lift contains 300 mg of a top notch and safe without thc cannabidiol supplement. To Get Discounted Price Click Here | Trial Free How Does Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Work? As indicated by surveys, Smumz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, are incredible for help with discomfort simultaneously. Alleviates contact, permits you to rest, extends the overall condition of unwinding and decreases strain related with tenacious back torment. Endocannabinoids, likewise called synapses, are created by the body and tie to CBD receptors in a material structure. Hence, it is accepted that CBD oil interfaces with these neural associations and soothes steady torment and uneasiness. Subsequently, he prevailing with regards to treating intensifications and torment of the sciatic nerve Ingredients of Smilz CBD Gummies: A large number of the unique obsession components in Smilz CBD Gummies selling CBD oil are produced using the normally developed hemp plant. The 300 mg substance of this upgrade has been demonstrated to be liberated from added substances, THC or other conceivable malicious substances. It is produced using the best and most celebrated terminations in the brand. Then, at that point the organization again neglected to uncover the consequences of outer research facility tests. Regardless, this can be a reality that clients ought to ask at CBD oil client service. Official Website - https//smilzcbd.com Benefits of Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil: Smilz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, have numerous advantages that can be immediately separated from this technique. Find a portion of the extraordinary helpful advantages you'll find in your body tone: Lessen Mental Stress - With this other option, any eager pressure can be diminished without any problem. He will undoubtedly react to mental anxiety like pressure and dread, disappointment, stress, and obviously all the other things. Conquer genuine actual affliction - with the assistance of this you will altogether decrease actual misery and surprisingly languishing. Most likely he would react unmistakably too any actual hardship. There will be not any more enduring with human non-verbal correspondence. Mental Center Enhancement - With the assistance of this other option, a person's psychological focus can be improved right away. An individual will viably raise an energetic focus, which will without a doubt assist him with picking a brilliant future. Decrease Health and Wellness Problems - This option is a simple method to diminish wellbeing and riches, just as clinical issues. This therapy will influence all clinical issues like thyroid, terrible cholesterol, and diabetes. Lack of sleep issues with directing - After all, you ought to have the option to rest at 8 hours. This upgrade will guarantee that the customer will stay asleep from sundown to sunset for the best outcomes as far as body tone. Where would you be able to purchase Smilz CBD chewy candies that sells CBD oil? Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil is accessible on the authority site. To enroll, click on the connection beneath or any photograph on this site. Hazard free plans are additionally accessible for a restricted timeframe. Ensure you have one so you can attempt the one month supply test bottle. Click Me To Visit Official Website
Smilz Cbd Gummies
Published: 10 June 2021
by Zenodo
Abstract:
Smilz CBD Gummies Sell CBD Oil Have you encountered the horrendous impacts of repulsiveness impacts, part pressing, or mixing? It is safe to say that you are feeling the loss of an ordinary evening of rest again because of pressure? Then again, you can confront a mix of these issues in your every day life. Without if, or potentially or, don't press. Do Smilz CBD Gummies sell CBD ? This may be the standard bundle you are searching for! CBD is presumably the most ideal approach to set your psyche and body against one another. It has conductive properties that help lessen endurance, joint agony, and legitimate body tumult, the two of which can cause genuine clinical issues. It likewise has a quieting impact on the material plan. Then, at that point, Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil will assist you with diminishing the pressure and stress of your most exceedingly awful days. Smilz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, is presumably the most remarkable cannabidiol oil accessible. It is utilized to give basic help from a wide scope of clinical issues including consistent torment, stress and apprehension, strain, transitory weakness, the meddling impacts of rest, and various issues Smilz CBD Gummies, Sales of CBD Oil Products join helpful advantages with CBD added substances into one particular thing. This is an exceptionally run of the mill dietary improvement that represents no danger to the outcomes. You just need to take the endorsed estimations individually to begin a consistent cooperation between loosening up the body and disposing of some of life's issues. A full serving of CBD supplements in a solitary pitcher of Smilz CBD gum selling CBD oil is 300 mg. The expansion happens very still and prompts the body to do as such. This upgrade improves the neurological, physical and mental issues of individuals. This lift contains 300 mg of a top notch and safe without thc cannabidiol supplement. To Get Discounted Price Click Here | Trial Free How Does Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Work? As indicated by surveys, Smumz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, are incredible for help with discomfort simultaneously. Alleviates contact, permits you to rest, extends the overall condition of unwinding and decreases strain related with tenacious back torment. Endocannabinoids, likewise called synapses, are created by the body and tie to CBD receptors in a material structure. Hence, it is accepted that CBD oil interfaces with these neural associations and soothes steady torment and uneasiness. Subsequently, he prevailing with regards to treating intensifications and torment of the sciatic nerve Ingredients of Smilz CBD Gummies: A large number of the unique obsession components in Smilz CBD Gummies selling CBD oil are produced using the normally developed hemp plant. The 300 mg substance of this upgrade has been demonstrated to be liberated from added substances, THC or other conceivable malicious substances. It is produced using the best and most celebrated terminations in the brand. Then, at that point the organization again neglected to uncover the consequences of outer research facility tests. Regardless, this can be a reality that clients ought to ask at CBD oil client service. Official Website - https//smilzcbd.com Benefits of Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil: Smilz CBD Gummies, which sells CBD oil, have numerous advantages that can be immediately separated from this technique. Find a portion of the extraordinary helpful advantages you'll find in your body tone: Lessen Mental Stress - With this other option, any eager pressure can be diminished without any problem. He will undoubtedly react to mental anxiety like pressure and dread, disappointment, stress, and obviously all the other things. Conquer genuine actual affliction - with the assistance of this you will altogether decrease actual misery and surprisingly languishing. Most likely he would react unmistakably too any actual hardship. There will be not any more enduring with human non-verbal correspondence. Mental Center Enhancement - With the assistance of this other option, a person's psychological focus can be improved right away. An individual will viably raise an energetic focus, which will without a doubt assist him with picking a brilliant future. Decrease Health and Wellness Problems - This option is a simple method to diminish wellbeing and riches, just as clinical issues. This therapy will influence all clinical issues like thyroid, terrible cholesterol, and diabetes. Lack of sleep issues with directing - After all, you ought to have the option to rest at 8 hours. This upgrade will guarantee that the customer will stay asleep from sundown to sunset for the best outcomes as far as body tone. Where would you be able to purchase Smilz CBD chewy candies that sells CBD oil? Smilz CBD Gummies Selling CBD Oil is accessible on the authority site. To enroll, click on the connection beneath or any photograph on this site. Hazard free plans are additionally accessible for a restricted timeframe. Ensure you have one so you can attempt the one month supply test bottle. Click Me To Visit Official Website
, Sanchita Paul
IEEE Access, Volume 9, pp 84045-84066; doi:10.1109/access.2021.3085502

Abstract:
Stress is an escalated psycho-physiological state of the human body emerging in response to a challenging event or a demanding condition. Environmental factors that trigger stress are called stressors. In case of prolonged exposure to multiple stressors impacting simultaneously, a person’s mental and physical health can be adversely affected which can further lead to chronic health issues. To prevent stress-related issues, it is necessary to detect them in the nascent stages which are possible only by continuous monitoring of stress. Wearable devices promise real-time and continuous data collection, which helps in personal stress monitoring. In this paper, a comprehensive review has been presented, which focuses on stress detection using wearable sensors and applied machine learning techniques. This paper investigates the stress detection approaches adopted in accordance with the sensory devices such as wearable sensors, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalography (EEG), and Photoplethysmography (PPG), and also depending on various environments like during driving, studying, and working. The stressors, techniques, results, advantages, limitations, and issues for each study are highlighted and expected to provide a path for future research studies. Also, a multimodal stress detection system using a wearable sensor-based deep learning technique has been proposed at the end.
Frontiers in Global Women's Health, Volume 2; doi:10.3389/fgwh.2021.676178

Abstract:
As a journal dedicated to improving the health and well-being of women across the world, the editorial team at Frontiers in Global Women's Health definitely #ChooseToChallenge on International Women's Day. Frontiers in Global Women's Health was launched as a new journal 1 year ago. Its mission was to “incorporate research from all disciplines related to the health problems facing women around the world.” We wanted to move away from the traditional biomedical model, which defines women's health purely in maternal, sexual and reproductive terms, toward a “life course approach that takes into account stressors as varied as climate change, infectious diseases, poverty, domestic violence and discrimination on the basis of gender.” As the first health journal in the Frontiers series with the word Global in its title, we also aimed to stress the importance of addressing issues that affect vulnerable women in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), particularly those experiencing large-scale demographic, epidemiological, socioeconomic, and environmental transitions, in keeping with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the UN Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016–2030). Our first year has unquestionably been a resounding success. We have surpassed all our expectations thanks to the hard work of our five Specialty Section Chief Editors (Georgina Jones, Quality of Life; Jayashri Kulkarni, Women's Mental Health; Laura A Magee, Maternal Health; Chelsea Morroni, Contraception & Family Planning, and Sanne Peters, Sex & Gender Differences in Disease), as well as our 50 Associate Editors, 52 Guest Associate Editors, and 189 Review Editors. To have recruited such a large body of dedicated collaborators so rapidly is a testament to the need for such a journal. We must also not forget the remarkable Frontiers admin team, all of whom have been totally committed to the journal's mission from the outset. What do I mean by success? To date, we have received a total of 141 manuscripts from authors in 42 countries, of which 43 have been accepted, 37 rejected, and the remainder are still under review. The published articles—a mixture of original research, reviews and study protocols—have been viewed and downloaded over 126,000 times. Coincidentally, the COVID-19 pandemic started at roughly the same time that we launched the journal. We therefore devoted one of our first Research Topics to the effect of the pandemic on global women's health. Understandably, this one topic has so far attracted the most submissions. One article Moms Are Not OK: COVID-19 and Maternal Mental Health by Margie Davenport and colleagues already has an Attention Score of 457, putting it in the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric, including an article in the The New York Times. Given that the pandemic is continuing we decided last month to host a second edition of the COVID-19 & Women's Health Research Topic as the issues we now face from the pandemic are different to those we focused on last year: for example, new variants, vaccination (especially in pregnancy), long COVID, anxiety about fertility, and long-term psychosocial effects. We have so far initiated a total of 17 Research Topics in a wide range of subjects from Maternal Health in Conflict Settings to What Works to Address Sex and Gender Disparities in Health and Disease? Our plan now is to build on the first year's success by starting at least one new Speciality Section devoted to Infectious Disease and encouraging suggestions for more Research Topics. In particular, we want to reach out to researchers in the social sciences and humanities to enable us to broaden the journal's scope even further. We are actively seeking submissions from a range of disciplines that can help to contextualize the significance of global women's health issues at individual and population levels. We aim to highlight the multitude of factors that affect women's health across the world and, perhaps more importantly, the impact that the failure to prioritize global women's health has had, is having and will have on society as a whole. In doing so, we want to attract as broad a readership as possible, which definitely means taking account of how these problems have been addressed in the non-biomedical literature. In other words, we will be seeking articles in the future that enrich the reader's understanding of the complexity of the issues facing clinicians, human rights lawyers, non-governmental organizations, funding agencies, and governments that wish to improve the health and well-being of women in both LMICs and high income countries. To the best of my knowledge no other journal seeks to incorporate such a rich variety of knowledge, expertise, and opinions pertaining specifically to global women's health. Let me give you some examples of what I mean. It is difficult to appreciate global women's health issues without an understanding of their social and historical context, which is why we are encouraging submissions that take heed of Hegel's observation “The only thing we learn from history is that we learn nothing from history.” The present pandemic is a case in point. It is now acknowledged that Covid-19 is associated with substantially higher maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than was generally recognized at the start of the pandemic (1). Perhaps the lessons learned during the “Spanish flu” pandemic, which came in four waves between 1918 and 1920, resulting in the deaths of 20–50 million people worldwide, could have had a greater influence on thinking and health policies at the start of the present pandemic. Then, the risks of prematurity and stillbirth were increased in affected women and, compared to non-pregnant women, those who were pregnant had a 50% higher chance of dying from respiratory complications (2). Interestingly, however, the “Spanish...
, J. A. Abiona
African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation pp 275-296; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-45106-6_111

Abstract:
Global climate change poses a great threat to poultry production. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are released through both natural and anthropogenic sources into the atmosphere. Though poultry production contributes little to the release of GHGs, the subsector has been shown to be greatly affected by climate change and global warming. Poultry production as a major subsector of agriculture has provided the teeming population with a supply of needed animal protein in terms of meat and egg production all over the world. It is yet a major global employer of labor. Though it occupies a vantage position in meeting human needs, it is being threatened by climate change, especially in Africa where necessary structure to tackle the menace is nonexistent. Broiler chickens that are reared mainly for chicken meat cannot tolerate the high ambient temperature that prevails mostly in the tropical environment. Chickens are homeotherms that homeostatically regulate core body temperature within a narrow range. Elevated ambient temperature above thermal comfort zone, such as envisaged in climate change scenarios, will trigger series of neuroendocrine modulations that are detrimental to the welfare and productivity in broiler chickens. Such birds are said to be undergoing heat stress (HS). Negative effects of HS include reduced feed consumption, growth rate, feed digestion and efficiency, immunity, welfare, and survivability. Various adaptive measures that could be harnessed by broiler farmers, ranging from housing, feeding, watering, stocking, breeding for thermo-tolerant strains, thermal conditioning, use of phytochemicals, and much more, are reviewed upon in this chapter.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; doi:10.3390/ijms22105357

Abstract:
Obesity is a global health issue for which no major effective treatments have been well established. High-fat diet consumption is closely related to the development of obesity because it negatively modulates the hypothalamic control of food intake due to metaflammation and lipotoxicity. The use of animal models, such as rodents, in conjunction with in vitro models of hypothalamic cells, can enhance the understanding of hypothalamic functions related to the control of energy balance, thereby providing knowledge about the impact of diet on the hypothalamus, in addition to targets for the development of new drugs that can be used in humans to decrease body weight. Recently, sphingolipids were described as having a lipotoxic effect in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Specifically, lipid overload, mainly from long-chain saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, leads to excessive ceramide levels that can be sensed by the hypothalamus, triggering the dysregulation of energy balance control. However, no systematic review has been undertaken regarding studies of sphingolipids, particularly ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the hypothalamus, and obesity. This review confirms that ceramides are associated with hypothalamic dysfunction in response to metaflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lipotoxicity, leading to insulin/leptin resistance. However, in contrast to ceramide, S1P appears to be a central satiety factor in the hypothalamus. Thus, our work describes current evidence related to sphingolipids and their role in hypothalamic energy balance control. Hypothetically, the manipulation of sphingolipid levels could be useful in enabling clinicians to treat obesity, particularly by decreasing ceramide levels and the inflammation/endoplasmic reticulum stress induced in response to overfeeding with saturated fatty acids.
, Wenwen Cheng, C.Y. Jim, , , Edward Ng
Published: 1 May 2021
Building and Environment; doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.107939

Abstract:
Urban green and blue infrastructures (GBI) are considered an effective tool for mitigating urban heat stress and improving human thermal comfort. Many studies have investigated the thermal effects of main GBI types, including trees, green roofs, vertical greenings, and water bodies. Their physical characteristics, planting designs, and the surrounding urban-fabric traits may impact the resultant thermal effects. ENVI-met, a holistic three-dimensional modeling software which can simulate the outdoor microclimate in high resolution, has become a principal GBI research tool. Using this tool, the GBI studies follow a three-step research workflow, i.e., modeling, validation, and scenario simulation. For providing a systematic and synoptic evaluation of the extant research workflow, a comprehensive review was conducted on GBI-targeted studies enlisting ENVI-met as the primary tool. The findings of 79 peer-reviewed studies were analyzed and synthesised for their modeling, validation, and scenario simulation process. Special attention was paid to scrutinising their data sources, evaluating indicator selection, examining main analytical approaches, and distilling recommendations to improve the research workflow. This review provides researchers with an overview of the ENVI-met methodology and recommendations to refine research on GBI thermal effects.
Kang I. Ko, Anton Sculean,
Published: 1 May 2021
Translational Research; doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2021.05.001

Abstract:
There is significant interest in understanding the cellular mechanisms responsible for expedited healing response in various oral tissues and how they are impacted by systemic diseases. Depending upon the types of oral tissue, wound healing may occur by predominantly re-eptihelialization, by re-epithelialization with substantial new connective tissue formation, or by a a combination of both plus new bone formation. As a result, the cells involved differ and are impacted by systemic diaseses in various ways. Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent metabolic disorder that impairs barrier function and healing responses throughout the human body. In the oral cavity, diabetes is a known risk factor for exacerbated periodontal disease and delayed wound healing, which includes both soft and hard tissue components. Here, we review the mechanisms of diabetic oral wound healing, particularly on impaired keratinocyte proliferation and migration, altered level of inflammation, and reduced formation of new connective tissue and bone. In particular, diabetes inhibits the expression of mitogenic growth factors whereas that of pro-inflammatory cytokines is elevated through epigenetic mechanisms. Moreover, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes prevents the expansion of mesengenic cells that are involved in both soft and hard tissue oral wounds. A better understanding of how diabetes influences the healing processes is crucial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated oral complications.
Muhammad Shahid Zafar, Museera Nauman, Hina Nauman, Sheema Nauman, Asifa Kabir, Zunaira Shahid, Anam Fatima, Maria Batool
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-7; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.821

Abstract:
Every inherent or external incentive which involves natural reactions, is recognized as stress. Extenuatory reaction to these pressures is known as stress reactions. Stress contributes to broad variety of diseases including hypertension and superior plasma cortisol, cardiac and CVDs, inflammatory bowel syndromes, type 2 diabetes, and a reduced quality of life among those suffering with cancer. Stress happens in 3 stages. The first stage is an initial stage of alarm, which produces an increase of adrenaline. Living organisms can withstand intense stress and stay alive. Second phase is a brief conflict process that the body puts up to handle the problem. Last phase is the tiredness phase, which arises when the body has utilized every part of its accessible assets. Stress affects the different organs of the whole body. As far as chronic stress is concerned, it stimulates infection in the vasculature, particularly in the coronary arteries, also can alter cholesterol levels and excessive activation of sympathetic nervous system (depletes the system of neurotransmitters, peptides, cofactors, and other mediators). Regarding, endocrine stress, it affects the hypothalamus in brain. The stress condition in n individuals experiencing pressure needs a healthy and regular eating including important supplements, moreover, physical exercise and mind rest are regularly suggested for averting stress induced anxiety-linked objections and disease.
Zhuo Shao, Zhongxiao Wang, Amy C. Y. Lo,
Published: 15 April 2021
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.657684

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicNovel Therapeutic Target and Drug Development in Neurovascular Retinal Diseases Pathological ocular angiogenesis leads to blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Clinically approved anti-VEGF therapy has limited effectiveness and side effect profile unfit for some patients (Bressler et al., 2012; Jalali et al., 2013; Klufas and Chan, 2015; Zhao and Singh, 2018; Bakri et al., 2019). Therefore, further understanding of the disease pathogenesis and exploration of new therapeutics are required. In this research topic, we highlighted new drug targets, therapeutic approaches, and technologies for treatment of ocular neovascularization. Understanding the interaction of endothelial cells with the surrounding cells is essential for the development of effective and safe therapeutics (Wilson and Sapieha, 2016; Binet et al., 2020; Fu et al., 2020). Neuronal metabolism regulates retinal vascular function (Joyal et al., 2018; Fu et al., 2019). In this research topic, Fouda et al. provided a systematic overview of the arginase pathway in acute retina and brain injury, and discussed the possibility of modulating this pathway to treat ischemia-induced neurodegeneration. Shetty and Corson summarized the vulnerability of endothelial cells to mitochondrial heme loss, and proposed that targeting intracellular heme via inhibiting heme synthesis or blocking heme transport may be a novel strategy to decrease retinal neovascularization. Further exploration of neural-vascular metabolism and interaction is needed. Endothelial cells utilize glucose, fatty acid and glutamine as substrates for energy and biomass for cell homeostasis and growth (Falkenberg et al., 2019). On the other hand, photoreceptors require glucose and fatty acids for energy production and function (Joyal et al., 2016). Therefore, when considering interventions for metabolic modulation, it is necessary to take into account the overall impact on various retinal cell types. In addition, the interaction of metabolic pathways in retinopathies also requires further investigation. Recently, low serine with increase in deoxysphingolipids is reported to correlate with macular disease (Gantner et al., 2019). Wang et al. revealed significant metabolic disturbances (such as amino acids and ketone bodies) in aqueous humor of patients with Posner-Schlossman syndrome that were identified with metabolomics. Further exploration of retinal metabolic interactions between amino acid, lipid pathways, and others would definitely attract great interests. Inflammation and autophagy are induced in response to stressed conditions such as in retinal metabolic disorders (Tang and Kern, 2011; Mitter et al., 2012; Kauppinen et al., 2016). Wang et al. discussed that persistent neuroinflammation exacerbates ocular neovascularization. They further explored the potential involvement of SOCS3 and c-Fos in the disease pathogenesis of retinopathies. Zhu et al. demonstrated that rapamycin induced autophagy and preserved trabecular meshwork cells in glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma mice can be a potential therapeutic approach to glaucoma. Recently, genomic analysis, transcriptome profiling, and proteomics have been used as a hypothesis free approach to identify drug targets in retinal neovascular diseases (Vahatupa et al., 2018; Desjarlais et al., 2019). Desjarlais et al. reported the discovery of down regulation of MicroRNA-96 in oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) rats through next generation sequencing (NGS) screening. In vitro study demonstrated that overexpression of MicroRNA-96 stimulated tubulogenesis and migration against hyperoxia-induced endothelial dysfunction, while antagonizing microRNA-96 led to angiogenic impairment. Intravitreally supplementing microRNA-96 mimic preserved retinal/choroidal microvessels in the hyperoxic state of rat OIR model. Cheng et al. analyzed and compared transcriptome profiles in retinal-choroid tissues derived from donor patients with AMD and healthy controls. They identified that EFEMP1 gene was upregulated in the AMD, especially wet-AMD patients. Elevation of EFEMP1 product, fibulin-3, was confirmed in the serum of wet-AMD patients. In vitro overexpression and knockdown of EFEMP1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) confirmed the proangiogenic effect of this gene. Vähätupa et al. reviewed the elevation of crystallins, small heat shock proteins, during early hypoxic state of OIR as well as an increase of actomyosin complex and Filamin A-R-Ras axis at the peak of neovascularization that were discovered through proteomic analysis using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS). Some crystallins are neuroprotective while others play a prominent role in the pathology of neovascularization. The actomyosin complex and Filamin A-R-Ras axis regulates vascular permeability of the angiogenic blood vessels. These proteomic changes were also confirmed patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). RNA based therapeutic approaches against retinal neovascular disease have gained significant interest in recent years. Ma et al. found that silencing Trpc6 with RNA interference (RNAi) abolished high glucose-induced decreases in glutamate uptake and Müller glial cell death in vitro, suggesting that TRPC6 may be a promising target that deserves further investigation in animal models. Protection of neurovascular supporting cells Müller glia and regulation of Müller gliosis may protect against diabetic retinopathy (Coughlin et al., 2017; Le, 2017). Additionally, Guan et al. reported that MicroRNA-18a-5p is increased during neovascularization of OIR mice retina, adding to the list of miRNAs that is involved in this process (Zhou et al., 2016; Xia et al., 2018). Antagonizing MicroRNA-18a-5p using agomiR-18a-5p suppressed neovascularization in OIR...
Julien D. Periard, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels, Hein A.M. Daanen
Physiological Reviews; doi:10.1152/physrev.00038.2020

Abstract:
A rise in body core temperature and loss of body water via sweating are natural consequences of prolonged exercise in the heat. This review provides a comprehensive and integrative overview of how the human body responds to exercise under heat stress and the countermeasures that can be adopted to enhance aerobic performance under such environmental conditions. The fundamental concepts and physiological processes associated with thermoregulation and fluid balance are initially described, followed by a summary of methods to determine thermal strain and hydration status. An outline is provided on how exercise-heat stress disrupts these homeostatic processes, leading to hyperthermia, hypohydration, sodium disturbances and in some cases exertional heat illness. The impact of heat stress on human performance is also examined, including the underlying physiological mechanisms that mediate the impairment of exercise performance. Similarly, the influence of hydration status on performance in the heat and how systemic and peripheral hemodynamic adjustments contribute to fatigue development is elucidated. This review also discusses strategies to mitigate the effects of hyperthermia and hypohydration on exercise performance in the heat, by examining the benefits of heat acclimation, cooling strategies and hyperhydration. Finally, contemporary controversies are summarized and future research directions provided.
, , Patrick S. Cottler, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jason R. Kerrigan
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Volume 143; doi:10.1115/1.4050286

Abstract:
Mechanical models of adipose tissue are important for various medical applications including cosmetics, injuries, implantable drug delivery systems, plastic surgeries, biomechanical applications such as computational human body models for surgery simulation, and blunt impact trauma prediction. This article presents a comprehensive review of in vivo experimental approaches that aimed to characterize the mechanical properties of adipose tissue, and the resulting constitutive models and model parameters identified. In particular, this study examines the material behavior of adipose tissue, including its nonlinear stress–strain relationship, viscoelasticity, strain hardening and softening, rate-sensitivity, anisotropy, preconditioning, failure behavior, and temperature dependency.
, Baptiste Pignon
Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, Volume 179, pp 349-352; doi:10.1016/j.amp.2021.02.018

Abstract:
L’existence d’un lien entre urbanicité et trouble psychotique est une donnée maintenant clairement établie avec l’existence d’une relation dose–effet : plus le taux d’urbanicité est élevé, plus le risque de psychose est important. Pour expliquer cette association, plusieurs hypothèses ont été proposées. La plupart des études ont évalué le rôle de facteurs psycho-sociaux comme le niveau socio-économique, le surpeuplement des logements, les inégalités sociales, le capital social pour expliquer ce lien. L’ensemble de ces facteurs ont pour dénominateur commun une exposition répétée au stress, responsable d’une neuro-toxicité susceptible de faire le lit des décompensations psychotiques. Plus récemment, des études suggèrent un rôle de la pollution de l’air. L’exposition aux polluants atmosphériques augmente la neuro-inflammation, le stress oxydatif, l’activation de la microglie, causant des dommages cérébraux et favorisant secondairement le développement des troubles psychotiques. Ces facteurs restent pour l’heure insuffisamment explorés et nécessitent des investigations plus poussées, ce d’autant que contrairement à beaucoup d’autres facteurs étiologiques (environnementaux ou génétiques), les stress psycho-sociaux et la pollution atmosphérique présentent l’avantage d’être accessibles à des interventions et des mesures de prévention susceptibles de réduire l’incidence de la maladie. A growing body of evidence suggests that urbanicity contributes to the development of psychosis, with elevated risks being associated with growing up or living in environments with a higher level of urbanization. This article aims to provide a review of the scientific literature studying the link between urbanicity and psychosis in order to identify the concepts used so far to clarify this issue and the hypotheses that have emerged from them. Taken together, the findings reviewed in this paper confirm that urbanicity is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychosis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. The impact of urbanicity may result from a wide range of factors from air pollution to stressful impact of social life leading to “urban stress”. Indeed, the main underlying putative causes explored that may underpin this association are the social environment and air pollution. The role of psychosocial stressors such as neighborhood fragmentation, low social cohesion and social capital, deprivation, social adversities have been singled out by several studies. These different factors could lead to several pathways, possibly unified by dopaminergic hyperactivity in mesocorticolimbic system. Urbanicity could also potentially be related, at least in part, to environmental pollution which has been largely neglected compared to some of the other non-genetic environmental risk factors. The findings from our review show that recent studies link environmental pollution and especially air pollution exposure, to an increased risk of schizophrenia. There are feasible biological mechanisms involving neuro-inflammation processes by which some of the specific pollutants could affect brain development in a way that could increase risk for schizophrenia. Further research – from the cellular to epidemiological levels – is clearly needed. To fully understand the causal role of the environmental risk factors, the integration of genomics with large-scale epidemiological studies is warranted. Moreover, new studies on urbanicity should therefore be more interdisciplinary, bridging knowledge from different disciplines (psychiatry, epidemiology, human geography, urbanism, etc.) in order to enrich research methods. The fact that more than 50% of the World population lives in cities, a proportion likely to increase in the future, makes the resolution of this question an urgent matter. If causation is proven, enhancements of policy intended to reduce human exposure to environmental stressors and pollution could reduce the burden of schizophrenia and possibly other mental illnesses.
Victor Chiruta
Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine pp 1-9; doi:10.1142/s2575900020300039

Abstract:
Objective: To research the biological impact on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) from dietary sources of [Formula: see text]-caryophyllene (BCP). This will encompass pre-clinical and clinical research for BCP. The bioavailability of BCP will be explored, focusing on bioavailability improvement. This research will establish if there is justification to warrant the development of a medical food for supporting the ECS through dietetic supplementation of BCP. Methods: Research and review papers were identified through the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Main keywords included [Formula: see text]-caryophyllene, endocannabinoid system, dietary cannabinoids, cannabinoid type-2 receptor, and bioavailability. Results: The human body is limited in the digestion of BCP from food. This is because BCP is poorly absorbed in the gut. Everyone has different underlying endocannabinoid efficiency and most people do not have the full potential of supporting their ECS through diet. Conclusion: A medical food can be developed to use BCP with a delivery system, so that the bioactive food cannabinoid is readily absorbed. This will deliver dietary support to the ECS, that otherwise would be available from food. This review provides insight into the efficacy of using BCP in medical foods as dietary support for the ECS. Supporting the ECS can assist in maintaining homeostasis, regulating immune function, pain intensity, inflammatory markers, sleep patterns, mood, appetite, and stress susceptibility.
Published: 8 March 2021
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.656290

Abstract:
A good nutritional status is important for maintaining normal body function and preventing or mitigating the dysfunction induced by internal or external factors. Nutritional deficiencies often result in impaired function, and, conversely, intakes at recommended levels can resume or further enhance body functions. An increasing number of studies are revealing that diet and nutrition are critical not only for physiology and body composition, but also have significant effects on mood and mental well-being. In particular, Western dietary habits have been the object of several research studies focusing on the relationship between nutrition and mental health. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the relationship between the intake of specific micro- and macronutrients, including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-tocopherol, magnesium and folic acid, and mental health, with particular reference to their beneficial effect on stress, sleep disorders, anxiety, mild cognitive impairment, as well as on neuropsychiatric disorders, all significantly affecting the quality of life of an increasing number of people. Overall data support a positive role for the nutrients mentioned above in the preservation of normal brain function and mental well-being, also through the control of neuroinflammation, and encourage their integration in a well-balanced and varied diet, accompanied by a healthy lifestyle. This strategy is of particular importance when considering the global human aging and that the brain suffers significantly from the life-long impact of stress factors.
Published: 5 March 2021
by MDPI
Animals, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/ani11030698

Abstract:
Good practice for the housing and care of laboratory zebrafish Danio rerio is an increasingly discussed topic, with focus on appropriate water quality parameters, stocking densities, feeding regimes, anaesthesia and analgesia practices, methods of humane killing, and more. One area of current attention is around the provision of environmental enrichment. Enrichment is accepted as an essential requirement for meeting the behavioural needs and improving the welfare of many laboratory animal species, but in general, provision for zebrafish is minimal. Some of those involved in the care and use of zebrafish suggest there is a ‘lack of evidence’ that enrichment has welfare benefits for this species, or cite a belief that zebrafish do not ‘need’ enrichment. Concerns are also sometimes raised around the practical challenges of providing enrichments, or that they may impact on the science being undertaken. However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that various forms of enrichment are preferred by zebrafish over a barren tank, and that enriched conditions can improve welfare by reducing stress and anxiety. This review explores the effects that enrichment can have on zebrafish behaviour, physiology and welfare, and considers the challenges to facilities of providing more enrichment for the zebrafish they house.
, Yuki Yamada, Tsunehiko Tanaka
Published: 26 February 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.659975

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research Topic Behavioral Immune System: Its Psychological Bases and Functions Currently, the world is in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has reminded us of the threat posed by infectious diseases. In some countries, cities were temporarily locked down and people were restricted from traveling. This severely affected our economy and culture, and mental health problems associated with this situation have arisen. This infectious disease has significantly impacted societies and people. Moreover, the threat has significantly altered individual behavior. People have become socially distant and have had to frequently sterilize their hands. In some areas, wearing masks has become mandatory, and there have even been legal penalties for those who violated local rules. The pandemic has changed our behavior dramatically. These behavioral changes, both at the individual and community levels, appear to have been driven by the goal of disease avoidance. From the standpoint of this Research Topic, it can also be said that the threat of infectious diseases has resulted in a collective activation of the behavioral immune system (BIS). When we started this Research Topic, we did not anticipate this situation. Now, however, it has become highly relevant. While not welcome, it has provided a basis for understanding human behaviors under pandemics. BIS is a motivational system with the goal of disease avoidance. It estimates the presence of pathogens from perceptual cues in the environment and elicits relevant emotional and cognitive responses. Such responses induce avoidance behavior in a pathogenic environment (Schaller and Park, 2011). This sequence of psychological responses, by preventing contact with and penetration into the body of these infectious sources, compensates for the physiological immune system which can sometimes be physically high cost (Murray and Schaller, 2016). The theory of BIS has an evolutionary psychological basis, and it has been used to explain and predict a wide range of human behaviors (Ackerman et al., 2018). Additionally, the description of detailed mechanisms for disease avoidance redefined the adaptive value of disgust, which is a key emotion in BIS. BIS has been revealed to be associated with diverse human behaviors. However, it remains unclear what components it consists of and how it is derived from our biological foundations. In this regard, Murray et al. provided a comprehensive discussion of the psychophysiological basis of BIS, which included sensory, cellular, and genetic perspectives. They offered an in-depth description of the current state of PsychoBehavioroimmunology regarding BIS, including an extensive review. The work of Cañas-Gonzaléz et al. demonstrated that physiological immunity affects the state of depression. A study by Iwasa et al., which provided a psychophysical analysis of visual pathogen detection, can be understood as a practical example of a specific study for the general remarks made by Murray et al.. Additionally, Shakhar provided a conceptual analysis of a more inclusive view of BIS based on its genetic origins. While referring to Hamilton (1964) inclusive selection theory, Shakhar stated that BIS works to protect not only an individual itself but also the kin around the person. In this regard, BIS protects others through the individual's disease behaviors and social immunity behaviors, favoring the whole “kin selection.” This is an attempt to conceptually extend BIS and provide a fresh perspective in this field. The study of the relationship between BIS and various human behaviors elucidates its functional characteristics. One of the human behaviors affected by BIS is sexual conduct. Sexual behavior is inevitably associated with the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual arousal and physical attractiveness influence male sexual decision making; considering the risk of STI, the disgust emotion may also be associated with it. Oaten et al., using a survey to detect substantial sexual arousal, indicated that arousal decreases state disgust and STI risk judgments, and increases willingness to have sex. Furthermore, they identified that low trait disgust predicted a strong willingness to have sex. This study is a good example of the functional characteristics of BIS, describing how the sexual motivation system and BIS work against each other to control sexual decision-making. Considering the functional aspects of BIS, we cannot ignore its pervasive influence on our attitudes. Liuzza et al. revealed that moral judgments about purity are influenced by disgust sensitivity to body odor; Tsegmed et al. observed that negative implicit attitudes toward agricultural and aquatic products from Fukushima were related to thoughts about nuclear contamination. These studies reiterate how the BIS functions to avoid disease through attitude change. The work of Stewart et al., revealing the impact of disgust on people's religiosity, is another example depicting the influence of BIS on people's attitudes. In contrast, some articles presented new research agendas in this area. Horita and Takezawa reexamined the impact of pathogen stress on collectivism and conformity using Bayesian statistics and revealed that the impact may be more limited than originally thought. Wu et al. revealed that the degree of acceptance of ingroup members tended to decrease compared to outgroup members in the context of disease (e.g., ingroup derogation). Concerning the association between BIS and outgroup prejudice, Kusche and Barker's article, which proposed a model including social contexts such as family environment and mass media, provided us with substantial inspiration. Research on BIS has come to encompass a wide range of human behavior. Ito et al. discussed the role of BIS in social anxiety in terms of the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system; the impact of BIS on mental and physical...
Veronica D'Antonio, , Natalia Battista
Published: 26 February 2021
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.642551

Abstract:
Edible insects are proposed as a nutritious and environmentally sustainable alternative source to animal proteins, due to their numerous advantages in terms of reduced ecological impact and high nutritional value. However, the novelty for edible insects relies on the content of bioactive ingredients potentially able to induce a functional effect in the body. The present review summarizes the main findings on the antioxidant properties of edible insects available in the literature. A total of 30 studies involving animals, cell cultures, or in vitro experimental studies evaluating the antioxidant effect of edible insects are presented in this work. When the antioxidant activity was investigated, using a wide variety of in vitro tests and in cellular models, positive results were shown. Dietary supplementation with edible insects was also able to counteract dietary oxidative stress in animal models, restoring the balance of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the formation of oxidation damage markers. On the basis of the reviewed evidences, edible insects might represent a source of novel redox ingredients at low ecological impact able to modulate oxidative stress. However, due to the fact that majority of these evidences have been obtained in vitro and in cellular and animal models, dietary intervention trials are needed to assess the efficacy of edible insect consumption to modulate redox status in humans.
Published: 6 February 2021
by MDPI
Pharmaceutics, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13020231

Abstract:
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem in which prevalence is constantly rising. The pathophysiology of CKD is complicated and has not been fully resolved. However, elevated oxidative stress is considered to play a vital role in the development of this disease. CKD is also thought to be an inflammatory disorder in which uremic toxins participate in the development of the inflammatory milieu. A healthy, balanced diet supports the maintenance of a good health status as it helps to reduce the risk of the development of chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Numerous studies have demonstrated that functional molecules and nutrients, including fatty acids and fiber as well as nutraceuticals such as curcumin, steviol glycosides, and resveratrol not only exert beneficial effects on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways but also on gut mucosa. Nutraceuticals have attracted great interest recently due to their potential favorable physiological effects on the human body and their safety. This review presents some nutraceuticals in which consumption could exert a beneficial impact on the development and progression of renal disease as well cardiovascular disease.
Ruhollah Abolhasani, Farnaz Araghi, , Armin Aryannejad, Baharnaz Mashinchi,
Published: 1 February 2021
Dermatologic Therapy, Volume 34; doi:10.1111/dth.14840

Abstract:
As the largest organ in the body, human skin is constantly exposed to harmful compounds existing in the surrounding environment as the first‐line barrier. Studies have indicated that exposure to high concentrations of many environmental factors, such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, outdoor air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, gaseous pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), sulfur oxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and indoor air pollutants (solid fuels consumption), might interrupt the skin's normal barrier function. Besides, the intensity of the pollutants and the length of exposure might be a contributing factor. Air pollutants are believed to induce or exacerbate a range of skin conditions, such as aging, inflammatory diseases (atopic dermatitis, cellulitis, and psoriasis), acne, hair loss, and even skin cancers (mainly melanoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma) through various mechanisms. The interaction between pollutants and the skin might differ based on each agent's particular characteristics. Also, damaging the skin barrier seems to be closely related to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of oxidative stress, activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and inflammatory cytokines. This article reviews recent studies on the correlation between air pollutants and skin diseases, along with related mechanisms.
Junichi Sadoshima, Richard N. Kitsis,
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fcvm.2021.645986

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research Topic Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Diseases A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases represents a major goal in cardiovascular medicine. Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as major player in the development of cardiovascular diseases, with potential therapeutic implications. Mitochondrial dysfunction encompasses mitochondrial complex disruption, mitochondrial uncoupling, and cristae remodeling and swelling, which in turn cause ROS accumulation, energy stress, and cell death. This Research Topic is a collection of original and state-of-the art review articles discussing and extending our current knowledge about molecular mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. Many aspects of mitochondrial biology and therapies targeting damaged mitochondria have been highlighted. One of the main feature of mitochondrial dysfunction observed in several cardiovascular diseases is the exaggerated generation of mitochondrial ROS (1), which represents the common pathological substrate underlying diabetes-induced complications, such as cardiomyopathy, as comprehensively described by Kaludercic and Di Lisa in their review article. Mitochondrial ROS are generated from multiple sources in cardiomyocytes during diabetes by a feed-forward/amplification mechanism, which further exacerbates oxidative stress and causes contractile dysfunction. The authors reviewed current therapies aimed at reducing ROS and improving cardiac function in diabetic patients. While some systemic antioxidants failed to exert cardiac protection in clinical trials, mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants such as MitoTEMPO were shown to be cardioprotective in preclinical models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors also appear to be promising drugs to reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. In this regard, Maejima provided a detailed overview about the mitochondrial-mediated mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in heart failure. SGLT2 inhibitors increase ketone bodies, which represent a suitable source of energy in failing hearts, and also improve sodium metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics. However, further studies are needed to identify other targets modulated by SGLT2 inhibitors, since SGLT2 does not appear to be expressed in human and rodent cardiomyocytes, at least in unstressed conditions. A modulation of mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the beneficial effects of this class of drugs on mitochondrial function in response to metabolic derangements (2). Targeting mitochondria, and in particular mitochondrial ROS, has also emerged as a potential therapy for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome (DCMA), a rare genetic disorder caused by a mutation of DNAJ Heat Shock Protein Family (Hsp40) Member C19 (DNAJC19), a protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Machiraju et al. demonstrated that SS-31, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant, also known as elamipretide or Bendavia, rescues mitochondrial fragmentation, oxidative stress, and improves mitochondrial fusion in skin fibroblasts extracted from DCMA patients. However, the therapeutic potential of SS-31 in improving cardiac function in patients with DCMA should be assessed in further studies. Mitochondrial health is facilitated by specific quality control mechanisms, such as mitophagy, a cargo-specific form of autophagy selective for elimination of damaged mitochondria (3). Damaged mitochondria are degraded by mitophagy and defects in mitophagy were reported to lead to harmful cardiovascular effects, because of accumulation of defective mitochondria. In their original article, Thomas et al. found decreased levels of Parkin protein in the heart of obese mice. Parkin is a ubiquitin E3 ligase, which represents a canonical regulator of mitophagy and proteasome degradation. The authors also observed a modest increase of infarct size in obese mice undergoing ischemia/reperfusion (IR) ex-vivo and a cardiac accumulation of ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins at baseline and in response to IR in obese animals. This study suggested that mitophagy may be impaired in the context of obesity because of Parkin downregulation, thereby predisposing the heart to develop increased injury in response to stress. However, a direct assessment of mitophagy was not performed in this study and further work is necessary to clarify the impact of metabolic alterations on Parkin-dependent and independent mitophagy in the heart. The importance of autophagy and mitophagy abnormalities in aging-induced cardiovascular abnormalities was the main focus of the review article by Liang and Gustafsson. The authors reviewed relevant literature supporting the concept that autophagy declines with aging, leading to age-related cardiovascular diseases, due to alterations in cellular energy metabolism and adaption to stress. Either genetic or pharmacological activation of mitophagy appears to attenuate aging-related abnormalities, whereas its inhibition seems to accelerate them (4). It will be important to understand in the future how aging affects Parkin-dependent and independent mitophagy in the heart, and the exact molecular mechanisms through which autophagosome formation and fusion are impaired by the aging process. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to play a critical role. Aside from mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial proteostasis is also emerging as an important mechanism regulating mitochondrial quality control in the heart, as described in the paper by Arrieta et al. Mitochondrial proteostasis regulates biogenesis, folding, and degradation of mitochondrial proteins and this process appears to be altered during cardiac stress. In the presence of misfolded protein accumulation in mitochondria, mitochondrial unfolded...
Published: 26 December 2020
by MDPI
Foods, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/foods10010045

Abstract:
Tomatoes are consumed worldwide as fresh vegetables because of their high contents of essential nutrients and antioxidant-rich phytochemicals. Tomatoes contain minerals, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids (leucine, threonine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine), monounsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotenoids) and phytosterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). Lycopene is the main dietary carotenoid in tomato and tomato-based food products and lycopene consumption by humans has been reported to protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive function and osteoporosis. Among the phenolic compounds present in tomato, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, caffeic acid and lutein are the most common. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the human body against various oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary tomatoes increase the body’s level of antioxidants, trapping reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative damage to important biomolecules such as membrane lipids, enzymatic proteins and DNA, thereby ameliorating oxidative stress. We reviewed the nutritional and phytochemical compositions of tomatoes. In addition, the impacts of the constituents on human health, particularly in ameliorating some degenerative diseases, are also discussed.
Ahmed Noah Badr, Adel Gabr Abdel-Razek, Mohamed M. Youssef, Mohamed G Shehata, Minar M. Hassanein, Hassan A. Amra
Egyptian Journal of Chemistry; doi:10.21608/ejchem.2020.51183.3048

Abstract:
Natural antioxidants play a principal role in our life, as in body health, nutrition, food products, and recently in food preservation, it is one of the most effective materials. These components have a potential function for biochemical activities for either the plants, animals, or human tissues. Human foods and animal feeds often suffering of mycotoxins contamination. This action gives rise to oxidative stress in the biological systems. Several articles have been focusing on antioxidant roles avoiding food harmful like pathogens, toxigenic fungi, and mycotoxins. Recently, the investigations pointed out that minor components and phenolic antioxidants were capable of occurring a reduction in mycotoxin contamination. These components were obtained mainly from non-traditional oils in most cases. These oils have distinguished by better antioxidant potency. Antioxidants have the functionality to stop deleterious impacts of free radicals' presence that released in tissues and serum in food processing, antioxidant efficiency to suppress mycotoxin-hazard depends on its structure and its chemical activity In this regard, it could achieve preservation properties and shelf-life extension for the final product. In this review, the role of antioxidants will be discussed in two visions, firstly, the biochemical significance and its role in the body fluids and its protective function. Secondly, this review will cover the antioxidant capacity toward food manufacturing, and the preservation potency, particularly in oil application.
Anna Meiliana, Andi Wijaya
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, Volume 12, pp 288-303; doi:10.18585/inabj.v12i4.1315

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Hormesis was initially defined as a phenomenon where a small dose of harmful agent exposure to living organisms gives beneficial effects. The dose and time of this ‘tress’ exposure has become the object of investigation across the broad range of biomedical studies.CONTENT: Hormesis characterized by the biphasic dose-effect or time-effect relationship for any substance. Some hormetic mechanisms performed biological plasticity, involve oxidative damage which instead induce antioxidant enzyme production in various cells. Early-life stress can increase resilience in later life and lack of stress can lead to vulnerability. Many stressors like dietary factors and natural environmental toxins can be occupied for healthy growth or homeostasis, which exemplifies how illness is the doorway to health.SUMMARY: Hormesis reconcile many paradoxical phenomena exert opposite effects of the same substance, either a xenobiotic or an endogenous substance, a hormone or a metabolite, a genetic manipulation or an epigenetic alteration, an experimental intervention or a natural event. Human bodies are highly adaptive. A resilient body would be resulted after the ‘training’. In this review, we will elucidate the hormesis’ definition, mechanisms and pathways, and also how hormesis impacts in human health and lifespan.KEYWORDS: biphasic, cell signaling, dose response, hormesis, preconditioning
Ashwani S. Patil, Umesh B. Mahajan, Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Kalpesh R. Patil, Chandragouda R. Patil, Shreesh Ojha, Charu Sharma,
Published: 1 December 2020
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 132; doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110889

Abstract:
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is natural physiological system in the humans. The presence of the ECS system involves different roles in body. The endocannabinoid system involves regulation of most of the centers, which regulates the hunger and leads to changes in the weight. In the present article, we reviewed the role of natural cannabinoid compounds in metabolic disorders and related complications. We studied variety of a plant-derived cannabinoids in treating the metabolic syndrome including stoutness, fatty acid liver diseases, insulin obstruction, dementia, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, endothelial damage, and polycystic ovarian syndrome and so on. The activation of cannabinoid receptors demonstrates a significant number of beneficial approaches concerning metabolic syndrome and reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokines on account of aggravation, decreased oxidative stress and uneasiness, diminishes liver fibrosis, with reduces adiponectin. Pre-clinical investigations of plant-derived cannabinoids resulted in promising outcomes. The different distinctive plant-derived cannabinoids were discovered like cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabidiol (CBG). It has been observed that endogenous cannabinoids and plant-derived cannabinoids have an advantageous impact on limiting the metabolic disorder arising due to lifestyle changes.
W. Larry Kenney, , Gabrielle A. Dillon, Craig W. Berry, Lacy M. Alexander
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport; doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2020.12.007

Abstract:
Objective The purpose of this review is to evaluate the currently-available literature regarding the impact of both primary aging and age-related fitness on thermoregulatory function during exercise in the heat. In so doing, we aim to (1) characterize the influence of fitness in mitigating age-related declines in thermoregulation, (2) address the limitations of prior experimental approaches for investigating age-related thermoregulatory impairments, (3) examine to what extent aerobic fitness can be maintained in the aging athlete, and (4) begin to address the specific environmental conditions in which age-related impairments in thermoregulatory function may place highly active older adults at increased risk for heat-related illness and injury and/or limited performance. Design Mini-review. Methods Review and synthesis of available information. Results The earth's climate is warming, accompanied by a consequently greater frequency and severity of extreme heat events. At the same time, lifespan is increasing and people of all ages are staying increasingly active. Age-related impairments in thermoregulatory function are well-documented, leading to increased heat-related health risks and reduced exercise/athletic performance for older adults in hot environmental conditions. High aerobic fitness improves body temperature regulation during exercise via augmented sweating and improved cardiovascular function, including cardiac output and skin blood flow, in humans of all ages. Conclusions The masters athlete is better suited for exercise/heat-stress compared to his or her less fit peers. However, while age and thermoregulation in general has been studied extensively, research on the most fit older adults, including highly competitive athletes, is generally lacking.
, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Scott J. Moeller, Mehran Zare-Bidoky, Alexander Mario Baldacchino, Martin Paulus
Published: 26 November 2020
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.590030

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicBrain and Cognition for Addiction Medicine: From Prevention to Recovery In 2018, 269 million people around the world had used drugs, and over 35 million were suffering from substance use disorders (SUDs) (1). However, there is a serious limitation in the available treatments for SUDs that are effective in the long term (2–4). A question frequently raised by addiction medicine practitioners around the world is how recent advancements in different fields of brain and cognition studies—from molecular to cognitive neuroscience—can help them improve their daily practice for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of SUDs. There is a growing body of evidence on neurocognitive alterations that contribute to developing a SUD and to hampering recovery, alongside a plethora of social and environmental factors (5, 6). However, there is a lack of neurocognitive markers and related outcome measures that are sufficiently sensitive and specific to addiction mechanisms, engaged by interventions, repeatable, and indicative of disorder progression and recovery. There is preliminary, but promising evidence for different neural and cognitive markers measured with brain mapping and cognitive assessments that (1) engage key mechanisms of addiction (incentive salience, negative emotionality, and cognitive control), (2) predict reduction of drug use (the gold standard for treatment outcomes), and (3) detect acute and chronic responses to interventions with therapeutic potential (7). However, none of these neurocognitive markers have yet approached formal qualification paths [e.g., Biomarker Qualification Program (BQP) of the FDA] or are being widely used in daily clinical practice. Some of the reasons that none of these markers are playing a formal role as a qualified biomarker in addiction prevention or treatment is because they lack methodological harmony, publicly available tools and normative databases, and strong replication and reliability/validity data. Indeed, although there is a significant body of evidence from brain and cognition studies about SUDs, the impact of this evidence in the daily practice of addiction medicine is minimal and yet to be established. As part of our leadership roles in the Neuroscience Interest Group of the International Society for Addiction Medicine (ISAM-NIG), we believe that we need an orchestrated international effort to bring pieces of basic and clinical evidence together to develop a roadmap from bench to bedside and policy. We also need consensus and guidelines on how to translate currently available evidence to different dimensions of clinical practice, ranging from prevention to recovery. In this cross-listed Research Topic in Frontiers in Psychiatry and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, our overall goal was to invite researchers to provide evidence that can help bridge the gap between the neuroscientific knowledge of SUDs and its pragmatic use in routine clinical practice. In this successful Research Topic, we published 30 articles (17 original research articles, nine reviews, one systematic review, two mini-reviews, and one brief research report), from 146 authors from 13 countries that overall elicited 86,787 views at the time of submission of this editorial. Contributors to our Research Topic mainly sought to provide evidence on susceptibility/risk, diagnostic, predictive, and treatment monitoring evidence for different neural and cognitive markers. We also received articles providing evidence for different mechanistic-informed interventions (two cognitive/behavioral, one pharmacologic, and two brain stimulation interventions) that effectively engaged these markers. These markers spanned across molecular and biological assessments, genetics, different imaging techniques, cognitive assessments etc. In this e-book, we (Verdejo-Garcia et al.) wrote a consensus paper with a group of ISAM-NIG members about strategies and suggestions to apply the neuroscientific knowledge of addiction medicine into daily practice which has shaped the scope of this Research Topic. In the following sections, we present select highlights of the contributions which we hope will convey a sense of how neuroscience can help increase the understanding of underlying mechanisms of SUDs and how it can inform the development of more impactful interventions. A susceptibility/risk marker in addiction medicine can estimate how likely it is for someone to develop SUDs in the future. Burns et al. in their review discuss how molecular imaging shows that genetics can increase proneness to opioid use disorder and how these inter-individual differences in opioid and dopamine systems underlie the person's reward, cognition, and stress pathways leading to heightened risk of being an opioid user in the future. Among other contributions to this Research Topic, Abram et al. investigated undergraduate university students with a foraging task to assess their ability to associate reward pursuit and reward valuation. They found that in people with more externalizing traits, which confer risk for SUDs, pursuit and valuation were less related. Rose et al. propose distinctive pathways that may increase liability for developing SUDs. The authors discuss how addressing neural mechanisms that differentially characterize these pathways can inform preventive strategies, treatment development, and long-term outcomes. Thus, this e-book brings together promising results on how genetics can predict the level of cognitive functioning and how deficits or delays in specific cognitive dimensions might predict risk to developing SUDs. However, there remain several outstanding questions on the percent variance in this susceptibility/risk for developing a SUD that can be explained by cognitive and neural markers. Supporting evidence with validated cognitive and neuroimaging assessments will be needed on how these susceptibility/risk markers can be used in real world contexts to...
Fiorella Vialard,
Published: 20 November 2020
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.588387

Abstract:
One of the major challenges the scientific community faces today is the lack of translational data generated from mouse trials for human health application. Housing temperature-dependent chronic cold stress in laboratory rodents is one of the key factors contributing to lack of translatability because it reveals major metabolic differences between humans and rodents. While humans tend to operate at temperatures within their thermoneutral zone, most laboratory rodents are housed at temperatures below this zone and have an increased energy demand to generate heat. This has an impact on the immune system of mice and thus affects results obtained using murine models of human diseases. A limited number of studies and reviews have shown that results obtained on mice housed at thermoneutrality were different from those obtained from mice housed in traditional housing conditions. Most of those studies, focused on obesity and cancer, found that housing mice at thermoneutrality changed the outcomes of the diseases negatively and positively, respectively. In this review, we describe how thermoneutrality impacts the immune system of rodents generally and in the context of different disease models. We show that thermoneutrality exacerbates cardiovascular and auto-immune diseases; alleviates asthma and Alzheimer’s disease; and, changes gut microbiome populations. We also show that thermoneutrality can have exacerbating or alleviating effects on the outcome of infectious diseases. Thus, we join the call of others in this field to urge researchers to refine murine models of disease and increase their translational capacity by considering housing at thermoneutrality for trials involving rodents.
Alexander N. Orekhov, , Igor A. Sobenin, Nikita N. Nikifirov, Ekaterina A. Ivanova
Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 18, pp 1064-1075; doi:10.2174/1570159x17666191118125018

Abstract:
Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects different arteries in the human body and often leads to severe neurological complications, such as stroke and its sequelae. Affected blood vessels develop atherosclerotic lesions in the form of focal thickening of the intimal layer, so called atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives: Despite the high priority of atherosclerosis research for global health and the numerous preclinical and clinical studies conducted, currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment that directly impacts atherosclerotic plaques. Many knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of the mechanisms of plaque formation. In this review, we discuss the role of mitochondria in different cell types involved in atherogenesis and provide information about mtDNA mutations associated with the disease. Results: Mitochondria of blood and arterial wall cells appear to be one of the important factors in disease initiation and development. Significant experimental evidence connects oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular disease. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and mutations are being considered as potential disease markers. Further study of mtDNA damage and associated dysfunction may open new perspectives for atherosclerosis treatment. Conclusion: Mitochondria can be considered as important disease-modifying factors in several chronic pathologies. Deletions and mutations of mtDNA may be used as potential disease markers. Mitochondria-targeting antioxidant therapies appear to be promising for the development of treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation.
Robert D. Meade, , Sean R. Notley, Ryan McGinn, Paul Poirier, Pierre Gosselin,
Published: 1 November 2020
Environment International, Volume 144; doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105909

Abstract:
More frequent and intense periods of extreme heat (heatwaves) represent the most direct challenge to human health posed by climate change. Older adults are particularly vulnerable, especially those with common age-associated chronic health conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease). In parallel, the global population is aging and age-associated disease rates are on the rise. Impairments in the physiological responses tasked with maintaining homeostasis during heat exposure have long been thought to contribute to increased risk of health disorders in older adults during heatwaves. As such, a comprehensive overview of the provisional links between age-related physiological dysfunction and elevated risk of heat-related injury in older adults would be of great value to healthcare officials and policy makers concerned with protecting heat-vulnerable sectors of the population from the adverse health impacts of heatwaves. In this narrative review, we therefore summarize our current understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which aging impairs the regulation of body temperature, hemodynamic stability and hydration status. We then examine how these impairments may contribute to acute pathophysiological events common during heatwaves (e.g., heatstroke, major adverse cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury) and discuss how age-associated chronic health conditions may exacerbate those impairments. Finally, we briefly consider the importance of physiological research in the development of climate-health programs aimed at protecting heat-vulnerable individuals.
Published: 30 October 2020
Frontiers in Physiology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fphys.2020.607134

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicExtra-Oral Taste Receptors: Function, Disease and Evolution Taste is one of the five “classic” senses and initiates in taste receptor cells in the oral cavity of humans and other mammals. However, taste receptors and the molecules responsible for tastant detection are also widely expressed throughout the body, and they are involved in a wide variety of functions in tissues and organs outside the mouth. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), sweet taste receptors (i.e., TAS1R2+TAS1R3 heterodimer) contribute to glucose sensing and energy balancing (Jang et al., 2007; Margolskee et al., 2007); umami and other amino acids receptors (i.e., TAS1R1+TAS1R3, mGluR1, mGluR4, CaSR, GPRC6A, GPR92) reflect on protein-related nutrients (Haid et al., 2012; San Gabriel and Uneyama, 2013; Steensels and Depoortere, 2018; Modvig et al., 2019; Roura et al., 2019); Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have been involved in GIT motility, hunger/satiety hormone secretion and innate immune responses to parasite infection (Wu et al., 2002; Glendinning et al., 2008; Janssen et al., 2011; Howitt et al., 2016; Serrano et al., 2016; von Moltke et al., 2016; Kok et al., 2018). In addition, TAS1Rs are found in the hypothalamus, the main organ involved in the control of food intake, responding to the nutritional status in mice (Ren et al., 2019). In the respiratory system, TAS2R activation increases airway ciliary beat frequency (Shah et al., 2009), but paradoxically relaxes airway smooth muscle (Deshpande et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2013). In the genitourinary system, TAS2Rs participate in spermatogenesis (Li and Zhou, 2012) and mediate a reflex loop in the urethra, leading to bladder contraction (Deckmann et al., 2014). In the cardiovascular system, TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs were found in cardiac myocytes, the latter being upregulated following starvation (Foster et al., 2013). Intriguingly, the expression of TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs is altered under several pathological conditions, and their polymorphisms have been linked to several human disorders (Lee et al., 2012; Orsmark-Pietras et al., 2013). This Research Topic provides a timely overview of the latest insights into the extra-oral taste receptors in health and disease. Nayak et al. provide a comprehensive and systematic review of the expression and function of TAS2Rs in different airway and lung cells. They discussed the diverse effects of TAS2Rs in mitigating various pathological features of asthma and highlighted specific opportunities for developing selective agonists for distinct TAS2R subtypes in the treatment of asthma. Grassin-Delyle et al. presented new evidence on the expression of TAS2Rs in human macrophages and demonstrated that the agonists of TAS2R3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 30, 39, and 40 inhibit cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide. Their results expand the cell type expressing TAS2Rs in the lung and substantiate the idea that TAS2Rs may constitute new drug targets in inflammatory obstructive lung disease. Luo et al. evaluated the potential value of screening TAS2R agonists that relax smooth muscle based on the bitter flavors of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The authors applied bioinformatics mining to TCM databases and discovered many bitter tastants from TCM, which can activate TAS2Rs, as new smooth muscle relaxants. Bloxham et al. highlighted current research on bitter taste receptors and their signaling cascade in the heart. They stressed the need further to study these receptors' functions in the heart and predicted that TAS2Rs may involve in unappreciated cardiac physiology. Fat or fatty acids have been recognized as the triggers of a potential sixth taste in animals and humans. Similar to the TAS1R and TAS2R families, the receptors for fatty acids, e.g., CD36, GPR40 (FFAR1), GPR41 (FFAR3), GPR43 (FFAR2), GPR84, and GPR120 (FFAR4), are also expressed in many cell types throughout the body. In the GIT and hypothalamic nucleus, fatty acids act on these receptors to critically regulate energy balance by changing ingestive behavior, energy storage, and utilization (Blouet and Schwartz, 2010; Cvijanovic et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2016). Significantly, these receptors' sensitivity to fatty acids in obese individuals is lower than that in lean individuals. This may account for excess fat consumption in obese individuals and contribute to other diseases such as type 2 diabetes (Stewart et al., 2011; Ichimura et al., 2012; Precone et al., 2019). Le Foll updated the current understanding of hypothalamic fatty acids and ketone bodies sensing (i.e., FAT/CD36 and GPCRs) and enzymatic activity (e.g., LPL) in regulating food intake. In particular, the author highlights that the expression of FA sensors/transporters in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes mediates the regulatory function. However, other aspects linked to obesity and/or Type 2 diabetes, such as the impact of inflammation on FA and ketone bodies sensing remain to be further investigated. We believe this Research Topic provides an exciting overview of the extraoral taste receptors. Since these receptors mediate the critical functions of extraoral tissues and contribute to different diseases, we hope that this Topic will foster the discovery of new pharmaceutical therapeutics targeting these taste receptors for various human diseases and disorders. RZ, ER, and MB co-wrote and approved this Editorial. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank all authors, reviewers, and Frontiers Editorial staff for their contributions to this Research Topic. Blouet, C., and Schwartz, G. J. (2010). Hypothalamic nutrient sensing in the control of energy homeostasis. Behav Brain Res. 209, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.024 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text...
C. Kalman
ISEE Conference Abstracts, Volume 2020; doi:10.1289/isee.2020.virtual.p-0331

Abstract:
Objective: As climate change continues to influence the frequency and intensity of cyclonic storms, the impact of hurricanes on coastal communities is increasing, leading to growing financial and human costs. Cardiovascular events are shown to be associated with stressful events such as natural disasters and have been shown to increase after earthquakes. To better understand the impact these hurricanes will have on the health of coastal communities, a systematic review of the literature was carried out examining the relationship between hurricanes and cardiovascular events among adults living in coastal areas. Methods: The process for this review was outlined by the Navigation Guide. We performed a systematic search of epidemiology literature and identified distinct criteria used to determine which studies would be included. Each study was rated for risk of bias and examined for quality and strength of evidence before coming to a determination of the overall quality and strength of the evidence. Results: We identified 6 cross-sectional epidemiological studies published in peer-reviewed journals that met the inclusion criteria. Four of the five studies focused on Hurricane Katrina while the fifth focused on Hurricane Sandy. We rated the current body of evidence to be of moderate to low quality. Conclusions: While individuals studies show a strong association between hurricanes and increased incidence of cardiovascular events, the body of evidence is not robust enough to assume generalizability of the results. More research needs to be done in order to better understand the relationship between hurricanes and incidence of cardiac events.
Published: 23 October 2020
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 10; doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.596963

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicImpact of Cancer Plasticity on Drug Resistance and Treatment in Solid Tumors The Research Topic “Impact of Cancer Plasticity on Drug Resistance and Treatment in Solid Tumors” consists of 32 articles contributed by more than 270 authors in the field of oncology, pharmacology, and translational research. Our aim was to provide a collaborative discussion on molecular and cellular regulators of cancer cell plasticity contributing to tumor progression and drug resistance for the future direction of biomarker discovery and therapeutic strategies. Cancer stem cells, tumor microenvironment, stroma/cancer cells interactions, changes in metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition offer explanation for tumor plasticity. The current state of art in this era was elegantly reviewed by Fanelli et al., Yang et al., and Lin X. et al., who discussed the clinical relevance of cancer cell plasticity, the novel approaches for monitoring tumor plasticity and the current advances for therapeutic targeting. Yu et al. found that the FAP-a+GOLPH3+ immunophenotype, combining the expression of both the fibroblast activation protein-alpha and the oncogenic Golgi phosphoprotein 3 protein predict the recurrence and progression of ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) into invasive breast cancer. Yao et al. demonstrated in mouse experiments that the levels of MTA3 and SOX2 decreased and increased, respectively, during the progression of tongue squamous cell cancer (TSCC), and that MTA3low/SOX2high can serve as an independent prognostic factor for TSCC patients. Chen et al. confirmed that overexpression of PD-L1 occurred predominantly in highly aggressive glioma cells, and Akt binding/activation prevented autophagic cytoskeleton collapse, thus facilitating glioma cell invasion upon starvation stress. Sun et al. showed that SIRT5, a mitochondrial class III NAD-dependent deacetylase, contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer by suppressing cisplatin-induced DNA damage in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, via the regulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway. The study from Tang et al. suggested that the Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) participates the carcinogenesis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and might be a candidate therapeutic target. Finally, analyses conducted by Zhang J. et al. on single-cell sequencing datasets of several human cancers indicated a tumor suppression function of the ZNF671 transcription factor. Fahs et al. demonstrated that the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein modulates exosome cargo to confer a protective effect on recipient cells against oxidative stress and to promote plasticity and survival, potentially contributing to the known aggressive phenotype of the fusion gene-positive subtype of Rhabdomyosarcoma. Guo T. et al. reported a clinical case showing change of pathological type to metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma of the breast during disease recurrence. Epigenetic reprogramming favors cancer plasticity. The discovery of non-coding RNA such as microRNA (miR), Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) and circular RNA (circ-RNA) is propelling the future advancement of biomarker development and offers opportunities to understand their role in the hallmarks of cancer, including signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, cell invasion, metabolic plasticity and drug resistance. Wan et al. deciphered the functional domains of the channel-kinase transient receptor potential ion channel subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) involved in glioma cell growth or migration/invasion. TRPM7 was found to regulate miR-28-5p expression, which suppresses cell proliferation and invasion in glioma cells by targeting the Rap1b signaling. Guo J. et al. demonstrated that miR-204-3p, whose down-regulation was significantly associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients, negatively modulated the proliferation of bladder cancer cells via targeting the lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA)-mediated glycolysis. Huang et al. elegantly provided evidence that LncRNA AFAP1-S1 up-regulates the RRM2 protein levels by sponging miR-139-5, then activating an RRM2/EGFR/Akt axis that promotes chemoresistance in non-small cell lung cancer. Supportive in vivo experiments further demonstrated that knockdown of AFAP1-AS1 significantly suppressed tumor growth and chemoresistance. Li W. et al. proved that miR-199a, by directly regulating K-RAS and thus the downstream AKT and ERK signaling, inhibits glioma cell proliferation in vitro, tumor growth in vivo and increases sensitivity to telozomide, a drug used in first line treatment of glioma. Lin X.-J. et al. highlighted the role of miR-936 in sensitizing laryngeal squamous cancer cells to doxorubicin and cisplatin. Liu C. et al. experiments suggested that miR-34a-5p, by directly targeting thymidine kinase 1 (TKI), may be part of the mechanisms negatively regulating TKI-driven thyroid carcinoma cell aggressiveness. Growing body of evidence indicate that circRNAs play a role in disease progression, partly by sponging miRNA, and may be used as biomarkers. Gao et al. identified a candidate circRNA associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma. Finally, the review by Guo Q. et al. elegantly depicted and discussed the role of exosomal miRNA as a regulators and biomarkers in cancer drug resistance. It is of utmost importance to decipher how chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens contribute to cell plasticity and tumor progression. The identification of such molecular mechanisms may help in the discovery of human biomarkers of environmental carcinogen exposure and the development of candidate preventive strategies. Using an in vitro model for malignant transformation of normal lung cells upon long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, Wang et al. deciphered complex miRNA-mRNA networks associated with cancer-related signaling pathways, in particular those...
, Sérgio Tosi Rodrigues
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, Volume 2; doi:10.3389/fspor.2020.603206

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicThe Role of Eye Movements in Sports and Active Living Eye movements are essential to collect accurate visual information from relevant scene locations, allowing optimal control of human movements in sports and active living. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Sports and Active Living examines the role of the visual system in picking up the information necessary to guide action. It shows how essential gaze behavior is to timely collect accurate visual information from relevant scene locations and optimize control of human movements. Over the last four decades, substantial progress in research on eye movements and its application to sport and active living has been achieved through the use of more natural, ecologically valid research environments (in laboratory and in situ data collection situations), availability of newer technologies with higher measurement accuracy, increased experimental control, and novel approaches and analyses (Kowler, 2011; Discombe and Cotterill, 2015; Kredel et al., 2017; Moran et al., 2018). Sport contexts are usually complex, often requiring fast actions, and eye movements are used to acquire adequate visual information. Particularly, gaze behavior of athletes reflects perception-based decision making and execution of motor responses involved in dynamic sports settings. Literature reveals strong evidence that skilled athletes show more efficient patterns of visual search than their less-skilled counterparts (e.g., Williams et al., 2005; Vickers, 2016). However, beyond describing relatively simple visual scanning paths during sports skills, many new theoretical questions relating to visual attention mechanisms, the relevance of visual information to action control and learning, gaze behavior training, as well as effects of new research methods have been investigated in the recent years. In short, researchers seem interested in answering not only where athletes and humans in general look, but why they do so when performing complex tasks (Kowler, 2011; Vater et al., 2020). Articles in the present Research Topic highlight the growth of interest and the mentioned changes in this area. A rich combination of themes related to sport skills is presented by seven articles dedicated to perception and action characteristics of those skills. First, a perspective article by Klostermann et al. opens the debate on gaze behavior in sports. They analyzed the functionality of foveal and peripheral vision through three types of gaze behavior. The manuscript expands from the uniquely foveal tradition (“foveal spot”), which would optimize information acquisition from periphery (“gaze anchor” and “visual pivot”) in a complementary rather than a mutually exclusive manner. Following on from this conceptual discussion, six articles investigated the following sport modalities: soccer, baseball, kendo, darts, and volleyball. Two studies focused on effects of environmental stimuli on gaze dynamics and motor performance. Paterson et al. analyze whether a task-irrelevant contextual information (i.e., moving advertisement behind the goal area) would distract players while performing a soccer penalty kick. They confirm that kickers' attention was disrupted during their goalkeeper-dependent strategy, highlighting systematic, direction-specific effects of advertisement motion on aiming task. Kishita, Uedo, Kashino et al. examine effects of varying speeds of a task-relevant stimulus (the ball) on visuomotor strategies used in baseball batting; authors stress that eye-head coordination depends on ball speed, but regardless of it, predictive saccade and quick head movement were temporally linked to bat-ball contact and hip motion. Next, two studies explore different gaze strategies. In another article, Kishita, Uedo, Kashino et al. focused on eye and head coordination patterns used by elite baseball players during batting in-game situations. They highlight that top batters delay initial saccades to obtain slightly more time acquiring visual information, as well as they may use head (instead of eyes) direction to encode bat-ball impact location. Kato explores how expert kendo fighters use a particular gaze strategy (referred above as “visual pivot”) during in situ sparring practice in offensive, defensive, and real match situations. He emphasizes that kendo experts keep gaze calmly stable on opponents' face but use peripheral vision strategy to obtain information from their body movements. Finally, two sport articles refer to distinct aspects involved in visual anticipation and gaze training. First, Lüders et al. examine effects of knowledge of an opponent's action preference on anticipation performance and gaze behavior during defense of volleyball attacks. They highlight influence of contextual information on anticipation, while systematic changes in the number of fixations and the duration of final fixation unobserved in defenders when they had preference information. Second, Neugebauer et al. examine characteristics of focus of attention during a quiet duration training for darts throwing. Even with similar throwing accuracy, authors show that visually instructed groups increased quiet eye duration whereas the kinesthetic group decreased it, suggesting perceptual and motor learning processes are dyssynchronous. This Research Topic concludes with three articles bringing interesting applications of eye movements research to the context of public health and active living. Properly timed gaze behavior is critical to control the movements during active living; eye movements support adaptive motor control. First, a review article by Stuart et al. covers measurements of eye-movements in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, showing that there are no diagnostic criteria available for this injury. Next, Vargas et al. analyze body sway of sleep-deprived participants, highlighting that saccadic eye movements...
, Dong-Ming Su, Ann P. Chidgey, Jarrod Dudakov
Published: 22 October 2020
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.591936

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicNew Insights Into Thymic Functions During Stress, Aging, and in Disease Settings The thymus is a bi-lobed lymphoid organ localized above the heart whose primary function is to foster the development of the T cells of the adaptive immune system. T cells are a critical component of the cellular immune system, helping B cells produce antibodies, releasing cytokines to orchestrate effective immune responses, and killing infected cells and/or neoplasm/tumor cells. The recognition of an infected cell or tumor cell, and the ability to support B cell secretion of antibodies requires T cells express a cell surface receptor, termed the T cell receptor (TCR). This receptor selectively binds to peptides complexed to major histocompatibility complex antigens (MHC class I and II). MHC class I molecules are present on all nucleated cells in the body, while MHC class II is restricted to antigen presenting cells. In the thymus, thymocytes rearrange DNA loci comprising the genes encoding the TCR subunits. Using a process termed VDJ recombination, each thymocyte expresses a unique TCR with exclusive recognition specificities. However, only those thymocytes expressing TCRs that can engage self-peptides/self MHC complexes present on thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are “selected” to form the peripheral T cell repertoire. This involves processes coined positive and negative selection, with the ensuing repertoire of T cells capable of recognizing pathogen- or distinct tumor- derived peptides presented on self-MHC molecules without overt reactivity to self-peptides. The critical role of the thymus in this process is best exemplified with infants born with mutations in genes required for the formation of the thymus (22q11.2 deletion syndrome or DiGeorge). No thymus results in no T cells, leading to a severe combined immunodeficiency. A second excellent example pertains to the spontaneously arising nude mouse, which lacks a thymus and hair due to mutations in the Forkhead Box N1 transcription factor. This transcription factor supports the development of TECs, the controllers of T cell fate, and defective TECs means no T cells. Yet, as late as 1960, the thymus was a scientific conundrum. Dramatic variations in its size in humans and diverse species had been documented for over two millennia. Severe clinical repercussions based on these size differences ensued due to a complete lack of knowledge about its functions, which was not revealed until demonstrated in pivotal experiments performed by Jacques Miller using thymectomy and skin grafting. These experiments established the thymus as the site of T cell development. For this, Miller was awarded the Lasker Prize in Biomedicine in 2019 (1). Between the 1890s–1950s, an enlarged thymic tissue noted in newborns and infants was proposed causal to asthma and crib death (thymicolymphaticus) (2). This unsubstantiated pathological connection led to tens of thousands of infants receiving “therapeutic” radiation treatments of 0.2–2 Gy to wipe out the thymus (3). Such an ill-conceived therapy resulted in >10,000 children developing thyroid cancers. A subsequent and less damaging treatment to reduce thymus size involved steroid injections. While not as severely marred as with the high radiation doses, the thymus could again be rendered hypoplastic. These therapies have revealed the extreme stress sensitivity of the thymus, but also its remarkable capacity for repair. In a normal setting, thymic function reaches its natural peak during the neonatal and pre-adolescent period, thereafter the thymus begins to decrease in size and activity. This process, termed thymic involution, results in significant loss in the production of T cells although some T cell development continues throughout adult life. This dynamic process, both with chronic age-related declines and acute atrophy caused by steroids or cytoreductive chemotherapy, can have profound negative impacts in the efficacy of adaptive immunity. Today, understanding how to maintain the function of the thymus through-out life, particularly after damage, is the driving goal of researchers. In the series of articles under the title “New Insights into thymic functions during stress, aging, and in disease settings” in this issue of Frontiers in Immunology, novel insights and findings by leading scientists in the field of thymus biology are presented. The articles include two reviews outlining recent discoveries into the mechanisms required for the formation and specification of the thymus within the 3rd pharyngeal pouch during embryogenesis (Bhalla et al.; Giardino et al.). The contributions of key transcription factors such as T Box Transcription Factor 1 (TBX1) and FOXN1 in the patterning of the pharyngeal apparatus and the subsequent demarcation of the thymus anlage are discussed in conjunction with the differentiation and expansion of thymic epithelial cells. The formation of the two different populations of epithelial cells, cortical and medullary TECs and their selective roles in supporting and educating thymocytes to form the repertoire of T cells, which is unique to each individual, is described, revealing new subsets of these cells in the process (Alawam et al.). As is well-recognized currently, in addition to aging, the thymus undergoes a transient and sometimes massive reduction in overall size and cellularity following infections, corticosteroid production through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis or via injections, and chemotherapy treatments. The impact on thymocytes and stromal cell populations are presented herein (Gaballa et al.; Kinsella and Dudakov). Such thymic hypoplasia is widespread in the population, and the different conditions leading to hypoplasia/aplasia of the thymus are presented in a combination of research and review articles in this series (Cowan et al.; Gaballa et al.; Pérez et al.; Silva-Freitas et al.) For...
Mariana Di Lorenzo, Teresa Barra, Luigi Rosati, Salvatore Valiante, Anna Capaldo, Maria De Falco, Vincenza Laforgia
General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 297; doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113550

Abstract:
The adrenal gland is an essential component of the body stress response; it is formed by two portions: a steroidogenic and a chromaffin tissue. Despite the anatomy of adrenal gland is different among classes of vertebrates, the hormones produced are almost the same. During stress, these hormones contribute to body homeostasis and maintenance of ion balance. The adrenal gland is very sensitive to toxic compounds, many of which behave like endocrine-disruptor chemicals (EDCs). They contribute to alter the endocrine system in wildlife and humans and are considered as possible responsible of the decline of several vertebrate ectotherms. Considering that EDCs regularly can be found in all environmental matrices, the aim of this review is to collect information about the impact of these chemical compounds on the adrenal gland of fishes, amphibians and reptiles. In particular, this review shows the different behavior of these “sentinel species” when they are exposed to stress condition. The data supplied in this review can help to further elucidate the role of EDCs and their harmful impact on the survival of these vertebrates.
Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, Volume 11, pp 5943-5945; doi:10.1007/s12652-020-02544-4

Abstract:
The healthcare systems in Europe and the most developed countries in the world are faced with challenging transition processes due to demographic change. The increase of the elderly population and the expectation of life brings about serious risks, with some profound socio and economic impact on our societies. To reduce the burden of social care, integration of existing unobtrusive, easy-to-use and transparent monitoring systems are proven to be an acceptable solution by the elderly and their careers. The ultimate goal of the research is to replace the carer with a virtual intelligent carer capable of interpretation and understanding of their activities. Many technological advances in monitoring systems are developed. Ambient Intelligence has been adopted as a term referring to environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people and it is a candidate to become the next wave of computing. Indeed, this novel computing approach is aimed to extend the ubiquitous vision by incorporating intrinsic intelligence in pervasive systems. This idea enables the study, design and development of paradigms for smart environments that not only react to human events through sensing, interpretation and service provision but also learn and adapt their operation and services to the users over time. These paradigms employ contextual information when available, and offer unobtrusive and intuitive interfaces to their users. The guest editors of this special issue have organised annual workshops under the same topic for many years. The papers presented in this special issue are mainly from the papers presented during the 4th International Workshop on Human Behaviour Monitoring, Interpretation and Understanding (NOTION). The workshop was part of the 2019 Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA) conference. This special issue aims to encompass valuable research and achievement in the monitoring, interpretation and understanding of human behaviour through smart technologies. There are many readily available monitoring systems to monitor people in their home environment. However, there are challenges ahead with respect to interpretation and understanding of the sensory data and linked that with the actual activity representing a specific behaviour. Following the special issue call for papers, 34 manuscripts were received. Among them, 17 papers were accepted subject to major revisions. After the next rounds of the revisions, 13 papers were finally accepted for publication. The guest editors wish that this collection of papers demonstrate the state of the art in the area of ambient intelligence applications in human behaviour analysis from different perspectives, and can effectively contribute to the body of knowledge in this subject area. A brief review of the gathered papers in this special issue shows the wide range of approaches, methodologies and techniques that the authors have taken in human behaviour monitoring and detection. In the first paper by D. Hooda and R. Rani entitled “Ontology Driven Human Activity Recognition in Heterogeneous Sensor Measurements” Hooda and Rani (2020), an ontology-based knowledge model is proposed for human activity recognition. Sensor measurements and activity recognition collectively contribute to develop the proposed ontology and to conceptualise the activity recognition process. The highlight of this research work is that the proposed model can effectively capture the semantic relationships between the low level (simple) and high level (inferred) activities. The next paper is “A novel feature selection method based on comparison of correlations for human activity recognition problems” by Tsanousa et al. Tsanousa et al. (2020), with a focus on feature selection in human activity recognition. Their method is based on recordings of triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes and creating a subset of features to optimises the performances of different activity classification algorithms. Hirt et al.’s paper entitled “Stress Generation and Non-intrusive Measurement in Virtual Environments Using Eye Tracking” Hirt et al. (2020) checks if and how stress can be measured in a non-intrusive way, such as while the users explore a virtual environment. The authors have evaluated this idea by using eye tracking devices to detect stress levels and measuring the individual’s pupil diameter and pulses. Next, there is a paper by Makri et al., entitled “Human behaviour in multimodal interaction: main effects of civic action and interpersonal and problem-solving skills” Makri et al. (2020). The focus of this paper is on multi-modal interaction and its effects on the human behaviour during meta-cognitive skill training. The authors have designed a user-system evaluation by sensing the before-and-after interaction of the users with the system, integrating a range of factors including dialogue system performance, metacognitive-related and individual-and-community level-related attributes. Staffa et al., have contributed to this special issue by a paper entitled “Working together: a DBN approach for Individual and Group Activity Recognition” Rossi et al. (2020). Unlike the other works that have focused on individual activity recognition, the authors have addressed the problem of group activity recognition. Their methodology first examines each individual actions by correlating ambient sensor data, then this information are aggregated using a Hierarchical Deep Belief Network. “Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down: Non-verbal Human-Robot Interaction through Real-time EMG Classification via Inductive and Supervised Transductive Transfer Learning” Kobylarz et al. (2020) is a paper by Kobylarz et al., in which a transfer learning method for gesture classification is proposed. The signs of ’thumbs up’, ’thumbs down’, and ’relax’ are used as means of non-verbal...
Published: 25 September 2020
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 21; doi:10.3390/ijms21197084

Abstract:
Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential mineral for the functioning and maintenance of the body. Disturbances in Mg2+ intracellular homeostasis result in cell-membrane modification, an increase in oxidative stress, alteration in the proliferation mechanism, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mg2+ deficiency often results in inflammation, with activation of inflammatory pathways and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Immune cells and others that make up the blood system are from hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow. The hematopoietic tissue is a tissue with high indices of renovation, and Mg2+ has a pivotal role in the cell replication process, as well as DNA and RNA synthesis. However, the impact of the intra- and extracellular disturbance of Mg2+ homeostasis on the hematopoietic tissue is little explored. This review deals specifically with the physiological requirements of Mg2+ on hematopoiesis, showing various studies related to the physiological requirements and the effects of deficiency or excess of this mineral on the hematopoiesis regulation, as well as on the specific process of erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, lymphopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis. The literature selected includes studies in vitro, in animal models, and in humans, giving details about the impact that alterations of Mg2+ homeostasis can have on hematopoietic cells and hematopoietic tissue.
, J. A. Abiona
African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation pp 1-21; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-42091-8_111-2

Abstract:
Global climate change poses a great threat to poultry production. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are released through both natural and anthropogenic sources into the atmosphere. Though poultry production contributes little to the release of GHGs, the subsector has been shown to be greatly affected by climate change and global warming. Poultry production as a major subsector of agriculture has provided the teeming population with a supply of needed animal protein in terms of meat and egg production all over the world. It is yet a major global employer of labor. Though it occupies a vantage position in meeting human needs, it is being threatened by climate change, especially in Africa where necessary structure to tackle the menace is nonexistent. Broiler chickens that are reared mainly for chicken meat cannot tolerate the high ambient temperature that prevails mostly in the tropical environment. Chickens are homeotherms that homeostatically regulate core body temperature within a narrow range. Elevated ambient temperature above thermal comfort zone, such as envisaged in climate change scenarios, will trigger series of neuroendocrine modulations that are detrimental to the welfare and productivity in broiler chickens. Such birds are said to be undergoing heat stress (HS). Negative effects of HS include reduced feed consumption, growth rate, feed digestion and efficiency, immunity, welfare, and survivability. Various adaptive measures that could be harnessed by broiler farmers, ranging from housing, feeding, watering, stocking, breeding for thermo-tolerant strains, thermal conditioning, use of phytochemicals, and much more, are reviewed upon in this chapter.
Published: 4 September 2020
Environmental Health, Volume 19, pp 1-24; doi:10.1186/s12940-020-00641-7

Abstract:
Climate change is set to exacerbate occupational heat strain, the combined effect of environmental and internal heat stress on the body, threatening human health and wellbeing. Therefore, identifying effective, affordable, feasible and sustainable solutions to mitigate the negative effects on worker health and productivity, is an increasingly urgent need. To systematically identify and evaluate methods that mitigate occupational heat strain in order to provide scientific-based guidance for practitioners. An umbrella review was conducted in biomedical databases employing the following eligibility criteria: 1) ambient temperatures > 28 °C or hypohydrated participants, 2) healthy adults, 3) reported psychophysiological (thermal comfort, heart rate or core temperature) and/or performance (physical or cognitive) outcomes, 4) written in English, and 5) published before November 6, 2019. A second search for original research articles was performed to identify interventions of relevance but lacking systematic reviews. All identified interventions were independently evaluated by all co-authors on four point scales for effectiveness, cost, feasibility and environmental impact. Following screening, 36 systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most effective solutions at mitigating occupational heat strain were wearing specialized cooling garments, (physiological) heat acclimation, improving aerobic fitness, cold water immersion, and applying ventilation. Although air-conditioning and cooling garments in ideal settings provide best scores for effectiveness, the limited applicability in certain industrial settings, high economic cost and high environmental impact are drawbacks for these solutions. However, (physiological) acclimatization, planned breaks, shading and optimized clothing properties are attractive alternative solutions when economic and ecological sustainability aspects are included in the overall evaluation. Choosing the most effective solution or combinations of methods to mitigate occupational heat strain will be scenario-specific. However, this paper provides a framework for integrating effectiveness, cost, feasibility (indoors and outdoor) and ecologic sustainability to provide occupational health and safety professionals with evidence-based guidelines.
R A Cocchiara, B Dorelli, A Mannocci, G La Torre
European Journal of Public Health, Volume 30; doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.492

Abstract:
Background Several studies show the positive effects of new non-medical therapies known as complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). In this context, the discipline of tai chi is obtaining a wider consensus because of its many beneficial effects both on the human body and mind. Objective The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the scientific literature concerning the relationship between tai chi practice and wellness of health care workers (HCW) in their professional setting. Methods The research was performed in September 2019, investigating the databases Cinahl, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. Full-text articles, written in English language and published after 1995, were taken into account. No restrictions regarding the study design were applied. A quality assessment was developed using AMSTAR, Jadad, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, INSA, and CASE REPORT scale. Six papers were finally included: Three clinical trials, one observational study, one systematic review, and one case report. The methodological quality of the included studies was judged as medium level. Conclusions This systematic review suggests the potential impact of interventions such as tai chi as tools for reducing work-related stress among healthcare professionals. Keywords: Tai chi, Workplace Wellness, Nursing Key messages Tai chi, Workplace Wellness, Nursing. Health Professional, Stress, Workplace Wellbeing.
M. O. Abioja,
African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation pp 1-22; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-42091-8_111-1

Abstract:
Global climate change poses a great threat to poultry production. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are released through both natural and anthropogenic sources into the atmosphere. Though poultry production contributes little to the release of GHGs, the subsector has been shown to be greatly affected by climate change and global warming. Poultry production as a major subsector of agriculture has provided the teeming population with a supply of needed animal protein in terms of meat and egg production all over the world. It is yet a major global employer of labor. Though it occupies a vantage position in meeting human needs, it is being threatened by climate change, especially in Africa where necessary structure to tackle the menace is nonexistent. Broiler chickens that are reared mainly for chicken meat cannot tolerate the high ambient temperature that prevails mostly in the tropical environment. Chickens are homeotherms that homeostatically regulate core body temperature within a narrow range. Elevated ambient temperature above thermal comfort zone, such as envisaged in climate change scenarios, will trigger series of neuroendocrine modulations that are detrimental to the welfare and productivity in broiler chickens. Such birds are said to be undergoing heat stress (HS). Negative effects of HS include reduced feed consumption, growth rate, feed digestion and efficiency, immunity, welfare, and survivability. Various adaptive measures that could be harnessed by broiler farmers, ranging from housing, feeding, watering, stocking, breeding for thermo-tolerant strains, thermal conditioning, use of phytochemicals, and much more, are reviewed upon in this chapter.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 115, pp 285-298; doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.05.010

Abstract:
Chronic stress has been shown to promote numerous aging-related diseases, and to accelerate the aging process itself. Of particular interest is the impact of stress on Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia. The vast majority of AD cases have no known genetic cause, making it vital to identify the environmental factors involved in the onset and progression of the disease. Age is the greatest risk factor for AD, and measures of biological aging such as shorter telomere length, significantly increase likelihood for developing AD. Stress is also considered a crucial contributor to AD, as indicated by a formidable body of research, although the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Here we review human and animal literature on the impact of stress on AD and discuss the mechanisms implicated in the interaction. In particular we will focus on the burgeoning body of research demonstrating that senescent cells, which accumulate with age and actively drive a number of aging-related diseases, may be a key mechanism through which stress drives AD.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Volume 33, pp 263-279; doi:10.1089/ars.2020.8096

Abstract:
Significance. Air pollution is a considerable global threat to human health that dramatically increases the risk for cardiovascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. An estimated 4.2 million cases of premature deaths worldwide are attributable to outdoor air pollution. Among multiple other components, airborne particulate matter (PM) has been identified as the major bioactive constituent in polluted air. While PM-related illness was historically thought to be confined to diseases of the respiratory system, overwhelming clinical and experimental data has now established that acute and chronic exposure to PM causes a systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response that promotes cardiovascular disease. Recent Advances. A large body of evidence has identified an impairment of redox metabolism and the generation of oxidatively modified lipids and proteins in the lung as initial tissue response to PM. In addition, the pathogenicity of PM is mediated by an inflammatory response that involves PM uptake by tissue resident immune cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in various cell types and organs, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as locally produced tissue response signals that have the ability to affect organ function in a remote fashion. Critical Issues. In the present review, we summarize and discuss the functional participation of PM in cardiovascular pathologies and its risk factors with an emphasis on how oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunity interact and synergize as a response to PM. Future Directions. The impact of PM constituents, doses, and novel anti-inflammatory therapies against PM-related illness are also discussed.
Hala Elmajnoun, Mohammed Elhag, Hatem Mohamed, Parvez Haris, Abu-Bakr Abu-Median
Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences pp 85-110; doi:10.18502/sjms.v15i5.7147

Abstract:
Background: Ramadan is a sacred month in Islam, which involves 29–30 days of dawn-till-dusk dry-fasting. Millions of Muslims observed Ramadan fasting (RF) this year in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain ethnic groups worldwide, including Muslims, have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, raising fears that fasting could bring additional health risks. This directly impacted on the current challenges faced by health professionals. The COVID-19 virus is expected to become seasonal. Therefore, the evidence presented in this review is valid beyond Ramadan as intermittent fasting is practiced more widely, irrespective of religion, throughout the year as a therapeutic and prophylactic means for several conditions. Methods: A wide range of literature databases were searched for the effects of RF and intermittent fasting on human health and then linked to COVID-19 impact to generate the evidence. Results: This review presents a body of evidence proving RF is safe and beneficial for healthy people who adopt a balanced diet, drink plenty of fluids, and engage in regular physical activity. Fasting reduces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), which are associated with severe COVID-19. Furthermore, increased handwashing and hygiene during Ramadan may reduce infection risks. For some, social isolation, physical inactivity, reduced access to food and stress – linked to the pandemic – may minimize the benefits that is achieved during a “normal” Ramadan. Conclusions: RF during the COVID-19 pandemic is not a cause of concern for healthy people. However, people who are ill are exempt from fasting and should seek medical advice if they wish to fast. RF during the COVID-19 pandemic is a unique experience and future research will reveal its impact on human health. Key words: COVID-19; Ramadan; fasting; health; mental; exercise; isolation; lockdown; diabetes; biomarkers
Page of 4
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top