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(searched for: Impact of Covid-19 on the Mental Health of Indians: A Case Study)
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Kevalin M. W. Aulandez, Melissa L. Walls, Nicole M. Weiss, Kelley J. Sittner, Stefanie L. Gillson, Elizabeth N. Tennessen, Tara L. Maudrie, Ailee M. Leppi, Emma J. Rothwell, Athena R. Bolton-Steiner, et al.
Published: 22 February 2021
Frontiers in Sociology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.612637

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has had disproportionately severe impacts on Indigenous peoples in the United States compared to non-Indigenous populations. In addition to the threat of viral infection, COVID-19 poses increased risk for psychosocial stress that may widen already existing physical, mental, and behavioral health inequities experienced by Indigenous communities. In recognition of the impact of COVID-19 related psychosocial stressors on our tribal community partners, the Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health Great Lakes Hub began sending holistic wellness boxes to our community partners in 11 tribal communities in the Midwestern United States and Canada in summer of 2020. Designed specifically to draw on culturally relevant sources of strength and resilience, these boxes contained a variety of items to support mental, emotional, cultural, and physical wellbeing. Feedback from recipients suggest that these wellness boxes provided a unique form of COVID-19 relief. Additional Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health offices have begun to adapt wellness boxes for the cultural context of their regions. This case study describes the conceptualization, creation, and contents of these wellness boxes and orients this intervention within a reflection on foundations of community-based participatory research, holistic relief, and drawing on cultural strengths in responding to COVID-19.
Naomi A. Fineberg, Luca Pellegrini, David Wellsted, Natalie Hall, Ornella Corazza, Valentina Giorgetti, Dorotea Cicconcelli, Elena Theofanous, Nick Sireau, David Adam, et al.
Published: 1 January 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3813161

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sudhir Bhandari, Ajit Singh Shaktawat, Bhoopendra Patel, Amitabh Dube, Shivankan Kakkar, Amit Tak, Jitendra Gupta, Govind Rankawat
Journal of Ideas in Health, Volume 3, pp 205-212; https://doi.org/10.47108/jidhealth.vol3.issspecial1.69

Abstract:
The pandemic of COVID-19 has afflicted every individual and has initiated a cascade of directly or indirectly involved events in precipitating mental health issues. The human species is a wanderer and hunter-gatherer by nature, and physical social distancing and nationwide lockdown have confined an individual to physical isolation. The present review article was conceived to address psychosocial and other issues and their aetiology related to the current pandemic of COVID-19. The elderly age group has most suffered the wrath of SARS-CoV-2, and social isolation as a preventive measure may further induce mental health issues. Animal model studies have demonstrated an inappropriate interacting endogenous neurotransmitter milieu of dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, and opioids, induced by social isolation that could probably lead to observable phenomena of deviant psychosocial behavior. Conflicting and manipulated information related to COVID-19 on social media has also been recognized as a global threat. Psychological stress during the current pandemic in frontline health care workers, migrant workers, children, and adolescents is also a serious concern. Mental health issues in the current situation could also be induced by being quarantined, uncertainty in business, jobs, economy, hampered academic activities, increased screen time on social media, and domestic violence incidences. The gravity of mental health issues associated with the pandemic of COVID-19 should be identified at the earliest. Mental health organization dedicated to current and future pandemics should be established along with Government policies addressing psychological issues to prevent and treat mental health issues need to be developed. References World Health Organization (WHO) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available at: https://covid19.who.int/ [Accessed on 23 August 2020] Sim K, Chua HC. The psychological impact of SARS: a matter of heart and mind. CMAJ. 2004; 170:811e2. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.1032003. Wu P, Fang Y, Guan Z, Fan B, Kong J, Yao Z, et al. The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Can J Psychiatr. 2009; 54:302e11. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370905400504. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020; 395:912e20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8. Robertson E, Hershenfield K, Grace SL, Stewart DE. The psychosocial effects of being quarantined following exposure to SARS: a qualitative study of Toronto health care workers. Can J Psychiatr. 2004; 49:403e7. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370404900612. Barbisch D, Koenig KL, Shih FY. Is there a case for quarantine? Perspectives from SARS to Ebola. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015; 9:547e53. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2015.38. Jeong H, Yim HW, Song YJ, Ki M, Min JA, Cho J, et al. Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Epidemiol Health. 2016;38: e2016048. https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016048. Liu X, Kakade M, Fuller CJ, Fan B, Fang Y, Kong J, et al. Depression after exposure to stressful events: lessons learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Compr Psychiatr. 2012; 53:15e23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.02.003 Chadda RK, Deb KS. Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013;55: S299‑ https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0019-5545.105555. Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Subramanyan A, et al. Psychological impact of COVID‑19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2020; 62:354-62. https://doi.org/ 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry _427_20. Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT. Loneliness matters: a theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Ann Behav Med. 2010; 40: 218–27. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12160-010-9210-8. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7. Bhandari S, Sharma R, Singh Shaktawat A, Banerjee S, Patel B, Tak A, et al. COVID-19 related mortality profile at a tertiary care centre: a descriptive study. Scr Med. 2020;51(2):69-73. https://doi.org/10.5937/scriptamed51-27126. Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol Bull. 1995; 117: 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497. Caspi A, Harrington H, Moffitt TE, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Socially isolated children 20 years later: risk of cardiovascular disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006; 160(8):805-11. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.8.805. Eaker ED, Pinsky J, Castelli WP. Myocardial infarction and coronary death among women: psychosocial predictors from a 20-year follow-up of women in the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1992; 135(8):854-64. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116381. Luo Y, Hawkley LC, Waite LJ, Cacioppo JT. Loneliness, health, and mortality in old age: a national longitudinal study. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Mar; 74(6):907-14. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.socscimed.2011.11.028. Olsen RB, Olsen J, Gunner-Svensson F, Waldstrøm B. Social networks and longevity. A 14-year follow-up study among elderly in Denmark. Soc Sci Med. 1991; 33(10):1189-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(91)90235-5. Patterson AC, Veenstra G. Loneliness and risk of mortality: a longitudinal investigation in Alameda County, California. Soc Sci Med. 2010; 71(1):181-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.024. Savikko N, Routassalo P, Tilvis RS, Strandberg TE, Pitkalla KH. Predictors and subjective causes of loneliness in an aged...
Mohammed Zaid Jaffar H. Desai, Atiqur Rahman Khan, Rutuja Kulkarni, Bhoomika Hegde
Journal of Ideas in Health, Volume 3, pp 190-195; https://doi.org/10.47108/jidhealth.vol3.issspecial1.51

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has various unfavorable effects on individuals and the community. This study aims to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent social isolation on the general population of Karnataka, India. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karnataka from 8 to 14 April 2020 using the snowball technique. The psychological impact was assessed with the help of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and seven-item General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaires. IBM SPSS Statistics Subscription version 16.0 was recruited to analyze the data. Descriptive (Mean + Standard Deviation) and bivariate (Pearson chi-square and ANOVA tests) analysis used to present data with the significance level set at less than 0.05. Results: This study included 1537 participants from 26 cities in Karnataka. About two-thirds of the respondents were undergraduate students (951, 61.9%), females (768, 50.0%), and 40.1% stayed about 15-20 days in social isolation. The prevalence of depression was 47.0%, and anxiety was 41.5%, respectively, among the surveyed sample. After the analysis, the age group 21-30 year old (P < 0.001), females P < 0.001), urban residents (P = 0.021), and the students (P p < 0.001) were significant for depression. However, only the age group 31-40 years was found to be more susceptible to anxiety. Conclusion: As important as addressing the psychological effects, knowing people at risk of developing mental illnesses will contribute effectively to providing appropriate psychological rehabilitation programs at the right time. References World Health Organization, Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report –1, 21 January 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf, [Accessed on 30 August 2020]. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, Ho RC. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 6;17(5):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729. World Health Organization, WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020 [Accessed on 13 April 2020] Coronavirus in India: Latest Map and Case Count. Available from: https://www.covid19india.org/ [Accessed 13 April 2020]. Arakal RA. First COVID-19 case in Karnataka: Techie who returned to Bengaluru from US tests positive, (9 March2020). Available from: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/bangalore/coronavirus-karnataka-first-case-covid-19-bengaluru-6307223/ [Accessed on 13 April 2020] India Today on 24 March 2020. Modi announces lockdown Updates: No panic buying please. Stay indoors, tweets PM. Available from: https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/pm-modi-address-the-nation-at-8-pm-today-speech-covid-19-coronavirus-live-updates-1659215-2020-03-24 [Accessed on 13 April 2020] Ali Jadoo SA. Was the world ready to face a crisis like COVID-19? Journal of Ideas in Health2020;3(1):123-4. https://doi.org/10.47108/jidhealth.Vol3.Iss1.45 Steptoe A, Shankar A, Demakakos P, Wardle J. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(15):5797-5801. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219686110 Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, et al. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res. 2020; 287:112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934 Taylor HO, Taylor RJ, Nguyen AW, Chatters L. Social Isolation, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Health2018; 30(2): 229–246. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264316673511 Sim K, Huak Chan Y, Chong PN, Chua HC, Wen Soon S. Psychosocial and coping responses within the community health care setting towards a national outbreak of an infectious disease. J Psychosom Res. 2010;68(2):195-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.04.004 Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020; 51:102083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083. Karnataka Population. Available from: http://www.populationu.com/in/karnataka-population [Accessed on 8 April 2020] Sample Size Calculator: Understanding Sample Sizes. Available from: https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/sample-size-calculator/ [Accessed on 5 March 2020] Toussaint A, Hüsing P, Gumz A, Wingenfeld K, Härter M, Schramm E, Löwe B. Sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the 7-item generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). J Affect Disord. 2020; 265:395–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.032 Williams N. The GAD-7 Questionnaire [Review of the test Generalized anxiety disorder (gad-7) Questionnaire, by R. L. Spitzer]. Occupational Medicine2014; 64(3): 224. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqt161 Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–613. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606. Albert PR. Why is depression more prevalent in women? J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015;40(4):219-221. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.150205 Patten SB, Wang JL, Williams JV, Wang JL, McDonald K, Bulloch ACM. Descriptive epidemiology of major depression in Canada. Can J Psychiatry. 2006; 51:84–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371506000106 Jones C. Student anxiety, depression increasing during school closures, survey finds. EdSorce, 13 May 2020. Available from:...
, Shalini Quadros, Zainab Juzer Hyderabadwala,
Published: 28 May 2020
Psychiatry Research, Volume 290, pp 113145-113145; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113145

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Shalini Quadros, Zainab Juzer Hyderabadwala,
Published: 3 May 2020
Abstract:
Many Indian COVID-19 suicide cases are turning the press-media attention and flooding in the social media platforms although, no particular studies assessed the COVID-19 suicide causative factors to a large extent. Therefore, the present study presents 69 COVID-19 suicide cases (aged 19 to 65 years; 63 cases were males). The suicide causalities are included as follows – fear of COVID-19 infection (n=21), followed by financial crisis (n=19), loneliness, social boycott and pressure to be quarantine, COVID-19 positive, COVID-19 work-related stress, unable to come back home due to lockdown, unavailability of alcohol etc. Considering the extreme psychological impacts related to COVID-19, there emerges a need for countrywide extensive tele-mental health care services.
Syed Sajid Husain Kazmi, Kashif Hasan, Sufia Talib, Sagar Saxena
Published: 15 April 2020
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3577515

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Debanjan Banerjee, , , M S V K Raju, P.K. Dalal, Afzal Javed, Gautam Saha, Kshirod K Mishra, Vinay Kumar, Mukhesh P. Jagiwala
Published: 1 January 2020
Indian Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1002_20

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. The South-Asian (SA) countries have witnessed both the initial brunt of the outbreak as well as the ongoing rise of cases. Their unique challenges in relation to mental health during the pandemic are worth exploring.Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted for all the original studies on the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on psychological health/well-being in the SA countries of the World Psychiatric Association Zone 16. PubMed, Google Scholar, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched till June 2020. Studies conducted in the age group of 18–60 years with a minimum sample size of 10, and statistically significant results were included.Results: Thirteen studies were included in the review. They showed increase prevalence in nonpsychotic depression, anxiety, somatic concerns, alcohol-related disorders, and insomnia in the general population. Psychological symptoms correlated more with physical complaints of fatigue and pain in older adults and were directly related to social media use, misinformation, xenophobia, and social distancing. Frontline workers reported guilt, stigma, anxiety, and poor sleep quality, which were related to the lack of availability of adequate personal protective equipment, increased workload, and discrimination. One study validated the Coronavirus anxiety scale in the Indian population while another explored gaming as a double-edged sword during the lockdown in adolescents. Another study from Bangladesh explored psychosexual health during lockdown. Most studies were cross-sectional online surveys, used screening tools and had limited accessibility.Conclusion: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis and its impact serve as an important period for adequate mental healthcare, promotion, research, and holistic biopsychosocial management of psychiatric disorders, especially in vulnerable groups. Mental healthcare and research strategies during the pandemic and preparedness for postpandemic aftermath are advocated subsequently.
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