(searched for: Fundamentals of Hermeneutics as A Qualitative Research Theoretical Framework)
Published: 21 October 2020
Annotations in Scholarly Editions and Research; doi:10.1515/9783110689112
Reading notes in books and other printed matter are of increasing interest in Philology and Cultural History. However, we still lack an understanding of their epistemic foundations. With reference to Thomas Mann’s private library, I suggest viewing the act of annotating with pens itself as an epistemic practice. For this, I introduce the term ‘pen traces’ for all phenomena left behind by pens, and distinguish between four different forms of knowledge that influence their emergence: the knowledge of readers, the knowledge of authors, textual knowledge and contextual knowledge. By shedding light on pen traces as traces of an epistemic practice, finally, I point out the need for a practice theory of annotation. Combining theoretical and methodological questions, this chapter describes one approach to the multimodal annotation and analysis of audio-visual artefacts using the ELAN annotation tool. In particular, we focus on the multimodal construction and representation of gender differences in contemporary American TV series by qualitatively and quantitatively analysing the beginnings of TV shows. In doing so, we consider various modes and aspects in order to show how meaning, especially in the construction of the main characters, is created within and across the semiotic modes employed. Robert Musil’s literary estate provides a huge amount of material for research into a ‘phenomenology of writing’. This article introduces an annotation system for the digital representation of the estate from the perspective of writing. The dynamic changes of the text become visible in three different scenarios, corresponding with three levels of the genetic representation of the text. A) The ‘Minor (or Small-Scale) Writing Scene’ on the microgenetic level, whose traces in the draft manuscript allow us to distinguish five stages of revision. B) The ‘Middle (or Medium-Scale) Writing Scene’ on the mesogenetic level, taking into account additional manuscripts which play a role for sketching or rewriting a particular chapter draft. The distinction between draft and note, further differentiated into six types of manuscripts, is fundamental to the modelling of Musil’s writing process. C) The ‘Major (or Large-Scale) Writing Scene’ on the macrogenetic level, i.e. the text versions in their chronological dimension, with 45 dated periods (1898-1942), and their content-based location in the complex structure of the Man without Properties novel project, including preparatory projects, novel parts, chapter complexes and chapter projects. Digitally transcribed as early as the 1980s, the corpus of the digital estate was published in proprietary formats in 1992 and 2009, using a corpus-specific annotation system. Since 2016, MUSIL ONLINE, an open-access edition based on XML/TEI, has been in preparation at the Robert Musil Institute of the University of Klagenfurt. The second part of the article presents its full annotation scheme for the three scenarios mentioned. Annotation in the Humanities and Social Sciences covers a broad spectrum of different concepts and practices. Hermeneutic approaches differ regarding the theoretical novelty of their hypotheses: a) verifying hypotheses in deductive approaches, b) extracting new hypotheses within the framework of existing theoretical assumptions in inductive approaches and c) generating theories related to the subject matter in abductive approaches. When it comes to annotations, we suggest a classification based on two criteria. The first criterion distinguishes processoriented annotations from more product-oriented ones. This often correlates with the hermeneutic approach and at what point in the process of developing new knowledge annotation is actually applied. The second criterion relates to the mode of annotation: whether the main focus is on performing annotation manually or on applying automatic annotation. We exemplify our classification by means of cases involving the annotation of categories from (Computational) Linguistics and Cultural Anthropology in the interdisciplinary project hermA. This chapter focuses on early uses of footnotes (as one category of annotations) in Central Europe during the second half of the seventeenth century. Attention is also accorded to what can be regarded as an institutional context for these early footnotes: the precursors of the Humanities (mainly: Ancient Languages and Literatures) as well as the roles of academic disciplines and interdisciplinarity at Central European academic institutions during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. That institutional context is used to call attention to issues pertaining to (inter-)disciplinarity in our time and the relevance of these issues to collaboration between colleagues in the Humanities and the Digital Humanities. Mentioned is the possibility that innovative uses of footnotes (often along with other forms of annotations) during the late seventeenth century by little known authors might serve as a catalyst for innovation in the Digital Humanities. As a kind of epistemological hinge, annotations have a remarkable impact on processes of knowledge production in the Humanities and especially in Literary Studies, whose particularities are often modelled under the term ‘hermeneutic circle’. Based on a concrete experience of annotation practice in the (re)construction of topoi, the article explores the special status of annotations and submits a pluralizing proposal: the differentiation of four circles aims at more precise descriptions of (a) the respective conditions and consequences of annotating in research processes, (b) the disciplinary specifics as well as the transdisciplinary dimensions of annotations and (c) the methodological transformations due to ‘digitization’ or ‘(semi-)automation’ of annotation. How can traditional literary scholars be introduced to digital methods?...
Journal of Clinical Nursing, Volume 29, pp 4818-4826; doi:10.1111/jocn.15528
Aims and objectives The aim was to explore how nurses experience compassionate care for patients with cancer and family caregivers in different phases of the palliative pathway. Background Compassion is fundamental to palliative care and viewed as a cornerstone of high‐quality care provision. Healthcare authorities emphasize that patients should have the opportunity to stay at home for as long as possible. There are, however, care deficiencies in the palliative pathway. Design This study employed a qualitative design using focus groups and a hermeneutic approach. Methods Four focus groups with three to seven female nurses in each group were conducted in Mid‐Norway in 2018. Nurses’ ages ranged from 28‐60 years (mean age =45 years), and they were recruited through purposive sampling (N = 21). Compassionate care was chosen as the theoretical framework. Reporting followed the COREQ guidelines. Results Three themes expressing compassionate care related to different phases of the pathway were identified: (a) information and dialogue, (b) the creation of a space for dying, and (c) family caregivers’ acceptance of death. Conclusions This study showed that it was crucial to create a space for dying, characterized by trust, collaboration, good relationships, empathy, attention, silence, caution, slowness, symptom relief, and the absence of noise and conflict. Relevance to clinical practice The quality of compassion possessed by individual practitioners, as well as the overall design of the healthcare system, must be considered when creating compassionate care for patients and their family caregivers. Nursing educators and health authorities should pay attention to the development of compassion in education and practice. Further research should highlight patients’ and family caregivers’ experiences of compassionate care and determine how healthcare systems can support compassionate care. Impact What does this paper contribute to the wider global clinical community? It provides insight into nurses’ role in compassionate care in different phases of the palliative pathway. It highlights the importance of early engagement with family caregivers, as a key element of compassionate care. Nurses play a crucial role in creating a space for dying, which is important for patients’ and their family members’ preparation for death.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, Volume 35, pp 163-169; doi:10.1111/scs.12831
Background and aim All human beings have the need to feel connected with others. However, researchers have found that for those aged 80+, loneliness markedly increases and that such loneliness is often linked to life changes or the loss of a close relative. The loss of a life partner is considered to have a greater impact on men’s identify, social engagement and management of life. The aim of this study was to deepen understanding of older (80+) men’s life after the loss of their life partners. Theoretical framework Caring science and Eriksson’s theory of caritative caring form the theoretical base for the study and its interpretative framework. The central concepts are suffering of life and desire of life. Informants, methodology and methods A total of five men aged 81–91 gave thereby consent for participation in the study. Emanating from hermeneutical methodology, qualitative deep interviews with a narrative approach were used to collect data. Thereafter, a six‐step qualitative thematic analysis in accordance with Braun and Clarke was used to analyse the text. Interpretation and conclusion Four themes emerged: reconciliation with one’s lived life, living in the present with uncertainty about the future, a reorientation in life including new living conditions and living with the hope of finding a new life partner and feeling loved. We found that loss can lead to suffering in life. The life can be filled with loneliness, emptiness, life weariness and an absence of desire, hope and longing. Yet there is a vitality in suffering that enables to find new meaning contexts and desire for life. Here, the fundamental choice underpinning the movement between life suffering and desire for life is comprised of reconciliation with one’s lived life, living in the present, daily habits and routines, being seen, participation, love and thoughtfulness.
Published: unknown date
This study takes its lead from a rapidly expanding body of literature which has centred on the relatively recent urban phenomenon of 'Neighbourhood Revitalization' (i.e. the economic, social and cultural regeneration of inner-city core neighbourhoods in some of the older North American and European cities). An extensive reading of this literature reveals two fundamental failings that currently plague the research effort. First, many writers have tended to overemphasize the distinctiveness of the revitalization process with the net result that it has been treated as being conceptually separate from other, more established processes of neighbourhood change. Second, there has also been a tendency to concentrate attention on just one aspect of neighbourhood revitalization to the exclusion of others, and thus a failure to adequately reflect the multiple significance of the change that is occurring. In response to these failings, this particular study aims to accomplish a theoretical and empirical synthesis of first, the inner-city revitalization literature with the wider field of neighbourhood and community studies; and second, the various aspects of the revitalization process, with special reference to the merger of the socio-cultural and political dimensions of neighbourhood change. The thesis is divided into a theoretical and an empirical section. The principal concern of the former is to construct a consistent and comprehensive approach to the empirical case-study, at three distinct intellectual levels. First, a hermeneutic or 'humanistic' epistemology is selected because it has successfully shown that it can be simultaneously critical and interpretive, especially at the micro-scale of inter- and intra-group behaviour within a community. Second, based on these hermeneutic principles, a theoretical framework is developed which views the analytical unit of the neighbourhood as an ever-changing 'mosaic of social worlds'. Finally, a mixed methodology is adopted, which relies on both conventionally used, quantitative, data and more infrequently used types of qualitative data, derived from participant-observation in particular. The empirical case-study focusses on Grandview-Woodland, an old working-class neighbourhood in the East End of Vancouver. For many years, the area has been a target for a succession of newly-arrived immigrant groups, who have been predominantly engaged in blue-collar occupations. However, in recent years, there have been a number of indications that some parts of the area may be experiencing 'incipient gentrification', the first stage in neighbourhood revitalization. A 'New Wave' of students, radicals, feminists, gays, artists, pre-, semi- and full- professionals are now beginning to establish themselves in the various spheres of the Grandview-Woodland community. Along Commercial Drive, the local retailing strip, they have been responsible for the creation of a distinctive 'scene' that rivals the comparatively longer established Southern Mediterraneans as the dominant socio-cultural group. This duality is also reflected in the diverse streetscapes that are a strong motif of the neighbourhood's residential section. More significant however, has been the impact of the New Wave, particularly the more moderate property-owning element, upon the local political arena of Grandview-Woodland. This most recent phase of 'revitalization' is situated in the historical context of political development in the neighbourhood, which began with the merchants' initiatives in the inter- and post-war periods, and passed on in the 1960's to the control of professionals and student activists working in the area, and ultimately, to the local residents in the last decade. This study is primarily concerned with this latter stage, examining in detail the motives, interaction and implications of the involvement by various ethnic-, tenure- and class-based social worlds in local land use planning and neighbourhood improvement issues. The study's main conclusion is that analysts must become more aware of the limitations of applying generalized models to this process, including the stage model of settlement, and more crucially, the bi-polar model of the community's social structure (i.e. the distinction between 'gentrifiers' and 'incumbents'). In future, analysts of both neighbourhood revitalization and neighbourhood change in general, should make a concerted effort to look more deeply within these categories and critically assess their utility in understanding inter- and intra-group behaviour in the changing community.
Published: unknown date
In this thesis the proposal is made that a reconceptualization of art in education is needed to expand the framework of the discipline beyond the somewhat insular parameters of conventional production-oriented approaches. An expanded paradigm as proposed in this thesis would encompass the skills and constructs that would allow students to investigate fundamental relationships between art and life existing in any cultural setting. The review of literature provided contributes to the theoretical foundation for this view of art education by including the following: (a) a summary of anthropological and sociological approaches which help to identify possible research avenues for the study of art in culture; (b) an overview of issues related to the present state of multi-culturalism and education; (c) an examination of selected basic orientations and directions in curriculum development, with particular emphasis on qualitative approaches; (d) an examination of some of the major world-views which exist as perceptual variations among peoples, and which are reflected in their arts; and (e) a summary of the major developments which have provided the foundations for current culture-based work in art education, and which have helped to identify potentialities for the future. Based on this theoretical framework, a methodological model is presented to elucidate one possible qualitative approach to the study of art in cultural context. Each component of the methodology is described in detail, and each includes detailed summary charts. This is followed by a sample study illustrating one possible application of the use of the methodology. Finally, future needs are identified and recommendations are put forward to illustrate the potential of this type of methodology within the educational field as a whole.Fundamentally the methodology presented here provides a praxiological approach to the study of art, requiring that students learn to become responsible for their own actions by consciously investigating the inherent meanings of these actions on an on-going basis. The students are asked to become curriculum developers, cultural anthropologists, connoisseurs, critics, and craftsmen. In addition to encompassing essentially a hermeneutic-social adaptation orientation, this methodology also focuses on personal relevance by providing opportunities for the student to consider his/her personal role and "being" as an individual living in a cultural world. In essence it provides a means through which heuristic learning may be facilitated through dialectic interaction focusing on cultural themes. This interaction is carried out within four stages: investigation, criticism, production, and evaluation. The major aims for the program are identified as including: (a) learning to understand the functions and meaning of art in culture; (b) learning to appreciate the role of the artist/craftsman in cultural context; and (c) developing cultural competencies, i.e., sensibilities which would enable individuals to become responsible and responsive world citizens, capable of intelligent and creative cross-cultural identifications and interaction. It is posited that the study of art within this context can provide unique insights into cultural values and world-views, leading towards heightened cultural and artistic consciousness.