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, Pamela Wicker, Nefertiti A. Walker
Published: 31 May 2021
Frontiers in Sociology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.684066

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research Topic Gender and Racial Bias in Sport Organizations Legal mandates, social pressures for inclusion, and shifting demographic landscapes all contribute to an increased focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion in sport (Cunningham, 2019). Some leagues, such as the Women’s National Basketball Association, excel in this area, serving as a model for others (Lapchick, 2021). Despite the presence of exemplars, most of professional sport in the United States remains mired in the decades-long pattern of similarity and exclusion where White, able-bodied, cisgender, heterosexual men hold key leadership roles (Brassil & Lutz, 2020). These patterns are also evident in other sport contexts in the United States and around the world (Ahn & Cunningham, 2017; Cunningham et al., 2021; Walker & Bopp, 2011; Wicker et al., 2019; Wicker et al., 2020). Thus, even though members of underrepresented, minoritized groups frequently represent the majority of players, leadership roles are seemingly reserved for those who have historically held power. In addition to limited access, members of underrepresented groups are likely to encounter stereotypes, prejudice, and treatment discrimination in sport. The disparities are evident among athletes, administrators, coaches, officials, and fans (Burton, 2015; Singer, 2016; Sveinson et al., 2019; Hindman & Walker, 2020; Wells et al., 2021; Wicker & Kerwin, 2020). These patterns suggest that, even though group diversity is frequently associated with desired outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness and positive affective outcomes (Lee & Cunningham, 2019), sport is a place where people who differ from the typical majority face various biases, limiting their access to and full participation in sport. The purpose of this Research Topic was to explore these issues in greater depth. Specifically, we sought research from authors who 1) focused on taken-for-granted assumptions, 2) considered the myriad of factors that could influence the manifestation of bias, and 3) explored the intersections of race, gender, and other diversity forms. As we outline in the following section, the selected articles accomplished these aims. One of the themes to materialize from the articles was the value of critically examining the presence of and consequences of diverging from taken-for-granted assumptions and practices. Frick and Moser’s study offers an apt illustration, questioning the assumption that, among Nordic and Alpine skiers, women are less competitive than men. To do so, they analyzed decades of data from the sport. Their results showed that women and men were equally adept at managing career successes and failures, and that the career length of women and men was virtually identical. Thus, at least among elite skiers, their findings counter the notion of gender differences in competitiveness and drive. From another perspective, Braumüller et al. drew from a large-scale dataset, which included respondents from Germany, Scotland, Austria, Italy, and Hungary, to explore the experiences of transgender, non-binary, and cisgender athletes. Given that sport is largely segregated based on sex assigned at birth, and transgender and non-binary athletes challenge this demarcation, it is possible they have poor experiences in sport. Consistent with this perspective, results showed that transgender and non-binary athletes faced continued anti-trans bias, including structural forms of discrimination. Two articles considered factors that might influence the presence of bias in sport. Mire et al., for example, conducted a study of weightlifters and examined whether coach-athlete gender similarity influenced the athletes’ performance. Among men, gender congruence was associated with better performance. Women performed better when their coach was a man, but only until age 43, at which point they performed better when guided by a woman. The authors noted historical biases against women in the sport could contribute to these patterns. Demographic similarity, or a lack thereof, is also associated with referee decisions. Specifically, in examining multiple years of data from the National Football League, Eiserloh et al. found that Black umpires called more penalties when their referee (the leader of the team of officials) was White. The authors reasoned that Black umpires might feel more pressure to assess infractions when their team leader is White—stresses others have observed in different sport contexts (Foreman & Turick, 2020). The importance of contextual factors was highlighted in two studies. Focusing on men’s intercollegiate basketball in the United States, Nesseler et al. found that Black coaches were underrepresented—a pattern that continued for decades. The effects were more pronounced, however, in Division III institutions, which are comparatively smaller with more White undergraduate students. Gomez-Gonzalez et al. also illustrated the importance of context. The authors noted that previous researchers had found that demographic dissimilarity was associated with the number of infractions a referee called on an athlete. Most of these studies, though, were set in the United States or United Kingdom and focused on men’s sport. Gomez-Gonzalez et al. diverged from this pattern, analyzing data from women’s basketball teams in Spain. Contrary to previous work, the authors observed no effects of racial dissimilarity or nationality dissimilarity. Thus, the country and sport might moderate the relationship between dissimilarity and infractions called. Finally, other contributors highlighted the importance of explicitly considering intersectionality—a position for which previous researchers have advocated (Walker & Melton, 2015). In the first study, Bartsch and Rulofs focused on physical education teachers’ attitudes toward children from refugee backgrounds. Racialized and gendered notions of threat and...
, Shi An
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Volume 2016, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6195673

Abstract:
Complex supply chain system collaborative management of major construction projects effectively integrates the different participants in the construction project. This paper establishes a simulation model based on AnyLogic to reveal the collaborative elements in the complex supply chain management system and the modes of action as well as the transmission problems of the intent information. Thus it is promoting the participants to become an organism with coordinated development and coevolution. This study can help improve the efficiency and management of the complex system of major construction projects.1. IntroductionMajor constructions are surged unimaginably in demand along with the development of science, technology, and society. According to Morgan Stanley research report, the emerging economies are expected to spend $21.7 trillion for major infrastructure projects between 2009 and 2019. Like most countries, the Chinese government will spend $9 trillion which is the 12% of GDP on the major constructions [1]. However, the major constructions often have some urgent problems in the collaborative management field and suffer many problems and shortcomings from the traditional mode of project management, for example, the project cost exceeding budgets, the project duration delays, and the owners’ dissatisfaction.Some basic characteristics of modern major construction projects are long construction period, large investment, and complex organization relationship. Although there is no linearly proportional relationship between scale and complexity, high construction cost is a common characteristic of complex major construction projects. In general, the more complex major construction projects have both a longer construction period and a higher cost [2]. At the same time, the fields involved in major construction projects are increasing, such as transportation, real estate, and medical fields. It leads to the major construction project which involves more organizations. Therefore, the major construction projects need to organize the organizations and people with different functions and experiences, which further increase the organizational complexity.In modern major construction projects, the external characteristics of culture and environment are stronger uncertainty and turbulence. The unforeseeable factors in the implementation process of major construction projects have increased. Not only are projects affected by the local governments and the social, economic, and cultural environments, but they are restricted by local resources, climate, and geology. In particular, multiple participants of major construction projects, such as the owner, consulting party, designer, contractors, suppliers, and operators, have different social psychologies, cultures, habits, and specialties, which increases the difficulty in communication [3, 4]. In addition, with the intensifying international competition in major construction projects and the increasingly internationally cooperated major construction projects, participants are often from different countries. It is because most of the major constructions of the tender are globally oriented. They seek the most suitable contractor in the world. For example, throughout the world, many countries are actively striving for high-speed rail projects. Some factors increase the risks of major construction projects. Major projects have different social systems, cultures, and legal backgrounds and are in different languages, which increase barriers to communication and the complexity of project management. The increasing environmental uncertainty is the main source leading to the complexity of major construction project [5].Based on the above analysis, the traditional process of major construction projects is needed to innovate and consolidate the management. It is difficult for traditional major construction projects to use a production process similar to that of other industries. The owners cannot obtain complete building products and perfect service. They have no ability to manage major construction projects but have to participate in the construction process. They must perform complex management work and bear the resulting responsibility, leading to many entanglements [6]. In addition, due to the specialty limitation of major construction projects, it has different spanning periods or implementation parities. So it is hard to coordinate between a superior and an inferior, and this leads to discontinuity of management at last.Major construction projects have their own general objectives and requirements, but due to the different organization tasks and persons responsible in different phases, the tasks are undertaken by different enterprises, resulting in the separation of project organization, inconsistent objectives, and discrete responsibilities. Due to the inconsistent objectives among the participants, they balance each other, leading to tense relationships and low working efficiency, which inhibits enthusiasm and creativity. Significant costs, time, and energy are spent on various working interfaces [7]. Because the interests of the participants of a project have nothing to do with its ultimate benefit, people’s short-term actions are more serious than those in other organizations, which easily produce the ideal for all construction. The participants pay attention to the short-term local interests and ignore the operation status of the project and the requirement of continuous development, thus failing to realize the general optimization of the life cycle of a major construction project. Moreover, there are obvious blind areas in the organizational responsibility system, which increases the risks for all participants. For example, governments and manufacturers must use positive political connections to achieve product protection and supervision of safety throughout the supply chain [8], and the agent’s working efficiency is decreased, which may erode the value of the company [9].The long construction period, large investment, complex organizational relationship, uncertain cultural environment, and breaking in phase of major construction projects are objective problems that are difficult to solve. However, complex objective and information isolation can be improved through management. The traditional management system, managing mode and idea of major construction projects, cannot satisfy and adapt to the needs of complex key project management [10]. The complexity of a major construction project raises new requirements on management. Thus, it has important theoretical and realistic significance in the research of the collaboration of the complex system of major construction projects [11].2. Literature ReviewThe following subsections are talking about collaborative management of complex major construction projects which are based on AnyLogic. The research subject is a complex system of major construction project. The research perspectives of collaborative management are from the relationship among the participants, through mathematical analysis, adopting the research methods of simulation modelling. In this paper, the existing research as theoretical basis stands in a new perspective to discuss the coordinated management of major constructions.2.1. Complex Supply Chain of Major Construction ProjectsA major construction project supply chain is called CPSC. The simulation models are applied to study a specific coordination mechanism where coordination requirements are produced in different departments with complex relationships in key organizations. In addition, it is considered that the VDT (Virtual Design Team) model is more suitable for research of projects with unpredictable factors. It is a formal method for developing the new microlevel behavioral mechanisms as the primary point of departure from the aspect of information processing. And the microcontingency model generates a set of testable hypotheses related to these theorized microlevel behaviors [12]. Mihm et al. studied the impact of the hierarchical organizational structure on the speed of the searching decision-making plan and the stability and quality of the problem solutions by combining mathematical analysis and simulation models [13]. Cope et al. pointed out that NASA faced the difficulty of how to effectively manage and coordinate the experts in different places and proposed to design a case study where the approach was implemented to model, simulate, and analyse NASA’s Space Exploration Supply Chain [14].2.2. Collaborative Management of Major Construction ProjectsFor the relationship among the participants, Ruff et al. noted that, due to the greater uncertainty of major construction projects, it is easier to cause discordance among the participants, leading to project delays, cost exceeding, and disputes. The authors analysed the relationship among the participants of those projects and presented the problems to address in project management [15]. Hinze and Tracey studied the relationship between principal contractors and subcontractors from the perspective of the subcontractor and noted that some behaviour of principal contractors may cause harm to the industry [16]. Cheung analysed the key factors of the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) method for solving disputes with the analytic hierarchy process and noted that the disputes would be solved more efficiently using the ADR method if attention was paid to those key factors [17]. Bond and Naus studied the communication issue of engineering projects and put forward six factors affecting the communication efficiency of project participants and a way to improve communication [18]. Therefore, the collaborative management of major construction projects has important significance. Appropriate application of collaborative management can improve the flexibility in the physical distribution and minimize the inefficiency of major construction projects [19, 20].2.3. Supply
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Volume 40, pp 7-38; https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20140714-02

Abstract:
News The majority of thoughts of death and suicide among older adults may be a result of physical, economic, and family factors—not depression, according to study findings presented at the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Annual Meeting. Researchers looked at data from the ongoing, longitudinal New York City Neighborhood and Mental Health Study, which included 3,497 New York City residents aged 65 to 75. Study participants were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Question nine of the PHQ-9 explores suicidality and asks patients if they have experienced thoughts of death or suicide in the past 2 weeks. Those who responded “yes” were referred to a psychiatrist, who diagnosed suicidal ideas. To elucidate motivations behind suicidality, the psychiatrist asked participants why they responded “yes” to question nine, as well as what reasons they had to live. According to researchers, the majority of participants said that factors other than depression, including illness, disability, pain, financial concerns, family problems, and bereavement were driving their thoughts. Participants who had suicidal ideation and those who did not gave similar reasons at similar rates for answering “yes” to question nine of the PHQ-9. Among those with suicidal ideation, 26% cited depression as a reason for sometimes feeling that they would be better off dead, compared with 25% of those without suicidal ideation. In both groups, family and satisfaction with support were most frequently cited as reasons to live. Source.“Suicidal Thoughts Among Elderly Driven by Physical Health and Socioeconomic Vulnerabilities.” (2014, April 28). Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://bit.ly/SUibb2. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has launched Lawn, a public service advertisement (PSA) that encourages men 50 and older to examine their skin for suspicious or changing spots. Using humorous scenarios, Lawn points out that if men will do anything to take care of a spot on their lawn, they should do the same for a spot on their skin. Distributed to television and cable stations nationwide, the television PSA encourages men to check their skin and have someone they trust check the areas they cannot see. The PSA can be viewed on the AAD YouTube channel and at www.aad.org/psa. In addition to launching the PSA, AAD is teaching individuals how to SPOT Skin Cancer™. SPOT Skin Cancer is AAD’s campaign to create a world without skin cancer through public awareness, community outreach programs and services, and advocacy that promote the prevention, detection, and care of skin cancer. On the campaign Web site ( www.SpotSkinCancer.org), individuals can learn how to perform a skin cancer self-exam using the “How to SPOT Skin Cancer” infographic, test their knowledge of skin cancer with the SPOT Skin Cancer Quiz, and find free skin cancer screenings in their area. In addition, individuals who have been affected by skin cancer can share their personal stories and provide support and inspiration for others fighting skin cancer. They can also communicate the importance of prevention and early detection. Although melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, can affect anyone, men older than 50 are at a higher risk of developing melanoma than the general population, and according to an AAD survey, men are less likely than women to know how to examine their skin for signs of skin cancer. Source.“New Public Service Campaign Uses Humor to Urge Men Over 50 to Check Their Skin for Skin Cancer.” (2014, May 27). Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://bit.ly/1oXz8vp. Surgery for frail older adults can be risky. A new patient-centered, team-based approach to deciding whether these high-risk patients will benefit from surgery was championed in the Perspective of the New England Journal of Medicine. The article suggests that the decision to have surgery must balance the advantages and disadvantages of surgical and non-surgical treatment, as well as the patient’s values and goals. In addition, the decision should be made among the patient, his or her family, and a team of medical experts (i.e., surgeon, primary care physician, physician anesthesiologist), who can explain each surgical and non-surgical option, as well as each option’s benefits and risks. The article also suggests that high-risk older adult patients should be given the choice among treatments, including no treatment. Researchers acknowledged that this shift to team-based care for this small patient population would increase the cost of medical care; however, they suggested that this increased cost could be mitigated by the use of virtual teams. For example, each team member would have electronic access to the patient’s data, and the team “discussion” could take place electronically. Researchers predict that the management of patients in the future will occur in surgical homes, a concept that the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) advocates through its Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) initiative. ASA’s PSH initiative is a patient-centered, physician-led, team-based practice model of coordinated care that guides a patient throughout the entire surgical experience. ASA is currently developing a learning collaborative for its PSH model of care. This collaborative of health care organizations will work to improve the care of surgical patients from the moment surgery is planned through recovery, discharge, and the first 30 days postoperatively. One third of older adults in the United States have surgery in the last 12 months of their lives, and most have surgery within the last month. However, 75% of seriously ill patients say that they would not choose surgery if they knew they would have severe cognitive or functional complications afterward. Source.“For Frail, High-Risk Seniors, Surgery Decisions Should...
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