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Abdul Moiz Mohammed
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 48-51; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejeng.2021.6.7.2639

Abstract:
The resonance radiation study is a powerful means in obtaining valuable information concerning the behavior of individual atoms and molecules. Various quantitative techniques are available in order to determine the amount of analyte and analysis of trace elements in the sample. Some technique uses the principle, when the number of atoms in the path of light increases, the amount of light absorption increases. While other techniques use dissociation of chemical compound free atoms by supplying enough thermal energy. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare various analytical methods with their merits and demerits and the reasons for popularity of atomic absorption spectroscopy among researchers. Elemental analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy of various elements that are found in nature particularly in foods and environment is also presented.
Abdul Moiz Mohammed
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 48-51; https://doi.org/10.24018/ej-eng.2021.6.7.2639

Abstract:
The resonance radiation study is a powerful means in obtaining valuable information concerning the behavior of individual atoms and molecules. Various quantitative techniques are available in order to determine the amount of analyte and analysis of trace elements in the sample. Some technique uses the principle, when the number of atoms in the path of light increases, the amount of light absorption increases. While other techniques use dissociation of chemical compound free atoms by supplying enough thermal energy. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare various analytical methods with their merits and demerits and the reasons for popularity of atomic absorption spectroscopy among researchers. Elemental analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy of various elements that are found in nature particularly in foods and environment is also presented.
P. Ducheyne, G. Willems, M. Martens, J. Helsen
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Volume 18, pp 293-308; https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820180306

Abstract:
Dense and porous Ti, Ti-alloy, and stainless steel specimens were implanted in canine trabecular bone. After 6 and 12 months the specimens were retrieved together with bone tissue immediately adjacent. The trace metal content in the tissue samples was determined using neutron activation analysis, differential pulse polarography, graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, electron microprobe analysis, and laser microprobe analysis. The results are discussed in view of (i) the release of Ti ions, which is larger for porous than for bulk specimens, (ii) the various artifacts arising in electron microprobe (EMP) and laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) determination of compositional gradients of trace metal-ion content in bone tissue, (iii) the absence of measurable quantities of V in bone tissue, and (iv) the difference in local tissue accumulation between Ti, released from Ti specimens, and Ni, released from stainless steel specimens.
J. J. Labrecque, H. Schorin
Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 34, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702804730970

Abstract:
A comparison of an atomic absorption method and x-ray fluorescence procedure for the analysis of the major constituents in Venezuelan laterites from Serranía de los Guaicas and bauxites is presented. These methods are also compared to other classical methods. The accuracy and precision of both these techniques are within the requirements needed. The HF-H3BO3 decomposition step is a disadvantage in the atomic absorption method because of the uncertainty in a complete sample dissolution of bauxites, but it has been shown to be suitable for Venezuelan laterites. The x-ray fluorescence technique presented herein is also limited because of its sample preparation, i.e., the use of expensive Pt-Au crucibles and the large quantity of sample needed.
Philippe Quevauviller
Published: 8 January 2016
Marine Chemical Monitoring pp 147-203; https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119006824.ch4

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Martin C. Brennan Msc
A Practical Approach to Quantitative Metal Analysis of Organic Matrices pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470998281.ch1

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R. S. Lokhande, , M. L. Andhele, R. Acharya, A.G.C. Nair,
Published: 1 January 2009
Radiochimica Acta, Volume 97; https://doi.org/10.1524/ract.2009.1621

Abstract:
Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed.
Archana Kolasani, Hong Xu,
Published: 15 August 2011
Food Chemistry, Volume 127, pp 1465-1471; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.106

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C. Minoia, R. Pietra, E. Sabbioni, A. Ronchi, A. Gatti, A. Cavalleri, L. Manzo
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 120, pp 63-79; https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(92)90216-f

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
V. S. Bapna, , M. D. Sathe, K. N. Mathur, G. L. Dwivedi
Published: 1 March 1991
Meteoritics, Volume 26, pp 65-67; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.1991.tb01016.x

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T. F. Brown, L. K. Zeringue
Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 71, pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(88)79534-x

Abstract:
Gallium, Co, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn, dissolved in methanol, were evaluated for efficacy as an alternate volume matrix modifier in Se analysis of forages and concentrates. Gallium, Co, Mn, and Zn were unsuitable as modifiers. Nickel, Cd, Cu, and modifier "M" (Ni + Cd + Cu) were used to test recovery of Se addition (.025, .050, .100, .200, and .500/2g) in meat and bone meal, pelleted grain dust, dry milk replacer, whole soybeans, and alfalfa hay. Recovery of Se with Cu, Cd, and "M" had large and variable SD of means within Se con- centrations across feedstuffs and within feedstuff across Se concentrations. Mean percent recoveries of Se with the Ni modifier for the five concentrations over aII feedstuffs were 106.4, 102.4, 100.2, 97.5, and 97.4, respectively. Repeated analyses of these same five feedstuffs, plus National Bureau of Standards citrus leaves and corn stalk (recommended Se = .016 /ag/g), gave Se concentrations (means ~lg/g) of .423, .104, .168, .196, .624, .027, and .015, respectively. Results obtained with Cd, Cu, and "M" had larger SD than did results obtained with Ni. Nickel nitrate in methanol as an alternate volume matrix modifier for Se provided reliable and sensitive Se analyses for a variety of feedstuffs.
Derek W. Smith
Inorganic Substances pp 29-85; https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511622922.003

Abstract:
IntroductionThis chapter presents a brief survey of the more important physical techniques to which reference will be found in more comprehensive texts. It was noted in Chapter 1 that inorganic chemists have become increasingly preoccupied with physical methods since about 1950, often to the extent that the development of the technique and the underlying theory overshadow the inorganic chemistry. Inorganic chemists have indeed invaded large parts of the territories traditionally associated with physical chemistry. It was pointed out in the Preface that the neglect of factual, descriptive chemistry in contemporary inorganic courses and texts has been a direct consequence of the emphasis placed upon physical and theoretical matters. It is proper, however, that an account of descriptive inorganic chemistry should make some mention of the methods used in determinations of structures etc. A scientist should always be prepared to give a rational and convincing answer to the question: ‘How do you know that?’ In order that the student who asks such a question receives a meaningful reply, it is necessary to have some knowledge of the kind of information conveyed by a given method, its strengths and its limitations.A great number of physical properties have been used by inorganic chemists, and new physical methods appear regularly, some to join existing methods as indispensable weapons in the arsenal and others to sink into obscurity after a short period of popularity.
Michael J Maniaci,
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Volume 59, pp 967-973; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2004.05.001

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, G. Garbarino, , K. S. Andrikopoulos,
Published: 14 December 2009
The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 131; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3269045

Abstract:
We report an in situ high pressure investigation of the structural change in vitreous As(2)S(3) up to 60 GPa using the diamond anvil cell and energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The main finding of the present study is a gradual elongation of the average As-S bond length, which takes place in the pressure range of 15-50 GPa. This change is interpreted as a signature of the coordination number increase around As atoms. The negative shift of the As K absorption edge position confirms the progressive metallization of the glass at high pressure. The observed changes are reversible after pressure release.
Nirbhay N. Yadav, Saravanamuthu Maheswaran, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Suntharampillai Thevuthasan, ,
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 251, pp 191-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.05.016

N. F. Mangelson, D. J. Eatough, N. L. Eatough, L. D. Hansen, M. W. Hill, M. L. Lee, L. R. Phillips, M. E. Post, B. E. Richter, J. F. Ryder
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Volume 28, pp 1378-1381; https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.1981.4331420

Abstract:
Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is a highly versatile method of element analysis. Thus it is well suited for use as a complement to other methods of analysis in experimental programs requiring both chemical and elemental analyses. This paper reports some results of two projects where PIXE was used in conjunction with titration calorimetry, ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and some other methods. The first is a study of sulfur chemistry in a copper smelter plume. Arsenic was found to be a conservative tracer of the plume and was used for calculation of plume dilution. Calcium was found to be characteristic of the background or ambient aerosol and was used to correct particulate data for the background contribution. The use of both plume and ambient tracers and of data from other analytical methods noted above led to the determination of several aspects of the plume sulfur chemistry. The second project is a study of the effluents from a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. The scrubber water and particulate matter entrained in the scrubber water and in the product gas were analyzed by PIXE. Of particular interest were the low elemental concentrations in the scrubber water.
William J. Crooks, Gregory R. Choppin, Akira Saito
Published: 1 November 1994
Analytical Letters, Volume 27, pp 2737-2750; https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719408006004

Abstract:
A method using ICP-AES for the quantitative analysis of B, Si, Ge, P and Mo and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Na in a series of heteropolytungstates is described. The two-step procedure involves estimating the W composition of the polytungstate by a classical method and use of an analyte solution of comparable W content to the standard solutions in ICP-AES and AAS. This procedure minimizes interelement interferences and offers comparable precision to classical procedures. The method is more general than has been previously reported for the ICP-AES of B, Si, Ge. P and Mo in heteropolyanion formulations. Estimations of the W content of heteropolyanions by this procedure were less successful. The limitations of the method are discussed.
, So Hatakeyama, Nobuharu Sasaki, Takashi Yamamoto, , Melissa Denecke, Clive T. Walker
Published: 1 January 2010
AIP Conference Proceedings; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3399251

Abstract:
A portable total reflection X‐ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer that we have developed is applied to trace elemental analysis of water solutions. Although a 5 W X‐ray tube is used in the portable TXRF spectrometer, detection limits of several ppb are achieved for 3d transition metal elements and trace elements in a leaching solution of soils, a leaching solution of solder, and alcoholic beverages are detected. Portable X‐ray fluorescence (XRF) spectromicroscopes with a 1 W X‐ray tube and an 8 W X‐ray tube are also presented. Using the portable XRF spectromicroscope with the 1 W X‐ray tube, 93 ppm of Cr is detected with an about 700 μm spatial resolution. Spatially resolved elemental analysis of a mug painted with blue, red, green, and white is performed using the two portable spectromicroscopes, and the difference in elemental composition at each paint is detected.
Alexander Zhuravlev, , Michael Arabadzhi, Clara Turetta, Giulio Cozzi,
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Volume 96, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2016.1160380

Abstract:
Three analytical methods, namely, inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS); inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and filter-furnace electrothermal atomic-absorption spectroscopy (FF-ET-AAS) for the determination of V, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, Cd and Pb in ground natural water samples were compared and evaluated for their capacity to provide reliable and precise results. Two certified reference materials (SLEW-3 Estuarine Water; SLRS-4 River Water) were analysed to prove that accurate results could be obtained by using all the listed methods with properly optimised parameters. The limit of detection (LOD) for V, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, Cd and Pb provided by the ICP-MS methods ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 µg L−1. Such LOD proved sufficient for the reliable determination of the listed elements in ground natural waters. However, the LOD of the FF-ET-AAS was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of ICP-MS, which made it impossible to quantify V, Mn, Ni, Mo and Pb. The effects of the usage of the collision cell mode in ICP-QMS and of the desolvation system Apex for ICP-SFMS to eliminate oxide ions levels were investigated. For all three analytical methods, the influence of the matrix effect on the results of the determination of the investigated elements using matrix model solution, external calibration and standard addition methods was evaluated. A comparison using a paired Student’s t-test between the results obtained by both ICP-MS methods for V, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, Cd and Pb concentrations in ground natural waters showed that there was no significant difference on a 95% confidence level. The precision of the results for ICP-SFMS, ICP-QMS and FF-ET-AAS varied between ~0.5 and 11; 2.5 and 12.5; 3 and 13.5%, respectively. Moreover, ICP-SFMS equipped with the desolvation system APEX proved a better choice for As, Cu and Mn analysis due to its better LOD (0.008, 0.03 and 0.02 µg L−1, respectively) and precision (Sr ≤ 5.0; 7.5; 9.0%, respectively) compared to ICP-QMS and FF-ET-AAS.
M. Gallorini, M. Pesavento, A. Profumo, C. Riolo
Published: 18 June 1993
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 133, pp 285-298; https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(93)90250-a

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Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, Volume 40, pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.1080/02773813.2019.1697292

Abstract:
The objective of the paper was to determine the effect of an alkyd resin in a grafting process of [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AAPTMS) to the wood matrix. In order to define the character of bonds between wood and the silane-resin formulation, nuclear magnetic resonance was applied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis detected vibrations of Si–C, Si–O and N–H groups, indicating permanent bonding wood with the silane-resin formulation. Atomic absorption spectrometry and an elemental analyzer were used to evaluate the degree of leaching of silicon compounds from treated wood. The results of chemical analyses confirmed that the silane-resin formulation grafted to wood and that AAPTMS without an addition of the resin did not bond with wood and was leached from the treated material. The results of analyses described in the paper indicated that the alkyd resin significantly limited leaching of the organosilane from treated wood and improved its bonding with the wood matrix.
, , , Maria Vittoria Vettori, Alfred Bernard, Pietro Apostoli
Published: 1 May 2006
Chest, Volume 129, pp 1288-1297; https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.129.5.1288

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to characterize the elemental composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in order to identify new biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in COPD patients. Serum pneumoproteins were used as lung-specific biomarkers of effect. EBC was obtained from 50 healthy subjects, 30 healthy smokers, 30 asthmatics, and 50 patients with stable COPD, and was collected by cooling exhaled air. Trace elements and toxic metals in the samples were measured by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The serum pneumoproteins were immunoassayed. The EBC of COPD subjects had higher levels of such toxic elements as lead, cadmium, and aluminum, and lower levels of iron and copper, than that of the nonsmoking control subjects. There were no between-group differences in surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-B levels. Clara-cell protein and SP-D levels were negatively and positively influenced, respectively, by tobacco smoke. Our results show that toxic metals and transition elements are detectable in the EBC of studied subjects. We propose new biomarkers of exposure as a means of assessing the target tissue dose of carcinogenic and pneumotoxic substances from tobacco smoke or polluted workplaces, and the use of the transition elements involved in redox systems of oxidative stress as disease biomarkers associated with effect or susceptibility. Together with biomarkers of effect, such as serum pneumoproteins, the elemental composition of EBC may be clinically useful in distinguishing similar diseases.
T. R. M. Helin, J. C. Slaughter
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 83, pp 15-16; https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.1975.tb03783.x

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Qiang-Qiang Liao, Bo Xiang, Yi-Jiu Li, Zhong-Yuan Wang
2009 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1109/icbbe.2009.5162215

Abstract:
Triethylenetetramine(TETA) was reacted with carbon bisulfide in an alkaline medium in order to prepare a bisdithiocarbamate chelator, namely sodion triethylenetetramine- bisdithiocarbamate(DTC-TETA). The chelator was characterized and examined by FTIR, UV spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Its complexes with heavy metal ions were also checked by UV spectroscopy. Comparison of heavy metal ions' stability for DTC- TETA with that for sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) was accomplished using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) coupled with flow-injection. By introducing NCS groups onto the TETA terminals, the FTIR spectrum shows strong absorption peaks at 1461~1388 cm -1 and 1174 ~ 996 cm -1 which were attributed to partly double bonds of C - .... N and C - .... S, respectively, representing the formation of DTC-TETA. The UV spectrum of DTC-TETA has two absorption peaks at 265 nm and 290 nm, assigned to pi-pi* transition of NhellipChellipS radical and nonbonding electron n-pi* transition of ShellipChellipS radical to conjugated system, respectively. The elemental analysis results demonstrate that the mol ratio of C, H, N and S in DTC-TETA was about 2:4:1:1. As for UV spectra of its Complexes with Cu (II) , Cd (II) , Zn (II) and Ni (II) , there are new four absorption peaks at 321 nm, 310 nm, 311 nm and 325 nm, respectively, confirming the formation of metal complexes. Coupled with flow- injection, FAAS determination shows that the complexation properties ofCu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ complexes of DTC-TETA are all better than those of DDTC at the same concentration.
, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, , Masoud Mirmasoumi, Navid Lamei, Mehrdad Azizi Shamami
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 12, pp 31-36

Abstract:
More than 30 mineral elements have been found with different key functions in helping plants and animals to survive and live healthy. As a direct result, they have always attracted the attention of scientists. The quest is to find some efficient analytical and quantitative procedures in this study to determine some mineral and trace elements of Iranian Crocus sativus L. corms. Several studies have been made using distinct methods and eventually, to achieve this purpose, three analytical methods were used as follows: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Seventeen mineral and trace elements (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Co, Cd, Sr, Rb, Sc, and Br) were determined in Crocus sativus L. corms in two different physiological stages.
Biological Trace Element Research, Volume 141, pp 329-339; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8738-6

Abstract:
Tomato quality and its potential health benefits are directly related to its chemical composition. The characterization of nutritional properties of Solanum germplasm is essential to choose suitable donor parents for breeding programs. In this sense, wild species could be very useful for tomato fruit quality genetic improvement. With this objective, in this work, we characterize micronutrients content in Eulycopersicon germplasm (20 cultivars of S. lycopersicum L. and 10 accessions of wild relatives) analyzing mineral (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) and applying multidimensional analysis (principal component and cluster analysis). The classification obtained and the comparison of cultivars performance showed that wild accessions belonging to S. cheesmaniae (L. Riley), S. pimpinellifolium L., and S. habrochaites S. Knapp & D.M. Spooner can be of great usefulness in breeding programs to improve mineral content characteristics of conventional S. lycopersicum varieties due to its higher mineral content.
Yu. V. Alekseenok, , A. Zh. Korokin, Carlos Granja, Claude Leroy
NUCLEAR PHYSICS METHODS AND ACCELERATORS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Fifth International Summer School on Nuclear Physics Methods and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3295656

Abstract:
Atmospheric deposition of trace element in Belarus was monitored by the moss technique, for the first time. This technique widely used in Europe for air pollution studies. Fifty eight samples of moss species Pleurozium shreberi and. Hylocomium splendens collected at 58 sites, predominantly over the Minsk Region, were subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cu. The Geographic Information Systems technology was applied to construct maps of elemental distributions of these elements over the sampled area. Comparison of the results obtained with analogous data from the European countries having participated in the moss survey 2005/2006 showed relatively low contamination levels for these elements.
H. Groll, C. Schnürer‐Patschan, A. Zybin, Y. Kuritzin, K. Niemax
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE “PHYSICAL MESOMECHANICS. MATERIALS WITH MULTILEVEL HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE AND INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY”, Volume 329, pp 495-498; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.47546

Abstract:
Wavelength modulation‐laser atomic absorption spectrometry with fundamental or frequency doubled radiation of commerically available semiconductor diode lasers allows the measurement of small absorbances (10− 5–10− 6). Sensitive detection of elements is demonstrated by the measurements of very small concentrations of Cr, Cs and Ti, and of Al, La and Rb in analytical flames and a graphite tube furnace, respectively. Furthermore, Cl, F and O are measured in a glow discharge and Cl is used to as indicator of chlorinated hydrocarbons in a microwave induced plasma which is coupled to a gas chromatograph.
Jean Louis Imbert, Philippe Telouk
Published: 1 July 1993
Microchimica Acta, Volume 110, pp 151-160; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01245099

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M. De La Guardia, V. Carbonell, A. Morales,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Volume 335, pp 975-979; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00466392

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Stephen R. Lawson, John A. Nichols, Puligandla Viswanadham, Ray Woodriff
Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 36, pp 375-378; https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702824639790

Abstract:
Simultaneous multielement atomic absorption spectroscopy has not become a common laboratory workhorse for elemental analyses despite recent advances in instrumentation. Two major obstacles preventing its implementation are the sometimes severe matrix interferences which occur in some pulsed atomizers and the limited working range of atomic absorption spectroscopy compared to the wide linear dynamic range of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Use of a constant temperature furnace in conjuction with techniques such as peak width at fixed height, random dilutions with element rationing, and monitoring two or more wavelengths of different sensitivities of an element are effective methods for eliminating or reducing these obstacles. Determination of trace zinc in unweighed samples of reagent grade CdCl2·2.5H2O and the determination of lead in unknown volumes of blood using hemoglobin iron as the internal standard are examples of analyses performed on the dual channel monochromator used in this work. Problems in selecting appropriate compromise conditions of atomization are exemplified in work done on solid samples. Although full recoveries of Zn and Cd were obtained at 1800 K in biological samples, low recoveries for Zn were obtained in NBS coal fly ash at this temperature. Atomization at 2100 K was necessary to restore full recovery.
Michael H. Tunick
Published: 27 September 2021
Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences pp 482-489; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-818766-1.00106-9

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A.D. King
Determination of low-level mercury by cold vapor generation and atomic absorption spectroscopy; https://doi.org/10.2172/5093846

Abstract:
A procedure for determining mercury in liquid samples by cold vapor flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy was developed. The optimum parameter values were determined and mercury standard storage conditions investigated. The effect and tolerance levels of twenty-seven ions, including those ions common to Tank Farm Operations and the Synthetic Wastes, were measured. Standard deviation for the procedure is less than 1%. The procedure can be used to determine mercury at the part per billion level in any liquid sample, a thousand-fold increase in sensitivity over current flame techniques.
Laura Dines Ngau, , Nazaratul Ashifa Abd Salim
Published: 10 December 2018
Trends in Undergraduate Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.33736/tur.1135.2018

Abstract:
Trace elements play a significant role in giving nutritional benefits to the body because they act as essential cofactors for all physiological processes. However, there are some trace elements which may bring more harm than good when entering the human body. Due to its ability to incorporate trace elements in an amount that is proportional to an individual’s dietary intake and environmental exposure, human fingernails are suitable biomarkers in assessing the health status of an individual as they reflect on the trace element concentration present in the body. This study has analysed fingernail samples of 23 adult females residing in Kuching and Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia for four elements, namely Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. By using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), the mean elemental concentrations found in fingernail samples of research participants were 171.8 ± 33.8 μg/g for Zn, 27.8 ± 14.8 μg/g for Cu and 2.64 ± 0.94 μg/g for Pb. Cd concentrations were not able to be detected as they were below the detection limits. A standard reference material, NIST 1568b Rice Flour was used to verify the methods used in elemental analysis using FAAS. Independent t-test which was used to compare the means of Zn and Cu between vegetarians and non-vegetarians showed no significant differences for both elements. Moreover, correlation analysis showed negative correlations between Cu/Zn pair and Pb/Zn pair, whereas significant positive correlation was obtained for Cu/Pb pair. The overall data from this study showed good agreements with data obtained from studies in other countries. Therefore, the current data in this study represents the latest background elemental concentrations in fingernails of the residents in Kuching and Kota Samarahan, Sarawak.Keywords: Adult females, fingernails, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), trace elements
R.R. Turner, S.E. Lindberg
Interlaboratory comparison of trace metal analyses by graphite furnace (flameless) atomic absorption spectroscopy; https://doi.org/10.2172/7345587

Abstract:
The analytical sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of trace metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Mn) analyses on aqueous samples performed at ORNL using a flameless graphite furnace atomic absorption system were evaluated in comparison to analyses performed by three independent laboratories using similar systems. All laboratories analyzed replicates of the same five samples which included twice distilled water, two U.S. EPA reference trace metal standards and two natural water samples. Analyses performed at ORNL were generally superior with respect to sensitivity and precision to those performed elsewhere. Approximate limits of detection, as indicated by analyses of the distilled water performed at ORNL, were close to those claimed by the instrument manufacturer. No one laboratory reported values which were consistently more accurate than those reported by the others and from some laboratories replicate values for the reference standards varied considerably. The best overall combination of precision and accuracy on the reference sample with the lowest concentrations (0.2 to 2.8 ..mu..g/l) was exhibited by ORNL. In contrast, ORNL exhibited the poorest combination of precision and accuracy on the reference sample with the highest concentration (2 to 28 ..mu..g/l). Subsequent analyses of new reference standards by ORNL indicated accurate values for lead.more » Results reported for the natural water samples suggested that the flameless atomic absorption method is sufficiently sensitive to quantitatively detect concentrations of selected trace metals in natural water without preconcentration procedures.« less
St Etris, Kc Lieb, Vk Sisca, IC Moore, Al Batik, Rf Crow, Jd Connolly
Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Volume 1, pp 382-393; https://doi.org/10.1520/jte10037j

Abstract:
A rapid and accurate atomic absorption method is described for the analysis of nine elements in portland cement and portland cement raw mix. These elements are aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, silicon, and strontium. Samples are fused with anhydrous lithium metaborate in a graphite crucible, and the molten melt is poured into a dilute acid solution.Possible interferences and “matrix” effects are minimised by calibrating the instrument with standard solutions prepared from NBS standard cements.Calcium and silicon determinations are made using a signal-averaging digital-readout device and a standard-unknown-standard bracketing technique,The precision and accuracy for all of the elements determined is sufficient for control purposes.The time required for the analysis of a single sample is approximately 1 1/2 h. When multiple samples are to be analyzed, time per sample is greatly reduced.
P. Capper, I.G. Gale, F. Grainger, J.A. Roberts, C.L. Jones, J.J.G. Gosney, I. Kenworthy, C.K. Ard, W.G. Coates
Published: 1 October 1988
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 92, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0248(88)90424-1

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M. A. Gouveia, J. Seabra e Barros, M. Jesus Tavares, M. Carmo Freitas
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 97, pp 265-270; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02035671

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Alan L. Dick
Published: 31 July 1991
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 55, pp 1827-1836; https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(91)90027-3

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R.W. Morrow, T.L. Futrell, T.T. Adams
Automated microprocessor-controlled atomic absorption analysis of natural water for arsenic and selenium; https://doi.org/10.2172/6823056

Abstract:
An automated, dual-channel atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium in natural water is now in operation. The instrument was constructed from commercially available optical components, spectral sources, and a sample changer. Automation was achieved by using an in-house-fabricated and programmed microprocessor. The instrument will analyze samples at a rate of 37 per hour, and a quantitative determination of arsenic and selenium to 0.2 ..mu..g/l (ppB) can be achieved. Arsenic can be determined with a precision of 19% at 1 ..mu..g/l and 6% at 10 ..mu..g/l, while selenium can be determined with a precision of 17% at 1 ..mu..g/l and 4% at 10 ..mu..g/l.
Iu V Rogul'skiĭ, , A P Lushpa, L F Sukhodub
Published: 1 September 1997
Abstract:
Describes a method for measuring trace elements Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo in the blood serum using non-flame atomization (KAC 120.1 complex). Optimal conditions for preparing the samples were defined, temperature regimens for analysis of each element selected, and original software permitting automated assays created. The method permits analysis making use of the minimal samples: 0.1 ml per 10 parallel measurements, which is 100 times less than needed for atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomization of liquid samples. Metrological characteristics of the method are assessed.
Raghbir Singh Khandpur
Compendium of Biomedical Instrumentation pp 107-113; https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119288190.ch18

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, N. Siddique, S. Rahman
Published: 4 December 2009
Radiochimica Acta, Volume 97, pp 763-769; https://doi.org/10.1524/ract.2009.1672

Abstract:
Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K, V, Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA, As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash.
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