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(searched for: Digitization in Archival Material Conservation Processes)
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Jonathan Westin
Nordisk Museologi, Volume 31, pp 40-40; doi:10.5617/nm.8823

Abstract:
To analyse and discuss the procedures through which a digital copy is brought into being as a representation of the physical original, this study offers an in-depth exploration of a single digitisation effort, that of the Ivar Arosenius Archive. Using Actor-Network Theory as a theoretical framework, this article argues that to digitise is to translate, a work that demands expert knowledge in a series of disciplines such as information science, image processing, archiving and conservation. The translation functions to rephrase the archival material with the purpose of making it mobile and conform to those protocols that define something as being digital, all while enrolling associations which strengthens it as a digital original. However, through this process, the multi-sensory archive is reduced to an ocularcentric archive, potentially losing meaning.
George Malaperdas
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 30-32; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.4.2444

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is the digitization process and the techniques used, in cases of archival material preservation. Digitization as a process, whether it involves old documents and old maps, or audio and video clips, is the most appropriate process not only for the protection, but also for the reuse, upgrading and highlighting of cultural heritage elements. In this paper, the main problems are presented divided into the main categories of archival material (photographic material, printed material, audio, and video material) while at the same time the equipment and means used are presented.
, Ivana Angelini, , Matteo Parisatto, Antonina Chaban, Rita Deiana, Gilberto Artioli
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 35; doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102774

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Albena Yaneva
Published: 15 November 2020
Crafting History; doi:10.7591/cornell/9781501751820.001.0001

Abstract:
What constitutes an archive in architecture? What forms does it take? What epistemology does it perform? What kind of craft is archiving? This book provides answers and offers insights on the ontological granularity of the archive and its relationship with architecture as a complex enterprise that starts and ends much beyond the act of building or the life of a creator. In this book we learn how objects are processed and catalogued, how a classification scheme is produced, how models and drawings are preserved, and how born-digital material battles time and technology obsolescence. We follow the work of conservators, librarians, cataloguers, digital archivists, museum technicians, curators, and architects, and we capture archiving in its mundane and practical course. Based on ethnographic observation at the Canadian Centre for Architecture and interviews with a range of practitioners, including Álvaro Siza and Peter Eisenman, the book traces archiving through the daily work and care of all its participants, scrutinizing their variable ontology, scale, and politics. It addresses the strategies practicing architects employ to envisage an archive-based future and tells a story about how architectural collections are crafted so as to form the epistemological basis of architectural history.
Published: 26 October 2020
by Wiley
Coloration Technology, Volume 137, pp 44-55; doi:10.1111/cote.12499

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Salam Binoy Singh, Ibohal Singh
Published: 4 September 2020
The Cultural Heritage of Manipur pp 155-166; doi:10.4324/9781003132745-17

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Jani Scandura
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature; doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190201098.013.205

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Astrid J. Smith
Medieval Manuscripts in the Digital Age pp 17-24; doi:10.4324/9781003003441-2

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, Richard Carman
Built Heritage, Volume 4, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s43238-020-00006-6

Abstract:
This paper addresses how a digital heritage project can impact the research and interpretation of a large-scale rural cultural landscape in the United States. Due to the size and scope of rural landscapes, large-scale documentation methods are critical to advancing landscape conservation and preservation initiatives. Using an in-progress online project to document a 1935 US federally sponsored program, the Prairie States Forestry Project (PSFP), the authors show how diverse visual and textual data can be spatialised to construct a map reading of landscape change over time. To date, the PSFP is one of the largest afforestation projects in the history of the United States; the United States Forest Service and thousands of landowners undertook a series of cooperative planting agreements to plant over 200 million trees over seven years in approximately 33,000 shelterbelts from the panhandle of Texas to the North Dakota border. Due to a lack of coordinated monitoring, shelterbelt location and status was unknown, and the original archival material remained unpreserved. In the case of the Prairie States Forestry Project, the process for digitising and disseminating previously inaccessible primary source documents is an act of preservation that creates opportunities for future large-scale landscape conservation projects. The application of the archival mapping method and resulting PSFP datasets can be incorporated by individuals working on heritage documentation such as Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) reports, National Register nominations, or Cultural Landscape Reports for the National Parks Service. The dataset could also be used by private groups such as cooperative conservation land managers.
Thomas Kvan, Peter Neish, Naomi Mullumby
The Routledge International Handbook of New Digital Practices in Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums and Heritage Sites pp 199-209; doi:10.4324/9780429506765-18

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Anne-Lyse Renon
Published: 15 July 2019
Abstracts of the ICA, Volume 1; doi:10.5194/ica-abs-1-311-2019

Abstract:
The contemporary rise of data visualization and imaging technologies in all areas of knowledge now places design and visuality at the heart of research and its communication, with fundamental implications for scientific epistemology. Jacques Bertin's Laboratoire de Graphique (LG) of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in France, is a privileged entry for this study, since it was a major player in this movement, at the crossroads of graphic innovation and social sciences as they reinvented themselves in the second half of the twentieth century.This intervention aims to explore a black box of research in the humanities and social sciences, according to two approaches, that of the interdisciplinary collaborations and that more experimental of the graphic design and formatting of information. By design we mean as all the processes from graphical display of data, to CHI, new methods of scientific representation.This laboratory was created and directed by the cartographer and semiologist Jacques Bertin from 1954 to 2000 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Études and, under the impetus of Fernand Braudel, at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), is considered as a forerunner of productions and reflections on graphic research in the social sciences. His work articulates an unprecedented production of images, visualization of data and scientific research, forming the subject of a fundamental treatise, Graphical Semiology (1967). The intervention will trace the largely unknown history of this laboratory, will pinpoint the contributions and the intellectual trajectory of its graphic experiments and collaborations.Indeed, while the activities related to the LG's cartographic research are relatively well known, its interactions with history, statistics, sociology, anthropology, urbanism, literature and the decorative arts remain unexplored.Jacques Bertin, in Semiology of graphics (1967), highlighted the concept of « visual variables » to build a general rhetoric of visual representation: background shape orientation grain color, etc.The paradox of these visual variables is the desire to achieve an objectivity of representation, while taking into account the ”aesthetic“ part of the data. This graphic rhetoric developed by Bertin has influenced many works and disciplines, becoming almost standard, convention, rules. In this session we propose to discuss the relationship between design and visual variables in the contemporary visual display of information.We will start by presenting the two complementary funds of archives of the Laboratoire de Graphique the NAs and the BnF, allowing a genetic analysis of the origin of certain concepts of Bertin to give an account of the process of their elaboration.We will present collaborations, content, and processes to produce a story that is at once aesthetic, social, economic, and political. We will measure the evolution of scientific imaginaries, the values and uses of representation methods and graphic communication tools, their epistemological scope into 4 thematics:The Life of the Graphic Lab: Pathways, Collaborations and Practices at EHESS. Collaboration Braudel-Bertin,creation of the visual identity of the EHESS, practices and conceptualization of the place of graphic research in the social sciences. Bertin heritage in current research programsThe graphic semiotics of Jacques Bertin: genesis and effects, including in contemporary digital humanities (statistics,big data, cultural analytics). Visual variable and Display of information as the starting point of a research, fieldworksThe expressivity and plasticity of graphic work: the representation of geographical and human territory. Contribution of the experimental work of the Graphical Laboratory to cartography; materialization of the instrumental design and graphic knowledge in the uses and materiality of the cards from the point of view of the plastic creation and the patrimonial conservation. Objectivity and visual display: relationships between graphics and fact in scientific demonstrationGraphical semiology in contemporary research, from graphic semiology to information design; pedagogical and epistemological issues of graphic semiology; dissemination of the work of the Laboratoire de Graphique and impact on the field of design and different disciplines in the international context. « Redesigning » the concepts of Bertin: how new data processing tools can contribute?The new convergences between design and research will be mobilized to question the place devolved to design in the visual and instrumental construction of contemporary scientific practices and knowledge. This will stimulate a dynamic and a collective experience of interdisciplinary discovery of uses of these methods and tools in heritage context.
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Volume 13; doi:10.1016/j.daach.2019.e00096

Abstract:
Three-dimensional representation is now commonly used in archaeological studies of ancient structures and objects, and, a fortiori, in studies of the neolithic monumental funeral architecture of Western France. This research relies on mastering several scales of representation: engravings and the materials that are engraved, architecture, topography and the geographical area. However, the datasets produced by techniques such as LiDAR, photogrammetry, laser scans, and even structured-light 3D scans are very dense and difficult to process, and information cannot be extracted from them easily. Further, such documents are used for many purposes, some of which are contradictory: the same digital repository is used for research (for it allows for a maximal amount of information to be obtained), for communication (by producing lightweight representations for real-time display that are visually attractive to site visitors), and for the preservation of images of objects in their current states, along with information about the relations among datasets for future reference (which implies using file formats suitable for long-term retention to ensure that documents can be accessed in the future). This article seeks to present a functional workflow that integrates acquisition, processing, documentation, distribution and guidelines for archiving 3D archaeological data, with a workflow based almost exclusively on free and open-source software. To this end, the authors begin by considering the relationships among three-dimensional datasets, surveying and the documentation of historical sites and artifacts.
Published: 20 April 2019
Heritage, Volume 2, pp 1211-1232; doi:10.3390/heritage2020079

Abstract:
In this work, a multi-disciplinary approach regarding diagnostic study processes is presented, using as an example the Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery in Attica, Greece. Kaisariani Monastery is considered one of the most important Byzantine architectural complexes in Greece. The Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery was built during the middle Byzantine period, and has undergone many reconstructions during the centuries. It is a semi-complex, four-columned, cross-in-square church, with a cloisonné masonry. The suggested diagnostic processes included the creation of multidisciplinary thematic maps in Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment, which incorporated: (a) data of historical and architectural documentation; (b) data of geometric documentation; and (c) data of building materials characterization and decay diagnosis. The historical and general architectural data were acquired by thorough bibliographical/archival research. Geometric documentation data were acquired by three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner for the creation of the Catholicon section drawings, whereas image based photogrammetric techniques were utilized for the creation of a 3D textured model, from which orthoimages and architectural drawings of the Catholicon façades were developed. In parallel, characterization of building materials and identification of decay patterns took place after the onsite application of the nondestructive techniques of digital microscopy, infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar. These vast array kinds of data were elaborated and integrated into the architectural drawings, developing thematic maps that record and represent the current preservation state of the monument, a concerning major construction phases, the most important conservation intervention projects, building materials and decay. Furthermore, data quantification regarding the extent of building materials and decay at each monument’s façade took place. Therefore, correlation and better understanding of the environmental impact on building materials according to façade orientation and historical data, e.g., construction phases, was accomplished. In conclusion, the presented processes are multidisciplinary tasks that require collaboration among architects, surveyor engineers and materials scientists/engineers. They are also prerequisites for the planning and application of compatible and efficient conservation/restoration interventions, for the ultimate goal of the sustainable protection of a monument.
Marco Cardinali
Published: 11 February 2019
Visual Resources, Volume 35, pp 52-73; doi:10.1080/01973762.2019.1555351

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Virtual Archaeology Review, Volume 10; doi:10.4995/var.2019.10028

Abstract:
Extended Ali Atar, Warden of Loja and Lord of Zagra, was born around 1393. He was one of the principal military leaders of the Nasrid period and came to join the Grenadine Royal House by marrying his daughter Moraima with Boabdil, the last King of Granada. He died in the battle of Lucena in 1483, where one of the magnificent jineta swords of Andalusí manufacture was snatched, which is now conserved and located in the collection of the Toledo Army Museum (MUSEJE). The MUSEJE collections house important scientific, technical, historical and artistic heritage. The historical military heritage needs for its protection, preservation and valorisation the adaptation of new resources and benefit from the usage of new digital technologies. The physical conservation is no longer enough for a resource as valuable as cultural heritage; it needs to be complemented with a comprehensive digital preservation in all its forms, being essential and necessary for its proper safeguard. The virtual era currently emphasizes its presence in the digital documentation, preservation and dissemination of our cultural heritage. In particular, we have oriented and activated it on the historical military heritage, knowledgeable and narrator of our history, of its treasures, and of their relationship within the society as important representations of social and dynastic status. This paper is centred in the 3D digitisation by means of digital photogrammetry and 3D modelling of a historical military weapon. Aided by photogrammetry and information and communication technologies (ICT), we will achieve precise geometric documentation and 3D models that are geared towards research, education, diffusion and the preservation of heritage as important and unknown as is historical military heritage. Photogrammetry gives us the opportunity to bring to light the Ali Atar’s sword, one of the most relevant artistic manifestations belonging to the Nasri armament (Fig. 1, Table 1). The multi-view close-range photogrammetry is key to virtualise this jewel and also to contribute to the democratisation of the museum through the web dissemination of its content in a personalized way.Materials such as metals and precious stones, and gold techniques present in the Andalusian weapon required a particular photogrammetric data acquisition using a light booth and polarizing filter (Fig. 10), as suggested for the latter by (Guidi, Gonizzi, & Micoli, 2014). This setup brought a substantial improvement when dealing with highly reflective materials such as the metallic blade of Ali Atar's jineta sword. The use of the polarising filter attenuated the light that affects and reflects in the piece, benefiting both data acquisition and processing to deliver 3D models. We offered some results ready to safeguard, preserve and disseminate the jineta sword as a high-quality 3D model (Fig. 13), with submillimetre precision from which to obtain all the necessary metric deliverables. From the dense point cloud, two meshes were delivered: i) a homogeneous high resolution mesh keeping all the original features for archiving, conservation and research, and ii) a medium resolution mesh for web-based visualisation and dissemination. The aim was to achieve a detailed geometric documentation as well as complete and accurate 3D models (Fig. 29) for web repositories (https://skfb.ly/ZzzA), orthoimages (Figs. 30 and 31) that allow us to plot from CAD programs all the ornamental and decorative information of the piece (Figs. 32 and 33). In addition, we present some results related to monitoring and evaluation of changes in the state of conservation of the piece (Figs. 34, 35 and 36), extending the survey to preventive conservation studies.This research proves the value of geometric documentation techniques for the democratisation of museums. It contributes to improving the research processes, opening a new line of study. From this point we can rebuild the past through the virtuality, being able to mark and confirm historical hypotheses. These techniques offer the chance to give value to relevant and singular pieces in and out of museums. Both heritage and virtual archaeology are fundamental pillars to delve into the future of education and knowledge.
D. G. Grummo, R. V. Tsvirko, N. A. Zeliankevich, E. Y. Kulikova, O. V. Sozinov
Geobotanical mapping pp 18-38; doi:10.31111/geobotmap/2019.18

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Vincent Detalle, Xueshi Bai, Elsa Bourguignon, Michel Menu, Isabelle Pallot-Frossard
Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology VI, Volume 10331; doi:10.1117/12.2272027

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Aurèlia Pessarrodona, Josep Maria Gregori
Published: 1 January 2017
Fontes Artis Musicae, Volume 64, pp 331-345; doi:10.1353/fam.2017.0039

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Bruno Cornelis
ELCVIA Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Volume 14; doi:10.5565/rev/elcvia.715

Abstract:
Recent advances in digital image acquisition methods and the wide range of imaging modalities currently available have triggered museums to digitize their painting collections. Not only is this crucial for archival or dissemination purposes but it also enabled the digital analysis of the painting through its digital image counterpart. It also set in motion a cross-disciplinary collaboration between image analysis specialists, mathematicians, statisticians and art historians that have the common goal to develop algorithms and build a digital toolbox in support of art scholarship. Computer processing of digital images of paintings has become a fast growing and challenging field of research during the last few years. Our contribution to this research domain consists of a set of tools that are based on dimensionality reduction methods, sparse representations and dictionary learning techniques. These tools are used to assist in art related matters such as restoration, conservation, art history, material and structure characterization, authentication, dating and even style analysis. Since paintings are complex structures the analysis of all pictorial layers and the support requires a multimodal set of high-resolution image acquisitions. The presented research can broadly be subdivided into three main fields. The first one is the digital enhancement of painting acquisitions in order to assist the art specialist in his professional assessment of the painting. The second main field of research is the automated detection of cracks within the Ghent Altarpiece, which is meant to help in the delicate matter of the conservation of this exceptional masterpiece but also as guidance during its current campaign of restoration. The last field consists of a set of methods that can be deployed in art forensics. These methods consist of the characterization of canvas, the analysis of multispectral imagery of a painting and even the objective quantification of the style of a particular artist.
R. Tamborrino,
ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 307-314; doi:10.5194/isprsannals-ii-5-w3-307-2015

Abstract:
The documentation of Cultural Heritage asset is the basis for all the interventions and policies on Cultural heritage conservation and management. The documentation is mainly based on historic knowledge and metric survey. As far as historic knowledge is concerned many information are still recorded and preserved inside written documents that are usually not easy to reach and correctly understandable by all the experts that have specific responsibilities on Cultural Heritage. The digitalization of documents (hardly faced in the last years) is not sufficient to guarantee the effective access to the historical information useful inside a documentation process. The documentation always needs an historical interpretation based on a critical reading produced by linking heterogeneous materials. Iconography also is an important source when it is correctly interpreted and linked to other sources. IT development and digital technology diffusion allowed offering new way to record, organize and share historical information: GIS and 3D modeling can be used as standard approaches to transfer the historical knowledge in a proper way to specialists involved in Cultural Heritage conservation and management. They have been generally used as tool to represent information for different targets, the ones mostly for specialized users, the others for edutainment. GIS are largely diffused yet in the Cultural Heritage management, and 3D modeling is wide spread used in museums communication. Nevertheless, both of them have more potential. They could be integrated in order to manage different data set related with the same matter. They could be used to make new research by surveying and improving interpretation in a way ready to transmit the outcomes. To produce a new generation of affordable digital historical products is necessary that the GIS and 3D modeling design and realization would be developed in a multidisciplinary approach that must be explained and demonstrated to the people that in the future will offer to the community this expertise. The paper describes a teaching and research training experience started two years ago at the Politecnico di Torino in the master course on Architecture (Conservation).
A. Almagro Vidal, I. Ramírez González, C. Clemente San Román
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 21-27; doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-xl-5-w7-21-2015

Abstract:
The Toledo Gate of Ciudad Real, Spain, constructed between the late 13th and early 14th centuries, is the last remaining portion of a once complete medieval city wall. It represents the long history of the city and constitutes its main heritage symbol, dividing the historic city centre from the later 19th and 20th century expansions. In October 2012, the Town Hall and the Montemadrid Foundation started the conservation works to preserve this important monument. The preliminary phase of this project included an in-depth series of scientific studies which were carried out by a multidisciplinary team focusing on archival research, historic investigations, archaeological excavations as well as material composition analysis and main treatment application tests. As a result of these studies a series of virtual 3D models were created to inform, discuss and study the monument. A first digital model permitted visualization of the gate in the 19th century and how the main entrance to the city was integrated as a fundamental part of the city walls. This virtual reconstruction also became an important part of the campaign to raise awareness among the citizens towards a monument that had remained in the shadows for the last century, isolated in a roundabout after the systematic demolition of the city walls in the late 19th century. Over the last three years and as a result of these archaeological and historic investigations and subsequent virtual models, surprisingly new and interesting data were brought to light thus permitting the establishment and corroboration of a new and updated hypothesis of the Toledo Gate that goes beyond the previous ideas. As a result of these studies a new architectural typology with construction techniques of has been suggested. This paper describes how the results of this continuous and interdisciplinary documentation process have benefitted from a computer graphic reconstruction of the gate. It highlights how virtual reconstruction can be a powerful tool for conservation decision making and awareness raising. Furthermore, the interesting results of the final reconstruction hypothesis convinced the technical team responsible for the conservation to alter some aspects of the final project physical interventions in order to focus on some of the features and conclusions discovered through the virtual model study.
Andrea Bruno Jr., Roberta Spallone
ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 25-32; doi:10.5194/isprsannals-ii-5-w3-25-2015

Abstract:
Between the end of the twenties and the beginning of the World war two Turin, as the most of the Italian cities, was endowed by the fascist regime of many new buildings to guarantee its visibility and to control the territory: the fascist party main houses and the local ones. The style that was adopted for these constructions was inspired by the guide lines of the Modern movement which were spreading by a generation of architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, Mendelsohn. At the end of the war many buildings were reconverted to several functions that led heavy transformations not respectful of the original worth, other were demolished. Today it's possible to rebuild those lost architectures in their primal format as it was created by their architects on paper (and in their mind). This process can guarantee the three-dimensional perception, the authenticity of the materials and the placement into the Turin urban tissue, using static and dynamic digital representation systems. The “three-dimensional re-drawing” of the projects, thought as an heuristic practice devoted to reveal the original idea of the project, inserts itself in a digital model of the urban and natural context as we can live it today, to simulate the perceptive effects that the building could stir up today. The modeling skills are the basis to product videos able to explore the relationship between the environment and “re-built architectures”, describing with the synthetic movie techniques, the main formal and perceptive roots. The model represents a scientific product that can be involved in a virtual archive of cultural goods to preserve the collective memory of the architectural and urban past image of Turin.
Franziska Haas, Dagmar Exner, Alexandra Troi, Christoph Franzen, Wolfgang Frey
2013 Digital Heritage International Congress (DigitalHeritage), Volume 1, pp 781-781; doi:10.1109/digitalheritage.2013.6743847

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Proceedings of the 2013 ACM symposium on Document engineering pp 1-2; doi:10.1145/2494266.2494291

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Antonella Nuzzaci, Luisa Revelli
International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence, Volume 3, pp 38-57; doi:10.4018/jdldc.2012040103

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Gert Hoogeveen, Simona Monizza
Published: 1 January 2012
The Moving Image, Volume 12, pp 119-128; doi:10.1353/mov.2012.0000

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Published: 1 January 2003
The Paper Conservator, Volume 27, pp 47-57; doi:10.1080/03094227.2003.9638630

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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