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(searched for: Carbapenem Resistance Profiles of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Uganda)
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Kenneth Ssekatawa, Denis K. Byarugaba, Jesca L. Nakavuma, Charles D. Kato, Francis Ejobi, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M. Wampande
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 63-73; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.171

Abstract:
Escherichia coli has been implicated as one of the main etiological agents of diarrhea, urinary tract infections, meningitis and septicemia worldwide. The ability to cause diseases is potentiated by presence of virulence factors. The virulence factors influence the capacity of E. coli to infect and colonize different body systems. Thus, pathogenic E. coli are grouped into DEC strains that are mainly clustered in phylogenetic group B1 and A; ExPEC belonging to A, B2 and D. Coexistence of virulence and beta-lactamase encoding genes complicates treatment outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed at presenting the carbapenem resistance (CR) profiles among pathogenic E. coli. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving use of 421 archived E. coli clinical isolates collected in 2019 from four Uganda tertiary hospitals. The isolates were subjected to antibiotics sensitivity assays to determine phenotypic resistance. Four sets of multiplex PCR were performed to detect CR genes, DEC pathotypes virulence genes, ExPEC PAI and the E. coli phylogenetic groups. Antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all the 421 E. coli isolates used were MDR as they exhibited 100% resistance to more than one of the first-line antibiotics. The study registered phenotypic and genotypic CR prevalence of 22.8% and 33.0% respectively. The most predominant gene was blaOXA-48 with genotypic frequency of 33.0%, then blaVIM (21.0%), blaIMP (16.5%), blaKPC (14.8%) and blaNDM (14.8%). Spearman’s correlation revealed that presence of CR genes was highly associated with phenotypic resistance. Furthermore, of 421 MDR E. coli isolates, 19.7% harboured DEC virulence genes, where EPEC recorded significantly higher prevalence (10.8%) followed by S-ETEC (3.1%), STEC (2.9%), EIEC (2.0%) and L-ETEC (2.0%). Genetic analysis characterized 46.1% of the isolates as ExPEC and only PAI IV536 (33.0%) and PAI IICFT073 (13.1%) were detected. Phylogenetic group B2 was predominantly detected (41.1%), followed by A (30.2%), B1(21.6%), and D (7.1%). Furthermore, 38.6% and 23.1% of the DEC and ExPEC respectively expressed phenotypic resistance. Our results exhibited significant level of CR carriage among the MDR DEC and ExPEC clinical isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups B1 and B2 respectively. Virulence and CR genetic factors are mainly located on mobile elements. Thus, constitutes a great threat to the healthcare system as this promotes horizontal gene transfer.
Kenneth Ssekatawa, Denis K Byarugaba, Jesca L. Nakavuma, Charles Drago Kato, Francis Ejobi, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M. Wampande
Published: 14 December 2020
Abstract:
Background: Escherichia coli has been implicated as one of the main etiological agents of diarrhea, urinary tract infections, meningitis and septicemia worldwide. The ability to cause diseases is potentiated by presence of virulence factors. The virulence factors influence the capacity of E. coli to infect and colonize different body systems. Thus, pathogenic E. coli are grouped into DEC strains that are mainly clustered in phylogenetic group B1 and A; ExPEC belonging to A, B2 and D. Coexistence of virulence and beta-lactamase encoding genes complicates treatment outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed at presenting the CR profiles among pathogenic E. coli. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving use of archived E. coli clinical isolates collected in 2019 from four Ugandan tertiary hospitals. The isolates were subjected to antibiotics sensitivity assays to determine phenotypic resistance. Four sets of multiplex PCR were performed to detect CR genes, DEC pathotypes virulent genes, ExPEC PAI and the E. coli phylogenetic groups. Results: Antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all the 421 E. coli isolates used were MDR as they exhibited 100% resistance to more than one of the first-line antibiotics. The study registered phenotypic and genotypic CR prevalence of 22.8% and 33.0% respectively. The most predominant gene was blaOXA-48 with genotypic frequency of 33.0%, then blaVIM(21.0%), blaIMP(16.5%), blaKPC(14.8%) and blaNDM(14.8%). Spearman’s correlation revealed that presence of CR genes was highly associated with phenotypic resistance. Furthermore, of 421 MDR E. coli isolates, 19.7% harboured DEC virulent genes, where EPEC recorded significantly higher prevalence (10.8%) followed by S-ETEC(3.1%), STEC(2.9%), EIEC (2.0%) and L-ETEC(2.0%). Genetic analysis characterized 46.1% of the isolates as ExPEC and only PAI IV536(33.0%) and PAI IICFT073(13.1%) were detected. Phylogenetic group B2 was predominantly detected (41.1%), followed by A(30.2%), B1(21.6%), and D(7.1%). Furthermore, 38.6% and 23.1% of the DEC and ExPEC respectively expressed phenotypic resistance.Conclusion: Our results exhibited significant level of CR carriage among the MDR DEC and ExPEC clinical isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups B1 and B2 respectively. Virulence and CR genetic factors are mainly located on mobile elements. Thus, constitutes a great threat to the healthcare system as it promotes horizontal gene transfer.
Kenneth Ssekatawa, Denis K Byarugaba, Jesca L. Nakavuma, Charles Drago Kato, Francis Ejobi, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M. Wampande
Published: 11 November 2020
Abstract:
Background: Escherichia coli has been implicated as one of the main etiological agents of diarrhea, urinary tract infections, meningitis and septicemia worldwide. The ability to cause diseases is potentiated by presence of virulence factors. The virulence factors influence the capacity of E. coli to infect and colonize different body systems. Thus, pathogenic E. coli are grouped into DEC strains that are mainly clustered in phylogenetic group B1 and A; ExPEC belonging to A, B2 and D. Coexistence of virulence and beta-lactamase encoding genes complicates treatment outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed at presenting the CR profiles among pathogenic E. coli. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving use of archived E. coli clinical isolates collected in 2019 from four Ugandan tertiary hospitals. The isolates were subjected to antibiotics sensitivity assays to determine phenotypic resistance. Four sets of multiplex PCR were performed to detect CR genes, DEC pathotypes virulent genes, ExPEC PAI and the E. coli phylogenetic groups. Results:Antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all the 421 E. coli isolates used were MDR as they exhibited 100% resistance to more than one of the first-line antibiotics. The study registered phenotypic and genotypic CR prevalence of 22.8% and 33.0% respectively. The most predominant gene was blaOXA-48 with genotypic frequency of 33.0%, then blaVIM(21.0%), blaIMP(16.5%), blaKPC(14.8%) and blaNDM(14.8%). Spearman’s correlation revealed that presence of CR genes was highly associated with phenotypic resistance. Furthermore, of 421 MDR E. coli isolates, 19.7% harboured DEC virulent genes, where EPEC recorded significantly higher prevalence (10.8%) followed by S-ETEC(3.1%), STEC(2.9%), EIEC (2.0%) and L-ETEC(2.0%). Genetic analysis characterized 46.1% of the isolates as ExPEC and only PAI IV536(33.0%) and PAI IICFT073(13.1%) were detected. Phylogenetic group B2 was predominantly detected (41.1%), followed by A(30.2%), B1(21.6%), and D(7.1%). Furthermore, 38.6% and 23.1% of the DEC and ExPEC respectively expressed phenotypic resistance.Conclusion: Our results exhibited significant level of CR carriage among the MDR DEC and ExPEC clinical isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups B1 and B2 respectively. Virulence and CR genetic factors are mainly located on mobile elements. Thus, constitutes a great threat to the healthcare system as it promotes horizontal gene transfer.
Abdul Walusansa, Jacob S. Iramiot, Christine F. Najjuka, Dickson Aruhomukama, Hussein Kafeero Mukasa, Henry Kajumbula, Benon B. Asiimwe
Microbiology Research Journal International pp 36-43; doi:10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i630230

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Abdul Walusansa, Jacob Stanly Iramiot, Florence Najjuka, Henry Kajumbula, Benon Asiimwe
Published: 29 October 2019
Abstract:
Background Non-prescribed use of antimicrobials in Agriculture incurs a transfer risk of resistant pathogens to humans, complicating treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of Zoonotic E. coli to serve as drivers of antimicrobial resistance among animals and humans in pastoralist communities in Kasese district, so as to protect the community.Materials and methods A laboratory based cross-sectional study was done using archived E. coli isolates previously obtained from humans in pastoralist communities of Kasese district, Uganda. Recovery of the isolates was done by conventional culture, and Identification by biochemical methods, serotyping and PCR. Antimicrobial resistance profiling was done by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates were also screened for resistance mechanisms including Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), Carbapenemase and AmpC production using disc diffusion based methods.Results The prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) was 16% (28/180). These EHEC isolates belonged to phylogroups; B 1 (94%, 26/28), B2 (3%, 1/28) and A (3%, 1/28). The most prevalent virulence gene was Stx1 (100%, 28/28) followed by Stx2e (94%, 26/28); none of the isolates was Stx2 positive. Highest resistance was seen to Cotrimoxazole (89%, 25/28), Tetracycline (71%, 20/28), Ampicillin (65%, 18/28) and Nitrofurantoin (28%, 8/28), these are the most commonly used antimicrobials in the agricultural sector in Uganda. Minimal resistance was observed to the antimicrobials that are commonly used in human medicine especially β-lactams, β-lactam+inhibitors and Carbapenems. Of the 28 zoonotic E. coli isolates, 17%, (5/28) were ESBL positive and among these 1 (3%, 1/28) was a Carbapenemase producer.Conclusion There is a high prevalence of highly pathogenic and resistant zoonotic E. coli among humans in pastoralist communities in Uganda. We suspect that these pathogens, along with their AMR genes, were acquired from animals because they largely contained the animal specific Vero toxin gene VT2e and majority belonged Pylo-group B 1 which has been documented as the most common EHEC phylo-group inhabiting domestic animals. We recommend that studies involving relatedness of drug resistant isolates from humans and animals should be conducted to ascertain the role of enterohemorrhagic E. coli in the zoonotic spread of antimicrobial resistance in pastoralist communities.
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