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, Federico Nomi, Claudia Speciale, ,
Published: 4 March 2021
Abstract:
<p>Geological and environmental conditions that influence local topography also affect indirectly the location of human settlement dynamics. Understanding those relationships plays an important role in archaeological research related to the evolution of settlement dynamics. In the lower Tyrrhenian Islands, an important parameter is also the volcanic landscape evolution. This work aims to study the patterns of Neolithic, Cooper and Bronze Age settlements, based on known archaeological sites at the Low Tyrrhenian Islands, and to generate hypotheses about the relations of settlement patterns with the volcanic landscape. To that end, a Web-GIS database was created, which was fed with topographic, geological, geomorphological data and Earth Observation data. Geomorphological analysis, derived from digital elevation models, and earth observation products such as the SENTINEL missions, can provide useful estimations into the processes shaping landscapes and insight into the location and evolution of settlements. The analysis includes a series of different data correlation, from geomorphologic to socioeconomic, integrated by an indicator analysis. A series of thematic maps were developed to interpret why areas were selected to host settlements. Through the use of the database that was developed during the project, a set of indexes have been applied. Those included exposure and vulnerability indices for the inland and coastal areas, but also location and defensibility indices for the archaeological sites. Moreover, baseline maps for future risk estimations through a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis System (MCDA), have been produced. The Volcanic Islands of the lower Tyrrhenian coast have a volcanic origin and were influenced, and partly still are, by explosive and effusive eruptions of various energy and types, by more or less intense deformational events, often connected with the dynamics of the volcano, and quiescent periods of varying duration. The areas under investigation present different characteristics in their geomorphological but also their societal evolution. Geomorphological data further analyzed in a ternary diagram that indicated the relative influence of each of the parameters in each area. From the diagram, it can be seen that the locations of human activities are strongly affected by past and recent volcanic activity.</p><p>Acknowledgement: This work is part of the Brains2Islands &#8220;INDAGINE MULTIDISCIPLINARE NEI CONTESTI INSULARI BASSO TIRRENICI&#8221; project Funded by FONDAZIONE CON IL SUD project number 2015-0296</p>
, Ana Cristina Martins, João Carlos Senna-Martinez, Inês Pinto, Ana Godinho Coelho, Soraia Santos Ferreira, Luiz Oosterbeek
Published: 8 February 2021
African Archaeological Review, Volume 38, pp 319-344; doi:10.1007/s10437-020-09420-8

Abstract:
This article examines the historical processes that shaped the development of archaeological practice in Angola during the Portuguese colonial period and the aftermath of political independence. Using published works, unpublished reports, and photographic records, we examine the research themes, actors, scholars, and institutions that influenced archaeological research in the country. We also used documents and museum collections in Angola and Portugal to create a GIS database of Angola’s archaeological findings. This study highlights the events, personalities, and priorities that motivated earlier investigations, and the geographical distribution of prehistoric sites. We hope this study will be a resource for guiding future archaeological research in Angola.
Published: 31 October 2020
by MDPI
Forests, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/f11111168

Abstract:
This work introduces a methodology for assessing near-future fire weather pattern changes based on the Canadian Fire Weather Index system components (Fire Weather Index (FWI), Initial Spread Index (ISI), Fire Severity Rating (FSR)), applied in touristic areas in Greece. Four series of daily raster-based datasets for the fire seasons (May–October), concerning a historic (2006 to 2015) and a future climatology period (2036–2045), were created for the areas under consideration, based on high-resolution climate modelling with the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP), PCR 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The climate model data were obtained from the European Coordinated Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX) climate database and consisted of atmospheric variables as required by the FWI system, at 12.5 km spatial resolution. The final datasets of the abovementioned variables used for the study were processed at 5 km spatial resolution for the domain of interest after applying regridding based on the nearest neighbour interpolating process. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) spatial operations, including spatial statistics and zonal analyses, were applied on the series of the derived daily raster maps in order to provide a number of output thematic layers. Moreover, historic FWI percentile values, which were estimated for Greece in the frame of a past research study of the Environmental Research Laboratory (EREL), were used as reference data for further evaluation of future fire weather changes. The straightforward methodology for the assessment of the evolution of spatial and temporal distribution of Fire weather Danger due to climate change presented herewith is an essential tool for enhancing the knowledge for the decision support process for forest fire prevention, planning and management policies in areas where the fire risk both in terms of fire hazard likelihood and expected impact is quite important due to human presence and cultural prestige, such as archaeological and tourist protected areas.
Bharat Lal, Susheel Kumar Singh, Meenu Rani, Abhishek Kumar Shukla,
Published: 29 September 2020
Remote Sensing and GIScience pp 265-272; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-55092-9_15

Abstract:
Geographic Information Science (GIScience) plays a vital role in today’s era. Prior to the development of GIScience, all these tasks were done on a human level in which not only a lot of time and capital was used but actual knowledge of the subject matter was also not possible, because it was not always possible to reach a particular place. GIScience is based on Sudur sensor calculators, so that no aspect of the Earth can be hidden. It is partly covered with the various traditional disciplines like environmental science, applied mathematics, geophysics, geography, oceanography, spatial statistics, etc. GIScience came into the market between 1990 and 1992 as a game changer which contributed to the formation of geographical information science (GIS). The work potential of contributing to the work was discovered through this science, including database designing and modeling can be done in any area. This technology is used in scientific research, resource management, asset management, archaeological work, urbanization, and criminology. There are a variety of applied fields of GIScience which are used in current scenarios for the better understanding, interpretation, and visualization of the data.
Published: 24 August 2020
by MDPI
Geosciences, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/geosciences10090336

Abstract:
This article presents the results of multidisciplinary research undertaken in 2016–2019 at the German Nazi Treblinka I Forced Labour Camp. Housing 20,000 prisoners, Treblinka I was established in 1941 as a part of a network of objects such as forced labour camps, resettlement camps and prison camps that were established in the territory of occupied Poland from September 1939. This paper describes archaeological research conducted in particular on the execution site and burial site—the area where the “death pits” have been found—in the so-called Las Maliszewski (Maliszewa Forest). In this area (poorly documented) exhumation work was conducted only until 1947, so the location of these graves is only approximately known. The research was resumed at the beginning of the 21st century using, e.g., non-invasive methods and remote-sensing data. The leading aim of this article is to describe the comprehensive research strategy, with a particular stress on non-invasive geophysical surveys. The integrated archaeological research presented in this paper includes an analysis of archive materials (aerial photos, witness accounts, maps, plans, and sketches), contemporary data resources (orthophotomaps, airborne laser scanning-ALS data), field work (verification of potential objects, ground penetrating radar-GPR surveys, excavations), and the integration, analysis and interpretation of all these datasets using a GIS platform. The results of the presented study included the identification of the burial zone within the Maliszewa Forest area, including six previously unknown graves, creation of a new database, and expansion of the Historical-GIS-Treblinka. Obtained results indicate that the integration and analyses within the GIS environment of various types of remote-sensing data and geophysical measurements significantly contribute to archaeological research and increase the chances to discover previously unknown “graves” from the time when the labour camp Treblinka I functioned.
, Ahmad M. Nosair, Elsayed M. Ramadan
Plant-Microbes-Engineered Nano-particles (PM-ENPs) Nexus in Agro-Ecosystems pp 141-204; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-29635-3_9

Abstract:
This book chapter focuses on using effective tools of monitoring and management of natural resources, based on the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques with a field survey in surface and groundwater resources evaluation. It is anticipated to provide operational and effective systems of investigation, management and protection of the available natural resources, and improve the livelihood of the surrounding population. This work depends on the previous expertise and overwhelmed researches of the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) and addresses the key challenges for the sustainable development in this remote area. Sustainable water supply is vital for the development of communities in arid regions, such as that of the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. The economic importance of the area is enormous, besides the fact that it has long been a target zone for mineral resources excavation and mining. One of the challenges facing this arid area is the limited water resources needed for agricultural, industrial, mining, or domestic uses. Bedouin depend mainly on rainwater, which constitutes the main source feeding their hand-dug wells and fracture springs. Rainwater harvesting (RWH), as a historical and worldwide trend, could fulfill the gap of water scarcity in arid or semi-arid regions. This proposed work is to use the modern techniques of RS, geographic information systems (GIS), and watershed modeling systems (WMS) to provide a plan for the RWH. RWH is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer system (Groundwater). Multi-spectral remote sensing (MSRS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are vital tools to optimize the surface water usage of episodic rainfalls, where the concept of runoff water harvesting (RWH) in promising watersheds should be applied. (Elewa et al. in Am J Environ Sci 8:42–55, 2016). GIS and digital elevation models (DEM) enable the development of hydrological models to investigate every ancient terraced field in a non-invasive manner, without disturbing the archaeological remains (Bruins et al. in J Environ 166:91–107, 2019). The RWH could be used also for maximizing the recharge possibilities of groundwater. As a non-conventional water resource, RWH could provide water for gardens, livestock, irrigation, mining, cleaning of bathrooms as in the first flush, etc. In many places with similar climate conditions, the collected water is redirected to a deep pit with percolation to recharge the groundwater for later use and protection, especially in structurally controlled groundwater accumulations. The harvested water could be used as drinking water, if the storage is a tank that can be accessed and cleaned when needed. The work recommendations will be a good source for the up-to-date databases, which could be used effectively by the decision-makers, researchers, executive authorities, planners, and related governorates. The objective of this book chapter is to assess the South Eastern Desert of Egypt for the RWH capabilities, with the determination of their optimum methods and techniques. The overall goal is to assist in poverty alleviation, Bedouin and urban allocation, supporting animal husbandry, accelerating agricultural development, improved agricultural and food production for local inhabitants, combating desertification, resolving unemployment problems, and raising individual incomes. Bedouin and natives as the main end users will be a major target of the work. Innovative ways to improve the capture, storage, and use of rainwater will have their own bearing on the sustainable and profitable production of dry season vegetable crops in South Eastern Desert. According to the worldwide trends and techniques in RWH, which is applied aggressively in many neighboring countries, Egypt should enter the era of catching every water droplet for domestic and agricultural development. The results of the present research work could establish a good example to be applied in other parts of the country as well as worldwide.
Published: 16 December 2019
by MDPI
Remote Sensing, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/rs11243039

Abstract:
The primary objective of this study is to leverage the integration of surface mapping data derived from optical, radar, and historic topographical studies with archaeological sampling to identify ancient settlement areas in the Northern Nile Delta, Egypt. This study employed the following methods: digitization of topographic maps, band indices techniques on optical data, the creation of a 3D model from SRTM data, and Sentinel-1 interferometric wide swath (IW) analysis. This type of study is particularly relevant to the search for evidence of otherwise hidden ancient settlements. Due to its geographical situation and the fertility of the Nile, Egypt witnessed the autochthonous development of predynastic and dynastic civilizations, as well as an extensive history of external influences due to Greek, Roman, Coptic, Islamic, and Colonial-era interventions. Excavation work at Buto (Tell el-Fara’in) in 2017–18, carried out by the Kafrelsheikh University (KFS) in cooperation with the Ministry of Antiquities, demonstrated that remote sensing data offers considerable promise as a tool for developing regional settlement studies and excavation strategies. This study integrates the mission work in Buto with the satellite imagery in and around the area of the excavation. The results of the initial Buto area research serve as a methodological model to expand the study area to the North Delta with the goal of detecting the extent of the ancient kingdoms of Buto and Sakha. The results of this research include the creation of a composite historical database using ancient references and early topographical maps (1722, 1941, 1950, and 1997), Optical Corona (1965), Landsat MSS (Multispectral Scanner System) (1973, 1978, and 1988), TM (Thematic Mapper) (2005) data, and Radar SRTM (2014) and Sentinel1 (2018 and 2019) data. The data in this study have been analyzed using the ArcMap, Envi, and SNAP software. The results from the current investigation highlight the rapid changes in the land use/land cover in the last century in which many ancient sites were lost due to agriculture and urban development. Three potential settlement areas have been identified with the Sentinel1 Radar data, and have been integrated with the early maps. These discoveries will help develop excavation strategies aimed at elucidating the ancient settlement dynamics and history of the region during the next phase of research.
, Nathan R. Lawres, Tara J. Mazurczyk, Madeline Brown
Advances in Archaeological Practice, Volume 7, pp 382-394; doi:10.1017/aap.2019.32

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges and opportunities for integrating archaeological information in landscape-scale conservation design while aligning archaeological practice with design and planning focused on cultural resources. Targeting this opportunity begins with statewide archaeological databases. Here, we compare the structure and content of Pennsylvania's and Florida's statewide archaeological databases, identifying opportunities for leveraging these data in landscape conservation design and planning. The research discussed here was part of a broader project, which was working through the lens of Landscape Conservation Cooperatives in order to develop processes for integrating broadly conceived cultural resources with natural resources as part of multistate or regional landscape conservation design efforts. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives offer new ways to think about archaeological information in practice and potentially new ways for archaeology to contribute to design and planning. Statewide archaeological databases, in particular, offer transformative potential for integrating cultural resource priorities in landscape conservation design. Targeted coordination across state boundaries along with the development of accessible derivative databases are two priorities to advance their utility.
Published: 2 October 2019
Environmental Practice, Volume 21, pp 189-200; doi:10.1080/14660466.2019.1686914

Abstract:
While there are standardized methods for incorporating natural resources into planning and design, cultural resources are treated as an afterthought or are considered only after unexpected discoveries or policies require procedural review. Bringing cultural resources to the front end of planning will have positive effects not only on the preservation of those resources, but on planning and design processes. However, to work toward this shift in practice it is necessary to evaluate the types of data useful for planning professionals, which in most cases are evaluative spatial data commonly contained in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases. In the United States, statewide cultural resource GIS databases are required in State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPO). While universal, these databases vary in the terminologies used and the types of data recorded, necessitating a move toward standardization and broadened utility. Detailed evaluations of statewide cultural resource GIS databases provide insight into what needs standardization and how to move toward that goal. By moving toward standardization it is possible to bring cultural resources to the front end of the planning and design process. In turn, this will increase cultural resource preservation levels while decreasing the costs of project implementation by reducing the need to revisit project designs after they are put in place.
A. D'Andrea, , A. Laino, P. M. Pesaresi
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 359-364; doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-xlii-2-w15-359-2019

Abstract:
Herculaneum, buried by Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, was only extensively excavated during the twentieth century, revealing a remarkable level of preservation but also fragility of what had survived of this Roman seaside town. By the turn of the century, the conservation challenges, paired with the limited capacity of the authorities to respond, was putting the archaeological site at risk. The Herculaneum Conservation Project (HCP), a public-private project underway since 2001, has helped turnaround this situation with the presence of an interdisciplinary team working all year round alongside the public authority, today the Archaeological Park of Herculaneum. With the site in a more stable condition, HCP's attention in the last ten years shifted to building up knowledge and competencies for the self-sufficiency of the Park authority in the face of core long-term management obligations. A new focus on conservation proposals that meet the site's needs but are suited to public tendering found its maximum expression in planning long-term site maintenance cycles. Through the voices of the practitioners involved, the paper recounts the resources and approaches that have been developed in this regard, in particular the specific GIS module that breaks down the archaeological site into the items to be maintained and their relative importance. This massive register of objects – walls, architraves, doors, frescoes, mosaics, etc. – is the backbone of the three-year maintenance cycles developed by HCP adopting an innovative procurement framework for co-sourcing services and works in Italy, the first of which is now being implemented by the Park. A web-based application accessible by operators on site allows real time transmission of monitoring data and records of site-works underway to the database and GIS platform, satisfying immediate administrative needs and quality controls but also delineating the scope of subsequent maintenance cycles. Technological and management tools, shaped by, and responsive to, the needs of the site and their users (the heritage practitioners involved), have been put at the service of the entire life cycle of programmed maintenance at an urban scale, both administrative and technical aspects. This is part of a wider upward spiral of management improvements for the long-term sustainability of this important archaeological site.
, , , Roberto Gabrielli, , Roberto Pierdiccaa
Virtual Archaeology Review, Volume 10, pp 31-39; doi:10.4995/var.2019.11919

Abstract:
Umm ar-Rasas is a Jordan archaeological site, located 30 km southeast of the city of Madaba, in the northern part of Wadi Mujib. It preserves findings dating back the period from the end of 3rd to the 9th century AD and, since 2004, it belongs to the world heritage list of UNESCO. In 2015 a multidisciplinary work was undertaken over the archaeological site, mainly focusing on the Church of Saint Stephen, with the main purpose of enhancing the knowledge and documenting the conservation state of the polychrome mosaic floor, which covers the entire surface of the hall and presbytery. A huge amount of data has been collected, coming from archaeological and historical investigations, geophysics and geodetic inspections and geomatics surveying, which produced also a true orthophoto of the mosaic floor. Data has been organized in a geo-database, facilitating the exchange of information between different actors. Moreover, the management of data within a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS), has allowed in-depth analysis for understanding the evolution of the iconographic repertoire that, over the centuries, has undergone several disfigurements due to the iconoclastic age. The knowledge of the mosaic has also been vital for the implementation of multimedia applications and for the creation of virtual experiences, in which the information can be conveyed and visualized directly on the virtual reconstruction of the whole archaeological site. The innovation of the proposed work, is therefore in the management of a data flow that can be exploited by different actors through different platforms: experts, thanks to the use of GIS, and visitors with the use of multimedia applications (such as Augmented Reality (AR) or highresolution web visualization) for dissemination purposes, in order to preserve this priceless mankind heritage.Highlights:Definition of a complete pipeline ranging from data acquisition to visualization in multi-channel multimedia applications.Management of heterogeneous data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their exploitation in Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR/VR).GIS applied to the archaeological domain for expert and non-expert users.
Published: 17 May 2019
by MDPI
Geosciences, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/geosciences9050229

Abstract:
The aim of this work is to present a new georeferenced geological map of an area in the Ligurian Western Alps (Lavagnina Lakes area) that includes both a unique geodiversity and great biodiversity, a peculiar geological heritage, and cultural features. The study area is located in the northern part of the Capanne di Marcarolo Regional Natural Park, occurring in the southern Piedmont Region (Alessandria, NW Italy) and close to the suburbs of Genoa. This area has been studied by multi-disciplinary scientific researchers who, so far, have focused their attention on the occurrence of alkaline springs and investigation of different endemic floral species. Moreover, in the past, the Lavagnina Lakes area has been exploited due to the presence of gold mineralization, and several mining records are still visible. We performed detailed geological mapping at a 1:10,000 scale, and collected data that were later integrated into a digital GIS map. The database associated with the map contains information that may be interesting from different points of view: (i) scientific research; (ii) outreach and dissemination activities; and (iii) geotourism (i.e., trail networks and panoramic viewpoints). The area represents a section of the Jurassic Piedmont Ligurian oceanic lithosphere, showing several geologic processes on different scales, such as the serpentinization process and intense and widespread carbonation of ultramafic rocks; the area is, moreover, characterized by fault systems showing paleoseismic structures. Beyond scientific research activities (i.e., geology, geoarchaeology, and mining archaeology), the area can also be promoted for geotourism, outreach and dissemination activities, field trips for schools, and gold panning activities. Hence, our new digital map and our 3D model could be a useful tool to illustrate the main characteristics of the area, leading a non-expert public to explore different geological features in a relatively “small” area. In this way, our map could help to improve geotourism, be used as a tool for educational activities, and, finally, could also help the Capanne di Marcarolo Regional Natural Park to be recognized as a geopark.
, Daniela Ferro, Fiammetta Susanna,
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 28, pp 25155-25165; doi:10.1007/s11356-019-05060-x

Abstract:
The mining areas of the Middle Atlas, already inhabited in the Neolithic period, have been under the influences of different cultures, firstly Phoenician, then Punic or Ibero-Punic, Berber, Roman and finally Islamic. The impact of external cultures on the evolution and development of ancient metallurgy in the north-central Atlas region and the Southern Rift occurred since prehistoric times to Arab domination in the Middle Ages. This study proposes the development of an up-to-date protocol for archaeometallurgical investigation, based on the correlation between the chemical-physical analysis of the pyrometallurgical materials and the contextual systematic geoarchaeological excavations. The microchemical analysis has been carried out on opportunely selected pyrometallurgical materials, coming from different mining areas of the Middle Atlas regions in Morocco (Tabarouch for Cu and Aouam for Pb/Ag) in order to understand the evolution of the technological knowledge in archaeometallurgical work of local people. After that, the analytical results have been included in a Geographic Information System (GIS) software with the aim of creating an easily usable database that will support multidisciplinary research on the ancient metallurgical activities also with its future development and implementation. The GIS application could indeed correlate all the data coming from different extraction/work sites, present in the exploited mining veins. Furthermore, the GIS application is a starting point for an integrated study of the different mining archaeological sites in the Mediterranean basin proposing an innovative method of data exchange of archaeological, physical and geological chemical results.
O. V. Manihda, V. A. Hnera
Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, Volume 30, pp 218-230; doi:10.37445/adiu.2019.01.17

Abstract:
The paper proposes examples of archaeological objects fixing using Geoinformation system (GIS) as an effective computer-supported system used for a digital visualization and analysis of geographic features and events happening on them. The main preference of using these methods is disclosed due to elaborations of specialists worked in Architectural-archaeological expedition of Archaeology Institute of NASU for several years. There is an experience gained in field and urban space. According to this thesis main preferences that is noticed by authors are: 1) an accuracy of fixing in a difficult conditions; 2) multipurpose and flexibility of coordinate system; 3) a unique format of different file types; 4) an opportunity of object reconstruction based on earlier drawing; 5) creation a topography ground (basic plan) for future excavations; 6) combining in one GIS model different types of information that is appropriate to an archaeological object; 7) join the attribute tables of database related to archaeological objects fixed during the excavation in GIS formats. An effective algorithm of object fixing is proposed by using the most basic methods of GIS.
Diego Herrero-Alonso, , Esperanza Fernández-Martínez, Fernando Gómez-Fernández, Eduardo Alonso-Herrero, Ana M. Matero-Pellitero
Journal of Lithic Studies, Volume 5; doi:10.2218/jls.2926

Abstract:
This work introduces a comparative collection located in the Prehistory Laboratory at the University of León (Spain) specialised in knappable raw materials, mainly comprising radiolarite and black chert (micro-crypto crystalline quartz), from the western Cantabrian Mountains (north of Iberian Peninsula). A standardised protocol of sample collection and data organisation was developed, which includes the use of several methodologies. First, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for referencing lithic sources. Second, direct observation of the sample for the macroscopic characterization, both de visu and stereomicroscope. Third, petrographic microscopy for a description of main petrological, and palaeontological features, complemented with the identification of the different minerals that make up the samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Forth, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Thermogravimetry – Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) for geochemical and thermal features of the samples. Finally, the results of these analyses were entered in a database. All this information is contributing towards the creation of a physical reference collection specialised in local Palaeozoic formations (mostly from Devonian to Carboniferous) that outcrop in the western Cantabrian Mountains, a region whose potential resource base was previously not very well known. This collection would allow to compare archaeological lithic remains from different sites inside and outside the Cantabrian Mountains.
Paola Ronzino, Valeria Acconcia, Annalisa Falcone
2018 3rd Digital Heritage International Congress (DigitalHERITAGE) held jointly with 2018 24th International Conference on Virtual Systems & Multimedia (VSMM 2018) pp 1-5; doi:10.1109/digitalheritage.2018.8810132

Abstract:
The present work describes a joint activity carried out by a team from VAST-LAB of PIN, Polo Universitario Città di Prato, in collaboration with the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities (MIBAC) and the recently established Central Institute for Archaeology (ICA), for the development of a National Geoportal for Archaeology with the aim of collecting, making accessible and disseminating knowledge about Italian archaeological heritage. In this perspective, one of the main steps has been the collection of user requirements for the design of the National Geoportal based on the feedback received by a group of domain experts and future users of the portal. An evaluation form was prepared to define the needs of different types of users, the architecture of the portal, its usability and fields of application. The result of this survey enabled us to define the methodology and the formats for the delivery of the archaeological documentation to be produced in future activities by content providers and for already available WebGis, to simplify the publication of data through the geoportal, and to create spatial data interoperability.
Published: 1 January 2018
Abstract:
Томашевський А.П., Борисов А.В. Михайло Петрович Кучера та вітчизняна історико-археологічна наука / Археологія, 2017, №4, с.79-86 in 2017, 95 years passed since the birth of Mykhailo Petrovych kuchera, and this date allows turning again to the analysis and comprehension of the scholar’s rich scientific experience and heritage. in 1950, while still a student and a front­line soldier, Mykhailo Petrovych already as a draftsman participated in the work of the Podil detachment of the great kyiv expedition under the leadership of v.a. Berezovets. M.P. kuchera’s skill to draw plans and profiles like an expert determined in many ways the features of his field methodology and a high qualitative level of documentation processing. starting from the 1950s, he had been conducting field research for more than 50 years throughout ukraine. analysis M.P. kuchera’s field activities with the help of gis specially developed by the authors and the database of field reports of the scholar, reveal the widest geography of his research, as he examined and recorded 500 archaeological sites. Most of his force and time (20 seasons) M.P. kuchera devoted to the exploration of annalistic kyiv land. the scholar paid most attention to the study of ancient rus fortification and hill­forts. By the end of the 1970s, he had prepared a monographic study of ancient rus hill­forts in ukraine published unfortunately after his death in 1999. since 1974, Mykhailo Petrovych headed an expedition for 12 years which aim was to identify, documentary record, and archaeologically and reliably date the legendary Zmiiv ramparts of the dnipro river middle region. it was found out that 23 Zmiiv ramparts grouped into 9 lines, have a length of almost 1000 km and were built in the ancient rus period for protection from the nomads. serial concrete irrefutable constructive, stratigraphic, and archaeological evidence of the time of creation and purpose of rampart lines were revealed. the implementation of such a long, large­scale, and significant project is a real scientific feat of the scientist. Mykhailo Petrovych is also highly respected as a creator of the ancient rus ceramics’ typology and chronology, and as the first person who singled out and described the post­Mongolian ceramics. the scholar made a great contribution to the study of the complex ethno­cultural structure of the rus­ukrainian population. M.P. kuchera’s theoretical concepts, applied practical scientific research methods, and scientific heritage as a whole, need a special comprehensive study and further development.
Duncan P. Duncan P. McKinnon, University of Central Arkansas
Index of Texas Archaeology Open Access Grey Literature from the Lone Star State, Volume 2018; doi:10.21112/.ita.2018.1.5

Abstract:
Throughout the past several years, I have been compiling, with the help of several Caddo researchers, a comprehensive multi-state database primarily composed of whole Caddo vessels from published excavations, private collections, and archaeological reports. At present, the database contains over 13,000 vessel entries from over 500 sites ranging from a single vessel recorded at a site to hundreds. Over the years, the database has evolved to contain, where applicable, attribute fields on type, variety, motif designs (largely using the Glossary of Motifs published in the Spiro shell engravings, collegiate assignment, form, temper, decorative method (incised, brushed, etc.), context (burial #, site #, intra site location), pigment, archaeological phase, collector, repository, associated photographs, and reference citations. The database is managed using Microsoft Access where data are imported into ESRI ArcGIS and spatial analyses can be conducted. This is a continual, and perhaps never-ending, work in progress where attribute fields are added, types are vetted, and new sites are included. In some cases, “Caddo-like” vessels from sites outside the Caddo Archaeological Area, or Caddo Homeland, are included in order to evaluate social interaction and exchange of ideas. Through this process, some initial insights into landscape scale social interactions and interregional relationships using this growing comprehensive database have been explored.
, Bassam A. Amarah, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Sarah Ali
NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, Volume 6, pp 349-360; doi:10.1016/j.nrjag.2017.10.005

Abstract:
Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2]) using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand). The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (Ï°) and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θiâ¯=â¯39.7) of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological observations support the existence of paleo-fresh water lagoon at the northwestern corner of the study area, which might have been the discharge lagoon of the revealed hidden stream. Keywords: Dual-polarized SAR data, Mapping fluvial deposits, Incident angle of SAR signals, Imaging near-surface features, Aeolian sand cove
Justin Justin Andrew Junge, Portland State University
GIS Spatial Analysis of Arctic Settlement Patterns: A Case Study in Northwest Alaska; doi:10.15760/etd.3492

Abstract:
Archaeologists have been interested in relationship between environmental variability and cultural change for the last six decades. By understanding how, when, and why humans adapt to environmental change, archaeologists and anthropologists can better understand the development and complexity of human cultures. In northwest Alaska, archaeologists hypothesize that environmental variability was a major factor in both growing coastal population density, with large aggregated villages and large houses, between 1000 and 500 years ago (ya), and subsequent decreasing population density between 500 ya and the contact era. After 500 ya people are thought to have dispersed to smaller settlements with smaller house sizes in coastal areas, and perhaps, upriver. This settlement pattern was identified through research at four site locations over 30 years ago. The changing geographic distribution of sites, associated settlement size, and house size has not been examined in detail. A more careful examination of changing northwest Alaskan settlement patterns is needed before larger questions about socio-economic organization can be addressed. I use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to evaluate the evidence for a geographic redistribution of Arctic peoples during the Late Holocene. I constructed a database of settlement location and site attribute information, specifically the number of houses within each settlement and the size (m2). Data were collected from a dataset of Western Arctic National Parklands (WEAR), the Alaska Heritage Resource Survey (AHRS) database of archaeological sites in Alaska, 409 unpublished site reports and field notes curated by the National Park Service (NPS) and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the results of recent fieldwork in northwest Alaska. A total of 486 settlements were identified within the northwest Alaska with 128 settlements having temporal and site attribute data. I incorporated settlement size data into a GIS database and then carried out global, Moran's I, local Moran's I, and local Getis-Ord spatial analyses to test whether settlement redistribution occurred and if key settlement locations shifted after 500 ya. The site attribute data (number of houses and average size of houses) are used to test the additional aspects of the proposed settlement pattern change after 500 ya. A total of 83 settlements with 465 houses are used to test if the average size of settlements and average house size changed after 500 ya. The results of the spatial analyses indicate no statistically significant patterns in the spatial distribution of settlements. Site attribute analysis shows no statistical difference in the average number of houses per village or the average size of houses before or after 500 ya. The results of this work build our understanding of regional settlement patterns during the late Holocene. By testing settlement pattern change, i.e. settlement distribution, settlement size, and house size, future research into settlement pattern change can begin to evaluate likely causes for the observed changes. My method, specifically the use of GIS as a method for testing settlement pattern change, can be applied to other regions and temporal scales.
Y. Alef
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 21-25; doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-xlii-2-w5-21-2017

Abstract:
The vast amount of archaeological data and information that is systematically accumulated in the Israel Antiquities Authority database, has not yet been transformed into a tool for heritage management, i.e. accessible knowledge of the sites' cultural significance and risk assessment that is needed to support wise decision making regarding its future. As a response, a pilot project for developing an inventory for the archaeological heritage management was launched. A basic ESRI ArcGIS Online system was developed as a prototype, following the categories recommended in international standards for documentation. Five field surveys implementing the GIS system were conducted to examine different aspects and workflows: ancient synagogues in the Galilee, sites at risk, mosaics in Tel Shiqmona, the ancient settlement of Huqoq and sites included in The National Master Plan for Forests and Afforestation. The pilot project revealed the main gaps in knowledge and the critical faults in the working procedures. In spite of the systems' technological limitations, the results were convincing enough to promote a multidisciplinary discussion about the need for integration of significance and risk assessment in the working processes of the organization.
Ricardo Cicilloni, Giuseppina Ragucci, Marco Cabras, Alberto Mossa
Multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary research in Landscape Archaeology; doi:10.5463/lac.2014.32

Abstract:
Research on the prehistoric and proto-historic landscape in Sardinia (Italy) allows knowledge and analysis of the island’s archaeological heritage. Besides, recent studies have aimed to delineate the type of relationship that the prehistoric and proto-historic societies established with the variegated Sardinian landscape in connection with the ways of articulation and territorial appropriation, without neglecting the important and fundamental aspect of economic organisation of the territory. From this point of view, we want to analyse, as a sample-area, the region that includes the communal territory of Mogoro, in central-western Sardinia. Particularly we studied the ways of anthropisation and fruition of the landscape in proto-historic age, with the objective to reconstruct, through the study of the settlements and the relationships among them, some of the economic and social aspects of those groups of nuragic culture that enjoyed this area from the Middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The area of Mogoro has been intensively investigated from the half of the past century; the investigations then culminated with the stratigraphical investigation carried out beginning in 1994 near the site of Cuccurada, the main centre of an articulated territorial system including a rich network of monuments related to the nuragic civilisation, such as nuraghi, giants’ tombs and villages. In this work we present the results obtained through various research methods: geomorphological analysis, spatial analyst GIS tools (Viewshed, Cost Surface and Least-cost path analyses) and multivariate analysis (cluster and principal components analysis) that allow us to set a new hypothesis on population dynamics in this area and to individuate, among proto-historical monuments, one or more homogeneous and distinguished groups, starting from a database that results from indexing geomorphological characteristics.
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 24, pp 852-885; doi:10.1007/s10816-016-9298-7

Abstract:
Archaeologists are often considered frontrunners in employing spatial approaches within the social sciences and humanities, including geospatial technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) that are now routinely used in archaeology. Since the late 1980s, GIS has mainly been used to support data collection and management as well as spatial analysis and modeling. While fruitful, these efforts have arguably neglected the potential contribution of advanced visualization methods to the generation of broader archaeological knowledge. This paper reviews the use of GIS in archaeology from a geographic visualization (geovisual) perspective and examines how these methods can broaden the scope of archaeological research in an era of more user-friendly cyber-infrastructures. Like most computational databases, GIS do not easily support temporal data. This limitation is particularly problematic in archaeology because processes and events are best understood in space and time. To deal with such shortcomings in existing tools, archaeologists often end up having to reduce the diversity and complexity of archaeological phenomena. Recent developments in geographic visualization begin to address some of these issues and are pertinent in the globalized world as archaeologists amass vast new bodies of georeferenced information and work towards integrating them with traditional archaeological data. Greater effort in developing geovisualization and geovisual analytics appropriate for archaeological data can create opportunities to visualize, navigate, and assess different sources of information within the larger archaeological community, thus enhancing possibilities for collaborative research and new forms of critical inquiry.
Tim Evans
The Connected Past; doi:10.1093/oso/9780198748519.003.0015

Abstract:
Archaeology can be ‘site centric’. Much of the primary evidence comes from excavations based on a single site so naturally the primary sources for archaeological information are organized by site. This is a great help when establishing intra-site links, be they local spatial relationships which may help reveal functions of buildings on a site, or temporal ones, perhaps how different institutions waxed and waned within a society. However, this organization of the primary evidence inhibits comparisons between sites. The regional and global interactions of each site must be deduced by secondary work, comparing information from a range of primary sources with their differing protocols. Yet deducing these wider relationships from finds is one of the key goals of archaeological research as only by understanding societies at all scales can we get a proper view of how society functions. In this sense, archaeologists, and social science in general, have long appreciated that societies are complex systems, with some coherent large-scale phenomena emerging from microscopic interaction, a language that physical scientists have only articulated over the last couple of decades; for example, see Ball (2004) or Lane et al. (2009). Archaeology meets this challenge with several well-developed approaches. Some are rooted in physical science, such as through the chemical analysis of materials. Others are the product of human expertise, as when styles of product are compared across sites. There are efforts to produce secondary regional catalogues through human analysis of the primary sources, for instance see Mills et al. (2013), Sindbæk (2007), Terrell (2010) and chapter 4 of this volume (Peeples et al. 2016) for recent examples. Yet, there remain limitations. Chemical analysis may reveal the sources of materials but not the paths used for their transfer. Stylistic analysis may be subject to unquantifiable bias. A systematic database from primary sources may be too costly to construct. Even with such a database, there is then too much information and we have to pull out the key patterns, to simplify the information into the important parts in order for us to understand what the data is telling us.
Soil in Criminal and Environmental Forensics; doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33115-7

Abstract:
This book follows from the 6th triennial conference of the European Academy of Forensic Sciences (EAFS) in The Hague, where forensic practitioners and academic researchers met to present and discuss their work in soil forensics and to interact with the larger forensic community. Soils play a role in environmental forensics, where criminal and liable soil pollution is studied, and in criminal forensics, where soils are important as a source of trace evidence and as a place where human remains are buried and decay. At the conference multiple sessions were devoted to all of these topics. The contributions to this book are derived from these sessions and likewise show the extent and complex nature of this developing forensic expertise and its value for law enforcement. In soil forensics a multitude of scientific specializations, expertise and skills interplay: soil science, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, botany, ecology, palynology, archaeology, chemistry, spatial analysis, sampling and (geo)statistics - all of these and even more are relevant. Throughout this book examples are given of methodologies that are based on these sciences and used in soil forensics, such as GPR, GIS, examinations of minerals, pollen, microbial DNA, inorganic and organic materials, including material of anthropogenic origin, the use of databases, search-strategies for missing people and the study of decomposition processes in interaction with the environmental conditions of the burial site. Moreover the practice of soil forensics is depicted in its legal context, emphasizing the need for evidence to be suitable for court proceedings and the importance of co-operation, not only between scientists of different specializations but also between scientists and law enforcers, the latter beginning even before the examination of a crime scene. This book shows the broad field of soil forensics, emerging and solidifying in many countries all over the world, differing in some respects along with their legal systems, but ultimately sharing common grounds.
Vujadin Ivanisevic, Ivan Bugarski, Aleksandar Stamenkovic
Published: 1 January 2016
Starinar pp 143-160; doi:10.2298/sta1666143i

Abstract:
Caricin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caricin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town?s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only previously unexplored unit of the city. In the course of this programme, the classical research method - the excavations started in 2009 - is for the first time combined with the systematic application of airborne and terrestrial sensing and detection techniques. The analysis of historic aerial photographs and topographic plans proved to be very useful as well. Along with them, LiDAR-derived DTMs, photogrammetric DEMs, different geophysical and orthophotographic plans are stored in the GIS database for Caricin Grad and the Leskovac Basin. In this way almost 80 percent of the plateau area was defined, and the obtained plan is hypothetical only to a small extent, which particularly refers to the unexcavated northern rampart of the Upper Town. Each source provided relevant information for the reconstruction of both the rampart and the settlement, which points to the value of a holistic approach to documentation from various dates. The first source to be studied were archival aerial photographs of Caricin Grad from 1938 and 1947 (Figs. 1, 2.1). The latter one was originally processed by Aleksandar Deroko and Svetozar Radojci}, who drew the plan of the town after it, labelling the unexplored Upper Town?s northern plateau as ?a probable habitation area?. The route of the northern rampart was aslo rather precisely determined by the authors (Fig. 2.2). Recently, these photographs were rectified and georeferenced in the GIS. The 1938 shot reveals the position of some towers as well, and it is also indicative of the way of construction of certain buildings. From the spatial layout of whitish zones, originating from mortar scattered along the slope, it can be deduced which buildings were constructed in opus mixtum - the horreum and the so-called Building with Pillars east of it. Traces of mortar can be observed along the route of the rampart too. These archival images are particularly important because they record the topography of the site before it was filled with heaps of earth from the excavations. The topographic mappings of this area were conducted in 1981 and 2006 (Fig. 3). The first plan was drawn after an airborne stereophotogrammetric survey of Caricin Grad, and in 2006, after the wood was cut down, this whole area was surveyed with the total station, with a density of nine points per square meter. This survey also resulted in a 3D terrain model (Fig. 3.2) indicating the layout of the buildings, which was to be proved by geophysical surveys and archaeological excavations. In the course of the Serbian-French reaearch programme, in 2007 geomagnetic surveys were carried out by Alain Kermorvan of the University of Tours. Thanks to the application of this method the remains of collapsed stone structures could be observed, and in 2015, in cooperation with the Roman-Germanic Central Museum, Mainz, and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute from Vienna, the middle and eastern parts of the plateau were scanned with GPR (Fig. 4.2). Precise plans of the buildings were obtained in the areas in which LiDAR scanning and photogrammetric and geomagnetic surveys failed to produce clear images. Within the framework of the ArchaeoLandscapes Europe project, in 2011 we managed to organise an airborne LiDAR survey of the wider area of Caricin Grad. With its density of some 20 points per square meter, this scanning proved to be crucial for our comprehension of the town. The standard DTM provided numerous important data, especially its version calculated in the focal statistics function of the ArcGIS software package (Fig. 5. 1-2). These models show not only the route of the Upper Town?s northern rampart, the position of its towers and the layout of the buildings, but also the line of the Outer Town?s western rampart. Visible only in the DTM, this entirely new aspect of the Caricin Grad fortification has been attested by the excavations. Highly important plans of the town, and of the northern plateau of the Upper Town in particular, were obtained by UAV photogrammetric surveys. The first drone survey was conducted in 2014 within the scope of the same project. It resulted in a cloud with up to 1,600 points per square meter (Fig. 6.1-2). Unlike the LiDAR technology, photogrammetry cannot penetrate vegetation; therefore the preliminary clearing of the ground proved to be a most important step. After the 2015 campaign was finished, the excavation area in the Upper Town was documented again in the same manner. Regular photogrammetric surveys make possible the control of the works and reliable visual monitoring of the progress of exploration (Fig. 9). After the wood was cut down in 2006 and enormous heaps of earth from twentieth-century excavations and restoration works were carefully removed by machinery in 2008 and 2010, without disturbing the original layers of debris, wide excavations could begin. At first only the humus layer was removed from fifteen-meter squares, which was followed by technical drawing. In 2009 and 2010 we did not explore the debris or the cultural layers (Fig. 7.1-2). The additional two squares were opened and documented in the same fashion in 2011, when previously recorded buildings 11 and 15C were explored in detail, together with the part of the corridor between them where a bread oven was found. These buildings were oriented south-north, cascading along the mild slope towards the northern rampart of the Upper Town. Fragments of pithoi and carbonised fruits were found in the buildings, allowing for an economic interpretation. Judging by...
, Karolina Matwij, , Łukasz Miszk, Weronika Winiarska
Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation, Volume 19, pp 203-232; doi:10.12797/saac.19.2015.19.10

Abstract:
Excavations in the Nea Paphos Hellenistic-Roman agora have been conducted by the Chair of Classical Archaeology of the Jagiellonian University of Krakow since 2011 under the direction of Professor E. Papuci-Władyka. The main goal of the excavation is to fully uncover the Agora and to reconstruct the ways in which this public space was used. One of the methodological goals set for the research was the creation of a state-of-the-art database (work on which began in 2013) that could import and adapt data obtained from modern equipment. Of equal importance was the implementation of a 3D-format within the database (this had been under discussion for over a decade) and the enabling of GIS software data integration. Faro Focus laser scanner data was chosen to form the graphical core as it fulfilled the most important visual documentation criteria for the Paphos Agora Project database. This article presents the main premises on which the new Nea Paphos Hellenistic-Roman Agora Project database is based (on the integration of 3D and 2D data from 2011–2014) and the different stages of its creation, which made use of the latest methods of developing such tools for the purposes of archaeological excavations.
Bence Vágvölgyi
Dissertationes Archaeologicae pp 127-189; doi:10.17204/dissarch.2015.127

Abstract:
One of the biggest problems archaeologists face during interpretation is the fragmented and incomplete nature of the datasets often produced by field work. In most cases, the excavation of a whole site is not possible, and even the find material is so fragmented as to make their interpretation quite problematic. Such is the case of Ács-Kovács-rétek, a small Late Roman rural settlement, a part of which was excavated in 2009–2010. These excavations provided a very deep insight into the life of the village, but due to their limited scope, they still left a number of questions unanswered. For a more thorough interpretation of the site, we have to look at the find material and its spatial and chronological context from as many different angles as possible. Such analyses have to rely heavily on very detailed quantitative and GIS-based methods that can not only hold large amounts of very diverse information, but can also recombine this information for statistical and spatial analyses that can deepen our understanding of the site. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the power of detailed quantitative databases and methods for site interpretation through the study of a Late Roman settlement, Ács-Kovács-rétek. During the course of this research a large number of attributes of the find material and the site itself were recorded in structured databases. Thanks to the rational structuring of this data, it could not only be statistically analyzed, but also compared to other sites as well, helping to solidify the timeframe in which the settlement was inhabited, and also uncovering several interesting patterns about its inhabitants. Furthermore, the combination of this data with spatial information even helped to recognize certain changes and spatial patterns within the settlement itself. By the end of my research, a clear picture emerged of this Late Roman village, showing a Romanized population living here from the end of the 3rd through the 4th century AD that not only had connections regionally, but also fit into a local rural landscape in the hinterlands of the \textit{Ripa Pannonica}.
Neil G. Smith, Matthew Howland, Thomas E. Levy
2015 Digital Heritage, Volume 2, pp 251-258; doi:10.1109/digitalheritage.2015.7419505

Abstract:
With the rapid adoption of laser scanning and photogrammetry among the archaeological community the creation of point cloud `data scaffolds' and digital documentation of archaeological sites is now becoming common. In field excavations, however, the continual exposure of archaeological layers requires a digital toolset in which to record, categorize and spatially locate artifacts, installations, and loci within a site's daily 3D or aerial scan. We present ArchField C++, the latest version of our digital field recording software that enables real-time digital GIS 3D Top Plan production within a rendering engine designed for visualizing massive 3D datasets. ArchField directly connects to Total Stations and our RTK GPS units to record sub-centimeter measurements for artifacts, scanning markers, loci boundaries, and camera positions. The processing pipeline enables the generation of publishable orthographic and perspective maps from the first day of excavation to the last. As a backend it uses a PostGIS database and the ability to export and import various vector, raster, DEM and 3D datasets that can be hosted by on-line geo-referenced databases. We present the application of ArchField C++ to our 2014 field excavations of the early Iron Age site of Khirbat al-Jariyah located in Southern Jordan.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 157, pp 305-321; doi:10.1002/ajpa.22715

Abstract:
The objective of this paper was to integrate excavation and post‐processing of archaeological and osteological contexts and material to enhance the interpretation of these with specific focus on the taphonomical aspects. A method was designed, Virtual Taphonomy, based on the use and integration of image‐based 3D modeling techniques into a 3D GIS platform, and tested on a case study. Merging the 3D models and a database directly in the same virtual environment allowed the authors to fully integrate excavation and post‐processing in a complex spatial analysis reconnecting contexts excavated on different occasions in the field process. The case study further demonstrated that the method enabled a deeper understanding of the taphonomic agents at work and allowed the construction of a more detailed interpretation of the skeletal remains than possible with more traditional methods. The method also proved to add transparency to the entire research process from field to post‐processing and interpretation. Other benefits were the timesaving aspects in documentation, not only in the excavation process but also in post‐processing without creating additional costs in material, as the equipment used is available in most archaeological excavations. The authors conclude that this methodology could be employed on a variety of investigations from archaeological to forensic contexts and add significant value in many different respects (for example, detail, objectivity, complexity, time‐efficiency) compared to methods currently used. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015.
In Search of the Broad Spectrum Revolution in Paleolithic Southwest Europe pp 27-32; doi:10.1007/978-3-319-09819-7_4

Abstract:
Archaeological excavation takes time, and while it provides a great deal of information about the nature of past activities, it provides only indirect information on how these activities were distributed across space. Surface materials, on the other hand, are quicker to record not because the recording is any less detailed but because the material to be recorded is immediately visible. For a given set of resources, many more surface locations can be recorded and their contents analyzed. As a consequence, archaeologists working in many countries have conducted surface surveys over large areas. In doing so, they have taken advantage of advances in survey technologies like Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and total stations together with software like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and relational databases to greatly enhance their ability to record the spatial distribution of artifacts and sites.
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era, Volume 3, pp 215-236; doi:10.1260/2047-4970.3.1.215

Abstract:
This paper reports about the last progressing results of our work, raised around the archaeological site of the ancient roman urbs of Aléria in Corsica (F), updated to January 2014. Our plan provides to resume the old excavation usable data, to realize a new survey of the site actual status and to collect all into a new 3D geodatabase, including any kind of historical, documental analog data, all reorganized into dedicated Cloud Platforms and Services for different uses, as a multipath solution to improve scientists' work and to promote tourism, both local and international. The project initially focused on the forum, as the only accessible area, in these days enlarges its plans involving the nearby amphitheater and ramparts, just reorganized after the removal of old roofing. It somehow embraces even the nearby Carcopino Museum and the collected Etruscan and Roman finds as traces of the unruly diggings previously realized, to which we'll attempt to restitute logic and documented belonging. Since the Aléria Carcopino Museum shows important archaeological evidences sharing the same origin with some finds exposed in the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia in Rome, a new initiative was set up in these days by surveying the two museums' buildings, to create 3D georeferenced models as containers for sharing digital multiscale data made by innovative computational photography techniques there applied. This operation is now in place in the Villa Giulia Museum as a prototype to be after web-linked to the same survey model to be realized in Aléria. Leading the whole project is the collaboration agreement between the “Collectivité Territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie”, and the Department of “Storia, Disegno e Restauro dell'Architettura” SAPIENZA, Italy, formally signed in year 2013. The process employs many multiresolution surveying technologies: 3D Laser scanning, Topography, GPS and Dense Stereo Matching applied on site, on buildings and objects for manifold purposes; moreover Computational Photography techniques applied on Museum's halls, cabinets and exposed objects, to create digital and interactive exhibitions linking both nations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, to start collecting new and restored databases to build up a complete 3D geo-database with 3D Web scene to be shared in the GIS online Cloud Platform.
Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology pp 7134-7139; doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_1500

Abstract:
Archaeological excavation takes time, and while it provides a great deal of information about the nature of past activities, it provides only indirect information on how these activities were distributed across space. Surface materials, on the other hand, are quicker to record not because the recording is any less detailed but because the material to be recorded is immediately visible. For a given set of resources, many more surface locations can be recorded and their contents analyzed. As a consequence, archaeologists working in many countries have conducted surface surveys over large areas. In doing so, they have taken advantage of advances in survey technologies like Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and total stations together with software like Geographic Information Systems(GIS) and relational databases to greatly enhance their ability to record the spatial distribution of artifacts and sites.
Guillem Anaïs, Fuchs Alain, Halin Gilles, Dechezlepretre Thierry
2013 Digital Heritage International Congress (DigitalHeritage), Volume 1, pp 761-761; doi:10.1109/digitalheritage.2013.6743837

Abstract:
Summary form only given. This work presents the first steps of an archaeology and cultural heritage G.I.S. implementation on the archeological site of Grand in order to document the archeological map. The GIS project belongs to the branch of gathering documentation and studies of collections in the Collective Research Project (CPR) "L'agglomération antique de Grand"[1]. The implementation of a G.I.S. tool makes possible a precise location of old excavations. All the archeological operations are no longer separate but gathered and synthesized in order to build a coherent spatial database on the scale of the entire archeological site. The short-term target is to share archeological information, while the long-term goal is to keep on backfilling and updating this database. This G.I.S. implementation is the first step to go further on in spatial analysis. This project is supported by the archeological team of the Conseil Général des Vosges [2], in collaboration with the G.I.S. team in the Conseil Général in Épinal. At the end of the 2013 excavation campaign, the archeological map of the site contained in the G.I.S. will be loaded into the Cultural file of the Conseil Général G.I.S. The G.I.S. modelling with the archaeological data from Grand is an experience to repeat with others sites in the G.I.S. of the Conseil Général. The update of old archaeological data is a stake for data conservation and spread. The diffusion of spatial data goes over the archaeological subject: G.I.S. is not only a spatial management tool. It becomes also a human science research tool that can bring closer territorial institutions and research groups from a variety of background. This project follows several G.I.S. archeological projects that prove the relevance of G.I.S. as an archeological tool. After compiling a state of the art file of various G.I.S. projects, this set of references has been used as references to validate the choice of the project. In this regard, we can mention the HO-FET model [3] (Historical Object, Function, spacE and Time) developped by the ISA network [4]. This model has a general purpose because it aims at the understanding of a complex urban system in a large scale of time. The seizing of urban space is realized through the notion of Historical Object (HO). An HO is defined by its 3 dimensions : 1. Function (social use); 2. Space (localisation, width and morphology); 3. Time (dating, chronology). The G.I.S. project is precisely described though milestones of the project, data modeling and working hypothesis. The first step was the definition of the needs. Then, the Conceptual Model of the Data (CMD) of the GIS project is an adaptation of the HOFET model to Grand's case, to the available data and to the GIS goals. The present day land register has been elected as mother layer in cross-referencing purpose. The land register served as a bottom layer to establish many excavation maps. The landmarks on the land register help us to locate sites documented by ancient documents. Using the current land register presents an other advantage which is the possible digitalising of old land register papers (dating from 1886, also called “cadastre napoléonien”) in order to fullfil the spatial layers. In conclusion, a provisional balance is drawn and new perspectives are sketched out for the future. The initial phase of the GIS is over, defining the needs, the construction of the data architecture. The further development is the data integration to create a topographical atlas of the archaeological site of Grand. The GIS project lead to create a geo historical system of reference [5]: it becomes a human science collaborative and effective research tool for the convenience of the researchers.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 465-470; doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-xl-5-w2-465-2013

Abstract:
Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.
, N. Magdalinski, F. Schwarzbach, A. Schulze, , F. Schäfer
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 325-330; doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-xl-5-w2-325-2013

Abstract:
Information systems play an important role in historical research as well as in heritage documentation. As part of a joint research project of the German Archaeological Institute, the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus and the Dresden University of Applied Sciences a web-based documentation system is currently being developed, which can easily be adapted to the needs of different projects with individual scientific concepts, methods and questions. Based on open source and standardized technologies it will focus on open and well-documented interfaces to ease the dissemination and re-use of its content via web-services and to communicate with desktop applications for further evaluation and analysis. Core of the system is a generic data model that represents a wide range of topics and methods of archaeological work. By the provision of a concerted amount of initial themes and attributes a cross project analysis of research data will be possible. The development of enhanced search and retrieval functionalities will simplify the processing and handling of large heterogeneous data sets. To achieve a high degree of interoperability with existing external data, systems and applications, standardized interfaces will be integrated. The analysis of spatial data shall be possible through the integration of web-based GIS functions. As an extension to this, customized functions for storage, processing and provision of 3D geo data are being developed. As part of the contribution system requirements and concepts will be presented and discussed. A particular focus will be on introducing the generic data model and the derived database schema. The research work on enhanced search and retrieval capabilities will be illustrated by prototypical developments, as well as concepts and first implementations for an integrated 2D/3D Web-GIS.
Published: 19 May 2013
GeoInformatica, Volume 18; doi:10.1007/s10707-013-0183-1

Abstract:
This paper proposes an approach for handling multivariate data in an archaeological Geographical Information System (GIS), providing a new tool to archaeologists and historians. Our method extracts potential objects of known shapes in a geographical database (GDB) devoted to archaeological excavations. In this work, archaeological information is organized according to three components: location, date and a shape parameter, in a context where data are imprecise and lacunar. To manage these aspects, a three-step methodology was developed using fuzzy sets modeling and adapting the fuzzy Hough transform. This methodology is applied in order to define the appropriate tool for a GDB of Roman street remains in Reims, France. The defined queries return an estimation of the possible presence of streets during a fuzzy time interval given by experts on the Roman period in Reims.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, pp 205-210; doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-xl-5-w1-205-2013

Abstract:
RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.
David Wheatley, Mark Gillings
Spatial Technology and Archaeology pp 34-67; doi:10.1201/b12806-11

Abstract:
So far, we have discussed GIS in a very broad sense. From here onwards, we begin to look in more detail at how precisely the GIS works. As mentioned in Chapter 1, central to any archaeological application of GIS is the spatial database. We use the term to define the entirety of information we have held in the GIS for a certain study area. Any given spatial database must provide for the storage and manipulation of four aspects of its data: • A record of the position, in geographic space (the locational component) that determines where something is and what form it takes; • A record of the logical relationships between different geographic objects (the topological component); • A record of the characteristics of things (the attribute component) that determines what geographic objects represent, and what properties they have; • Thorough documentation of the contents of the overall database (the metadata component).
, Djamal Merad, Jean-Marc Boi, Julien Seinturier, Daniela Peloso, Christophe Reidinger, Guido Vannini, , Elisa Pruno
2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia pp 157-164; doi:10.1109/vsmm.2012.6365920

Abstract:
The paper presents an interdisciplinary project which is a work in progress towards a 3D Geographical Information System (GIS) dedicated to Cultural Heritage with a specific focus application on the Castle of Shawbak, also known as the “Crac de Montréal”, one of the best preserved rural medieval settlements in the entire Middle East. The Shawbak archaeological project is a specific and integrated project between medieval archaeological research and computer vision done thanks to a long cooperation between University of Florence and CNRS. Focusing mainly on stratigraphical analysis of upstanding structures we provide archaeologists a two-step pipeline. First a survey process using photogrammetry, both in a traditional way and using the most advanced technique for obtained dense map and then a tool for statistical analysis. The photogrammetric survey is driven by an archaeological knowledge which is formalized by ontologies as a link between all the archaeological concepts which are surveyed. The archaeological knowledge studied is now limited to stratigraphy of upstanding structure using a stone by stone survey as well as a 3D reprojection of archaeologist design made on photographs. The 3D GIS is the last step of this chain and aims the automatic production of 3D models through archaeological database queries: these 3D models are in fact a graphical image of the database and at the same time the interface through which the user is able to modify it and produce different kind of analyzing. All these developments are written in Java within ARPENTEUR framework.
James Conolly, Mark Lake
Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology pp 33-50; doi:10.1017/cbo9780511807459.003

Abstract:
This chapter reviews four typical applications of GIS in archaeology: management of archaeological resources, excavation, landscape archaeology and the spatial modelling of past human behaviour. For each application we discuss some general issues concerning the use of GIS in that particular context, followed by a presentation of a case study that illustrates the contribution that GIS has made. Although these examples are in no way exhaustive, they do provide a good overview of the capabilities and potential contributions that GIS can make to archaeological management and research.Management of archaeological resourcesIt is not our intention to discuss the objectives of cultural resource management (CRM), nor the appropriate structure of a spatial database for managing the archaeological record, as these decisions are most appropriately made by government bodies and the archaeologists charged with the tasks of recording and managing the archaeological resource. However, we note that archaeological and historic databases have increasingly been subject to government scrutiny. In the UK, this most recently occurred in a parliamentary review of archaeology that took place in 2003 (APPAG 2003; Gilman 2004). In particular, the UK archaeological databases termed ‘Sites and Monuments Records’ (SMRs) are under review in light of recent developments in information technology, especially GIS and the Internet (e.g. Newman 2002). This report makes it clear that SMRs should evolve into broader Historic Environment Records (HERs) that include information such as historic buildings, parks and gardens, historic aircraft crash sites, etc.
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era, Volume 1, pp 169-190; doi:10.1260/2047-4970.1.2.169

Abstract:
This paper presents the project “Development of Geographic Information Systems at the Acropolis of Athens”, financed by the European Union and the Government of Greece. The Acropolis of Athens is one of the major archaeological sites world-wide included in the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project started in June 2007 and finished in May 2009. The paper presents the project's aims and gives a description of the deliverables and the specifications, as well as the project difficulties. It was a complex project including a wide range of works, from classical geodetic and photogrammetric works to 3D modeling and GIS development. The main tasks of the project were the establishment of a polygonometric network, the production of DSM and orthophotomosaics of the top view of the hill and of the walls' facades, the terrestrial laser scanning and 3D modeling of the Acropolis rock, the walls and the Erehtheion, the development of a geospatial database and finally the development of GIS applications to access and manage the data.
, , Benedetto Benedetti
Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39, pp 1271-1287; doi:10.1016/j.jas.2011.12.034

Abstract:
This work describes the procedures, the different techniques and the pipeline used for creating a digital framework that should assist the Superintendence of Pompeii in the digital reconstruction, classification, management and visualisation of archaeological finds inside an advanced 3D web-based repository of reality-based data. Specific topics have been focused on the quality assessment procedures adopted to ensure consistency and reliability of data throughout the whole 3D models acquisition and pipeline creation, as well as on the particular semantic reality-based structure adopted to develop an information system into a knowledge one. The main purposes of our framework have been the usage of 3D digital models as a restitution of the real object and as a metaphor for navigating through the data; 3D models were used as archaeological cognitive systems and developed as a collection of structured objects, identified through a precise terminology that allows to easily extend the concept of 2D GIS to 3D GIS. In addition, the system was developed as a scalable application that allows the use of the same database by different users, simply filtering the data according to the specific requirements, and can operate both as standalone and web-based application.
Published: 1 January 2012
Computer Vision, Volume 7616, pp 119-128; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34234-9_12

Abstract:
The paper presents an interdisciplinary project which is a work in progress towards a 3D Geographical Information System (GIS) dedicated to Cultural Heritage with a specific focus application on the Castle of Shawbak, one of the best preserved rural medieval settlements in the entire Middle East). The Shawbak archaeological project is a specific and integrated project between medieval archaeological research and computer vision done thanks to a long cooperation between University of Florence and CNRS, LSIS, Marseille. Focusing mainly on stratigraphical analysis of upstanding structures we provide archaeologists with two-step pipeline. First a survey process using photogrammetry, both in a traditional way with additional annotations and using the most advanced technique to obtain dense maps and then a tool for statistical analysis. Two main applications are presented here, stratigraphy analysis with Harris matrix computed on the fly from the 3D viewer and statistical tools, clustering operation on ashlar in order to show new relationships between the measured artifacts. All these developments are written in Java within Arpenteur framework[4].
Joy Beasley, Tom Gwaltney
Published: 1 March 2010
Historical Archaeology, Volume 44, pp 20-42; doi:10.1007/BF03376780

Abstract:
The authors directed an initial archaeological survey of the New Philadelphia town site in 2002 to 2003. This pedestrian survey and related database work using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer software yielded detailed distribution maps of over 7,000 artifacts, and identified a large concentration of artifacts within the north-central part of the town site. These artifacts consisted mostly of nails, ceramics, and bottle glass, indicating that many of the town lots served primarily domestic and residential purposes, rather than craft or industrial functions. Material remains of some of the town’s businesses, such as a blacksmith operation, were also present. The methods used in this Phase I project, which combined basic pedestrian surveying techniques with sophisticated database and mapping programs, provided a highly valuable baseline for designing and undertaking later geophysical surveys and full excavations of residential and business locations within the town site.
David J. Keeling
Journal of Latin American Geography, Volume 9, pp 169-170; doi:10.1353/lag.2010.0001

Abstract:
This second edition of the JLAG websites section profiles locations that may prove helpful to scholars seeking resources for teaching and research. Descriptions of the profiled sites are drawn directly from the website home pages and from individual contributors. Subscribers to JLAG are encouraged to submit suggestions for inclusion in this section to the websites editor. During the first half of the twentieth century, the Carnegie Institution for Science, formerly the Carnegie Institution of Washington, conducted pioneering research throughout Mesoamerica. Carnegie maps and publications represent a significant body of knowledge about ancient people and places. These works continue to rank among the most commonly cited documents by scholars and researchers. Many of the remaining Carnegie publications are housed in rare book collections or private libraries. The Auburn University Carnegie Explorer website makes portions of the Carnegie research available to scholars from all disciplines and. In addition to digital copies of publications, Carnegie Institution paper maps of ancient settlements are provided in geo-referenced digital format for use in geographic information systems. The site provides remote sensing datasets covering all of Mesoamerica and portions of Central America as well. The GeoSUR Portal provides an entry point to the spatial data and metadata published by participating institutions in South America and Panama. The spatial data may be consulted directly by means of a spatial map viewer contained in the Portal that connects to national and regional map services; or may be consulted through the metadata available in the portal, since each metadata record enables consultation of its associated datasets in the portal map viewer. The bibliography provided through this link will be useful to scholars who study Spanish land grants in northern Mexico and the American southwest. A particular value of this bibliography is that many references are to journals that are not indexed electronically. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE – is the main provider of data and information in the country and it fulfills the demands of several different segments of civil society, as well of other governmental institutions at federal, state and municipal level. The site provides access to a rich array of geospatial resources. This website is a citizen effort to oversee and understand the United States' military relationship with the Western Hemisphere. It is a project of the Latin America Working Group Education Fund, in cooperation with the Center for International Policy and the Washington Office on Latin America. Links are provided to three main areas: data, analysis, and reports and other sources. A useful source for those seeking more information about military spending, training, and other regional security issues. Mesoweb is devoted to the ancient cultures of Mexico and adjacent Central America, including the Olmec, Zapotec, Mixtec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, Aztec, and Maya (reserving the word Mayan for the language and the word Maya for the people and their culture). Because this is a huge area for any one website to cover, the webmasters have chosen to specialize in the Maya and, more particularly, Maya history, viewing it through the lens of archaeology and the related disciplines and the written records left by the Maya themselves. It highlights recent archaeological projects, provides a link to resources, and posts research articles and technical reports. For those interested, there are animation games, videos, and teaching tools available. John Harner uses the site in classroom teaching to show timelines for Prehispanic cultures and to use the excellent collection of images from the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. This website presents information on the broad pattern of the health environment during the late Brazilian Empire and early First Republic (1849-1901) using geographic information system (GIS) tools, digital records derived from archival research, and database organizational techniques. The site has useful timelines, maps, a searchable database, and other useful tools. El Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental (CIGA) es una nueva dependencia de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de...
Digital Medievalist, Volume 4; doi:10.16995/dm.20

Abstract:
In many ways the Roman province of Baetica is an ideal subject for exploring new approaches to historic transport geography. This is not due to the completeness of its record (for it is not), but because it provides a remarkable breadth of pertinent data. This paper, loosely based on a seminar hosted by the Digital Classicist at King’s College London, will briefly discuss the results of applying some as-yet relatively uncommon techniques to the archaeology and documentary record of transport in the area. It will then go on to tackle some more general issues in creating maps of movement in the past, concluding that there is still much theoretical work to be done, but that the potential for discovering new patterns in old data is great, and indeed, ever growing. The main concept that will be explored is that of a Node Network, an abstract model of the interactions between spatially separate locations. This paper demonstrates the potential of a standard relational database, coupled with a GIS and Network Analysis software package, to make a spatial argument about the relative importance of key towns within a transport network and expose the constituent elements of that argument in a formal, visual manner.
H.J.A. Berendsent
Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, Volume 86, pp 165-177; doi:10.1017/s0016774600077787

Abstract:
A brief overview is given of the history of geological mapping of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. The first accurate map of the delta, based on field observations, was made by Vink (1926). The geological map of the Netherlands, scale 1 : 50,000, made by the ‘Geologische Stichting’ (1927 – 1938) under the supervision of P. Tesch totally neglected Vink’s work, and was a step backwards with regard to the mapping of the Holocene delta. Between 1940 and 1965, the Wageningen group of soil scientists produced detailed regional soil maps, that had a strong ‘geogenetic’ component. In the 1960’s a revolutionary ‘profile type legend’ was introduced by the Netherlands’ Geological Survey. This allowed to map not only the outcropping sediments, but the whole Holocene succession, which gave more insight into the geological history. Over the past 30 years, the Rhine-Meuse delta has been studied extensively by students of physical geography at Utrecht University. More than 250,000 borehole descriptions, 1500 14C dates and over 36,000 archeological artifacts with associated ages (collected by the National Service for Archaeological Heritage) have accumulated, resulting in the largest database of a delta in the world. The production of detailed maps has been crucial to the solution of many scientific problems. The use of GIS has greatly enhanced geological and geomorphological mapping, and subsequently, understanding of the evolution of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. A new detailed digital elevation map of the Netherlands, based on very accurate laser-altimetry data, will enable us to map larger areas in greater detail, with greater accuracy, and in a much shorter period of time.
Benjamin F. Richason, Carrie Hritz
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONTRIBUTIONS TO ARCHAEOLOGY pp 283-325; doi:10.1007/0-387-44455-6_12

Abstract:
The landscape of the southern portion of the Central Mesopotamian Plain is a unique maze of ancient settlement sites and canals. A number of these have been inventoried and mapped during the last century using ground surveys. Because of the size of the region and problems with accessibility, remote sensing and GIS mapping techniques have proven invaluable in our recent studies of this area. Specifically, we studied the area around the ancient site of Nippur and Lake Dalmaj, making use of a variety of sensor systems including Landsat, SPOT, Radarsat, ASTER, and Corona. A variety of enhancement and classification techniques were applied to these different image types to better understand patterns and distributions on the land, as well as the capabilities of different sensor systems. To aid in this investigation extensive GIS databases were created from a variety of field studies such as Robert Adams’s work, the Heartland of Cities. These databases were used in conjunction with the imagery to isolate different age groupings of sites and canals and map their location and extent; areas potentially containing new sites were also identified. This study illustrates how distinctive this area is in terms of mounds and layers of canals as compared to areas farther north.
Internet Archaeology; doi:10.11141/ia.19.1

Abstract:
This article presents, for the first time, multidisciplinary geoarchaeological work by a joint Belgo-Italian team from the universities of Ghent and Cassino in and around the Roman urban site of Ammaia in the northern Alentejo region of Portugal. This project is a geoarchaeological case study to investigate the conditioning effects of landscape and landscape evolution on a Roman urban site (and vice versa) in the Iberian peninsula. Composite image of aerial and contour maps of study area The site and landscape presentation is followed by a brief discussion of the aims and approaches of the chosen geoarchaeological strategy. With this study we approach the cultural landscape around Ammaia by means of techniques which combine methods both of the geosciences and of archaeological survey. The specific problems of assessing and reconstructing a Roman landscape, much altered by physical movements of the soil and by a two-millennia long period of human interference, will therefore be tackled in a multidisciplinary way. This means first of all making use of all relevant cartographic material, available aerial photographs and relevant satellite images. All important pre-existing archaeological information is inventoried and mapped and new fieldwork organised. This fieldwork, combining traditional archaeological survey techniques and geomorphologic observations, is being used to build a database of landscape features and sites with archaeological relevance for the period concerned. As many field data and cartographic elements as possible are being assembled in a Geographic Information System, specifically developed for this project. This GIS has already enhanced much new cartographic material of crucial importance in reconstructing the landmarks of the site and territory of Ammaia in the first centuries of our era and has helped to evaluate and interpret the evolution of the landscape shortly before, during, and since Roman times. A large part of this contribution is dedicated to reporting on some major observations and results obtained during three field campaigns, in the summers of 2001, 2002 and 2004. These results relate primarily to three fields of archaeological concern with specific relevance to the landscape background: the tracing of the circuit wall of the Roman city, the intra-urban cartography and the supply of water to the urban area during Roman imperial times. The authors believe these investigations to be examples of good practice in the field of geoarchaeology of the classical Mediterranean landscape. This article will particularly interest: * People interested in Roman archaeology and landscape archaeology of the Mediterranean region Key points: * The Roman city of Ammaia * Landscape survey * Geoarchaeology
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