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(searched for: Analysis of Rock Mass Rating Classification with Using RMR Method)
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Ahmed Abdallah Abdallah Abu El-Ela
Published: 14 April 2021
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Vahid Maazallahi,
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment pp 1-29; doi:10.1007/s10064-021-02143-3

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, Ümit Cihat Tarakçi
International Journal of Geomechanics, Volume 21; doi:10.1061/(asce)gm.1943-5622.0001917

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, Riad Benzaid, Mustapha Tekkouk
Published: 29 January 2021
Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Volume 14, pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s12517-021-06537-1

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Sukardan Tawil, Muh. Imran Syam, Irianto Uno
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 6, pp 133-136; doi:10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2342

Abstract:
The looseness that occurs on the road along Tawaeli-Toboli is a very important issue to be examined because the road is the most important axis road in Central Sulawesi - Indonesia. The goal to be achieved is to know the value of the quality of the rocks and their relation to the size of the slope angle on the road, especially at km 16 to km 26 from Palu City, using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) method. From the analysis of RMR obtained one slope whose description of rocks is poor, namely on slope 3 with a value of RMR of 28 and a medium description with a value of 51 is on slope 1, for the other six slopes the description of the rock is still a good rock state with values ranging from 63-73. It is concluded that the lowest RMR value requires special attention to be on slope 3. Thus, the friction angle in small rocks, the value of RMR is also small, and the type of soil indicated is bad.
Maipelo Gaopatwe, Tefo Kgopana, Bame Molebatsi, Rahul Verma
Open Journal of Geology, Volume 11, pp 38-48; doi:10.4236/ojg.2021.112003

Abstract:
An optimum design of box cuts in soil formations is very crucial in order to obviate the major risk factors originating from the collapse of sidewalls and flooding of excavations during storm rainfall. The present paper aims to present a holistic classification of the Kalahari Formation stratigraphy in Zone 5 and define engineering properties of each lithological unit, in order to establish a safe working design. For the present objectives, collection of data was carried out through logging core from selected geotechnical boreholes drilled within vicinity of the proposed Northern mine box cut. Hydrogeological assessments and feasibility studies within the purview of study region were also considered. Geotechnical logging parameters gathered on site were derived from the Rock Mass Rating system (RMR) for design requirements [1]. Input parameters and material characteristics taken from laboratory test results provided by KCM were incorporated in the analysis. The box cut slopes were modelled in “Rocscience software” for evaluation of safety factor using “limit equilibrium method”. Slope optimization required the slope surface to be as steep as possible while maintaining an adequate factor of safety ranging from 1.5 - 1.8. For the box cut design with optimum safety, the recommended parameters are: stable slope angle—35° - 40°; ramp angle—8°, depth of pit—60 meters; bench width—4.9 meters and the bench length—13.25 meters.
, Musa Adebayo Idris
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1263-1271; doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2020.03.007

Abstract:
Deformation modulus of rock mass is one of the input parameters to most rock engineering designs and constructions. The field tests for determination of deformation modulus are cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming. This has prompted the development of various regression equations to estimate deformation modulus from results of rock mass classifications, with rock mass rating (RMR) being one of the frequently used classifications. The regression equations are of different types ranging from linear to nonlinear functions like power and exponential. Bayesian method has recently been developed to incorporate regression equations into a Bayesian framework to provide better estimates of geotechnical properties. The question of whether Bayesian method improves the estimation of geotechnical properties in all circumstances remains open. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted to assess the performances of regression and Bayesian methods when they are used to characterize deformation modulus from the same set of RMR data obtained from two project sites. The study also investigated the performance of different types of regression equations in estimation of the deformation modulus. Statistics, probability distributions and prediction indicators were used to assess the performances of regression and Bayesian methods and different types of regression equations. It was found that power and exponential types of regression equations provide a better estimate than linear regression equations. In addition, it was discovered that the ability of the Bayesian method to provide better estimates of deformation modulus than regression method depends on the quality and quantity of input data as well as the type of the regression equation.
S B Yu, X C Yang, H Wang, Z X Wang
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 570; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/570/5/052002

Abstract:
The study aims to address some prominent problems of the existing classification methods of roadway surrounding rock, such as poor adaptability and applicability. For this purpose, using geomechanical information coupling with the three-dimensional (3D) geological modeling technology, a 3D classification and zoning method of surrounding rock is proposed on the basis of the big data geomechanical information database. This method can realize advanced prediction and evaluation analysis of rock mass quality in unexposed areas. The method first establishes an acquisition workflow of the big data geomechanical information based on the rock mass rating (RMR) and then forms a statistics technology of the big data geomechanical information and database sample based on borehole core data. Finally, it realizes the assignment of RMR for the unexposed areas by combining the 3D evaluation technology of 3DMine software and the supplemented information obtained from onsite geological survey.The 3D classification and zoning method is applied to the Jiama mine and compared with quality statistics obtained from an onsite survey. The results from the proposed model based on the borehole core database statistics are consistent with the onsite survey results. This indicates that the proposed method has excellent feasibility and applicability to solve some of the problems with the existing methods. In addition, the 3D classification and zoning method realizes extra mechanical application for borehole cores except for geological exploration and improves the application extent of borehole cores from multiple angles.
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Volume 39, pp 2409-2430; doi:10.1007/s10706-020-01635-5

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Published: 16 October 2020
Geofluids, Volume 2020, pp 1-22; doi:10.1155/2020/8881319

Abstract:
The selection of the support scheme for deep-buried and large-span chambers has been a severe problem in underground engineering. To further study the mechanical mechanism of large deformation, based on the repair engineering of the chambers of Pingdingshan No.6 mine in China, the field investigation, laboratory test, numerical simulation, and theoretical analysis were studied. The surrounding rock of the central substation chamber (CSC) and the main pumping chamber (MPC) were classified according to the rock mass rating (RMR) classification method, and the main factors affecting the stability of the surrounding rock of the chambers were revealed. A prediction model of mechanical parameters of the surrounding rock was established based on the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Additionally, the prediction results were used in FLAC3D to further analyze the failure of the original support scheme, and the feasibility of the restoration plan was proposed. Six key points of support technology for this kind of chamber were put forward. Comprehensive support and repair scheme, including “bolt, metal mesh, shotcrete, grouting, anchor cable, and combined anchor cable,” was put forward. The engineering practice indicated that the deformation rate was less than 0.7 mm/d, which was beneficial to the long-term stability of CSC and MPC. The implementation of this restoration project can provide a reference for other similar projects.
, Niraj Kumar, Pramod Kumar, Ashok Kumar Singh
Journal of the Geological Society of India, Volume 96, pp 163-170; doi:10.1007/s12594-020-1524-y

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Published: 14 August 2020
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering pp 67-80; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-6233-4_5

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Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Volume 102; doi:10.1016/j.tust.2020.103426

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, M. E. A. Mondal, S. P. Pradhan, M. Salman, M. Sohel
Published: 20 July 2020
Natural Hazards, Volume 104, pp 413-435; doi:10.1007/s11069-020-04175-6

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Juliet Rodriguez-Vilca, Jose Paucar-Vilcañaupa, Humberto Pehovaz-Alvarez, Carlos Raymundo, Nestor Mamani-Macedo, Javier M. Moguerza
Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education pp 342-349; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-50791-6_44

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, Matthew J. Cracknell, James Lett, Ron F. Berry, Ronell Carey, Anthony C. Harris, Lett James
Published: 1 December 2019
Economic Geology, Volume 114, pp 1495-1511; doi:10.5382/econgeo.4649

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, Alexander Alexander
Published: 28 June 2019
PROMINE, Volume 7, pp 15-19; doi:10.33019/promine.v7i1.1056

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is a classification of rock from slopes and analyzes safety factor of slope by fellenius and janbu method. This type of research classified as descriptive. For class of rock mass based on bieniawski 1989 and for processing helped with software slide v. 6.0. Research results explain the total weights of Rock Mass Rating (RMR) from the results of the data from field, the total weights is = 46 so the rocks are at class III (moderate), with cohesion value 250 kPa and the friction angle is 30 o. The value of the slope safety factor pit B PT. Miyor Pratama Coal after using the slide programme V. 6.0 with method of Bishop has Safety factor = 2,093, and with Janbu method has safety factor = 2,180. From two methods include safe condition > 1.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Volume 112, pp 238-252; doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.10.009

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Alvian Rizky Yanuardian, I Gde Budi Indrawan, I Wayan Warmada
Published: 28 June 2018
RISET Geologi dan Pertambangan, Volume 28, pp 101-114; doi:10.14203/risetgeotam2018.v28.745

Abstract:
Desa Terbah merupakan salah satu desa di Indonesia yang rawan longsor. Daerah ini berada pada sedimen Tersier yang telah mengalami deformasi dan pelapukan kuatyang berpotensi longsor,sehingga diperlukan analisis kestabilan lereng untuk upaya mitigasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi karakteristik satuan geologi teknik lereng dan nilai probabilitas tingkat kestabilan lereng. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu pengamatan tingkat pelapukan, pengukuran bidang diskontinuitas (spasi, kekasaran, lebar bukaan) pada lereng berdasarkan metode Rock Mass Rating (RMR), pengujian laboratorium menggunakan point load test, dan analisis kestabilan lereng dengan metode kinematika dan Slope Stability Probability Classification (SSPC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat lima satuan geologi teknik batuan, yaitu: Satuan Breksi Andesit 1, Satuan Breksi Andesit 2, Satuan Tufa, Satuan Batupasir Tufan, dan Satuan Batupasir. Hasil pengukuran pada 35 lereng menunjukkan 14 lereng berada dalam kondisi tidak stabil berdasarkan kestabilan lereng orientasi independen (tidak terpengaruh diskontinuitas), dan 18 lereng berpotensi terjadi longsor gelinciran (sliding), dan 14 lereng berpotensi terjadi longsor robohan (toppling) berdasarkan orientasi dependen (terpengaruh diskontinuitas).Terbah village is one of the rural areas in Indonesia that has high vulnerability to landslide. This area occupies the Tertiary sediment which had been deformed and highly weathered, therefore prone to landslide. It is important to analyze the slope stability of the study area as a part of the mitigation measures. This paper aims to identify the engineering geological units and the probability values of the slope stability. Methods included the observation of weathering degree, measurement of slope discontinuities (space, roughness, width of opening) according to Rock Mass Rating (RMR), point load test in the laboratory, and slope stability analysis using kinematic method and Slope Stability Probability Classification (SSPC). Results show that there are five engineering geological units: Andesitic Breccia Unit 1, Andesitic BrecciaUnit 2, Tuff unit, Tuffaceous Sandstone Unit, and Sandstone Unit. Measurements of 35 slopes show that based on orientation independent analysis 14 slopes are unstable, and based on orientation dependent analysis 18 slopes are prone to sliding and 14 slopes are susceptible to toppling.
Published: 14 May 2018
Applied Sciences, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/app8050782

Abstract:
The primary output of the rock mass rating (RMR) and tunneling quality index (Q) system is a preliminary tunnel support design, as these methods are empirically developed and updated for this purpose. In this study, these internationally accepted design tools are evaluated to improve results for tunnel support design. The rating system is simplified and improved for some parameters through the use of equations to replace the discrete/lump characterization with a continuous rating. Recent developments in characterization and support are used in proposing the back analysis approach of rock mass quality calculation from tunnel span and installed support. This approach is used for two tunnel projects which experience high stresses. Approximately 90% of the tunnel sections show that actual supports have rock bolt spacing and shotcrete thickness which are heavier than those indicated by RMR89, indicating a system limitation. Another assessment using RMR14 indicates that its rating is higher than that of RMR89. A strong correlation exists between them, as supported by the literature and data from analyses of 462 tunnel sections. Despite its new version, RMR89 still preserves its importance. Evaluating the different correlations between RMR and Q through published data indicates that the rock mass fabric index gives comparatively better results.
, M Rinaldi, S Wibowo, , , A Mulyo
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 145; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/145/1/012056

Abstract:
In engineering of open pit mine, safety is the most basic thing to be focused on, especially the slopes in the mining area. Hence, characteristic of rock slopes need to be determined precisely and accurately to identify the stability of the slopes. This study is done in andesite quarry slope in Jelekong, Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia, which is the location of crushing plant construction by Widaka Indonesia Inc. The purpose of this research is to determine the mass characteristic of andesite quarry slope in order to know the slope feasibility level as a construction location of crushing plant. The method used to determine the mass characteristic is by identifying the rock mass based on RMR (Rock Mass Rating) by Binieawski (1989) and also the type of failure, which could potentially happen based on kinematics analysis. The slope condition is analyzed based on field investigation and laboratory test results. RMR value shows that the rock mass is between 63-78, which is included into class II (Good Rock). Kinematics analysis also gives result that the rock slope will not have a failure or in other words, in a stable condition. Based on the research results, the location is suitable to construct a crushing plant.
Alireza Afradi, Siamak Rezazadeh
Published: 7 February 2018
Civil Engineering Journal, Volume 4; doi:10.28991/cej-030976

Abstract:
Geological structures and performance of the geodynamic processes can affect engineering projects on their own. Hence, the stability analysis and designing methods for foreseeing the retaining and support system for tunnels are diverse and came from different points of view. So this study seeks to present stability analysis of Imam Reza tunnel in Ardabil Sarcham Road with a special focus on the impact of future earthquakes on its stability using numerical methods. In this study, first designing and operating the initial structure with the height of 5.5 m and a semi-circular cross section. Secondly, drilling with the height of 3m and the width of 7.34 m and with a rectangle cross section. For stabilization, Rock Mass Rating (RMR) geomechanical classification systems and methods used. At the stabilization level, the materials were examined in laboratory, regarding the properties of sides and roof of the tunnel and pressure on them. The results of physical and mechanical experiments shown that the compressive strength ranged from 400 kg/cm2 to 500 kg/cm2 on average. The elastic modulus is between 12 and 13 GPa for the rocks. The Cohesion (C) ranged from 4-5MPa to 5 MPa and the Angle of Internal Friction (φ) is between 60ᵒ and 50ᵒ.
B Nugroho, P A Pranantya, R Witjahjati, Rofinus
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 106; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/106/1/012007

Abstract:
This study aims to estimate the potential collapse in the Seropan cave, based on the existing geological structure conditions in the cave. This is very necessary because in the Seropan cave will be built Microhydro installation for power plants. The electricity will be used to raise the underground river water in the cave to a barren soil surface, which can be used for surface irrigation. The method used is analysis the quality of rock mass along the cave. Analysis of rock mass quality using Geomechanical Classification or Rock Mass Rating (RMR), to determine the magnitude of the effect of geological structure on rock mass stability. The research path is divided into several sections and quality analysis is performed on each section. The results show that the influence of geological structure is very large and along the cave where the research there are several places that have the potential to collapse, so need to get serious attention in handling it. Nevertheless, the construction of this Microhydro installation can still be carried out by making a reinforcement on potentially collapsing parts
, Nafisah Al-Huda, Khaizal Jamaluddin, Devi Sundary, Gartika Setiya Nugraha
Published: 21 December 2017
RISET Geologi dan Pertambangan, Volume 27; doi:10.14203/risetgeotam2017.v27.452

Abstract:
Penelitian kestabilan lereng batuan menggunakan metode analisis kinematik lereng dan klasifikasi massa batuan dilakukan di lereng pinggir jalan Banda Aceh – Calang di Km 17,8 di Kecamatan Lhoknga Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis longsoran yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang, menilai kualitas massa batuan pembentuk lereng, dan tingkat kestabilannya berdasarkan klasifikasi SMR. Akuisisi data struktur massa batuan dilakukan di sepanjang lereng menggunakan metode scanline. Data yang diambil berupa arah kemiringan bidang diskontinuitas, arah bidang, dan kondisi bidang diskontinuitas bidang berupa kemenerusan, kekasaran, bukaan, isian, luahan air dan tingkat perlapukan. Analisis kinematik lereng didapatkan berdasarkan hasil proyeksi stereografi dan analisis kualitas serta kestabilan lereng batuan berdasarkan parameter RMR dan SMR. Hasil analisis kinematik lereng menunjukkan jenis longsoran yang akan terjadi di lereng 1 berupa longsoran baji dan planar. Di lereng 2 dimungkinkan terjadinya longsoran gulingan/toppling karena bidang joint set yang berlawanan dengan arah lereng. Nilai RMR di lereng 1 sebesar 63 dengan kategori batuan Bagus dan RMR lereng 2 sebesar 57 kategori batuan sedang. Nilai SMR terendah di lereng 1 sebesar 29 (kategori Buruk) untuk longsoran planar dan 53 (kategori Sedang) di lereng 2 longsoran gulingan. Lereng 1 memiliki probabilitas kejadian longsor planar sebesar 60%.Rock slope stability was assessed using the slope kinematic analysis method and rock mass classification on the roadside slope of Banda Aceh - Calang at 17.8 Km in Lhoknga Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. This study aims to determine the types of landslides that will occur in the future by determining the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and analyzing stability based on the Slope Mass Rating (SMR). The data acquisition of rock mass structures performed the scan line method along the slope. The data taken are the dip and the strike of the discontinuity plane, and the conditions of discontinuity in the form of persistence, aperture, roughness, infilling, weathering and Groundwater conditions. Slope kinematic analysis was conducted based on stereographic projection and analyses of both rock slope quality and stability were based on RMR and SMR parameters. The result of the slope kinematic analysis shows that landslides that occur in slope 1 will be in wedge and planar forms. On slope 2, possible failure is in the form of toppling due to the joint set positioned opposite to the slope direction. The RMR value in slope 1 is 63, categorized as Good rock and the RMR in slope 2 is 57, which is in the medium rock category. The lowest SMR value in slope 1 was 29 as a Bad class for planar failure, and 53 as a Normal category in slope 2 is toppling failure. Slope 1 has a 60 % probability of a planar failure event.
, Abdallah Hafsaoui, Youcef Khadri, Boukarm Riadh, Radouane Nakache, Abderrazak Saadoun, Kamel Menacer
Advancements in Geotechnical Engineering pp 101-114; doi:10.1007/978-3-319-61648-3_7

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, , Lian-Jie Zhang, Wen-Ping Mu, Cheng Qian, Zhuo-Ran Wang
Environmental Earth Sciences, Volume 75, pp 1-16; doi:10.1007/s12665-016-5246-9

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, Gholam Reza Khanlari,
Earth Sciences Research Journal, Volume 19, pp 147-152; doi:10.15446/esrj.v19n2.49127

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Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Volume 75, pp 439-449; doi:10.1007/s10064-015-0823-9

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Larbi Gadri, , Farid Zahri, Zied Benghazi, Abderrahmen Boumezbeur, Boukelloul Mohammed Laid, Khaled Raїs
Published: 24 April 2015
Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Volume 8, pp 8987-8997; doi:10.1007/s12517-015-1887-3

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Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Volume 33, pp 983-995; doi:10.1007/s10706-015-9880-x

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Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Volume 73, pp 541-550; doi:10.1007/s10064-013-0530-3

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R. Rafiee, , M. Kamali
Journal of Geology and Mining Research, Volume 5, pp 97-107; doi:10.5897/jgmr2013.0176

Abstract:
One of the most serious problems in tunneling projects are falling rock blocks. By considering this fact, the importance of stability predicting using some input parameters can be obviously understood. Among the existing rock mass classification systems for underground structures, rock mass rating (RMR) and Q are probably the most widely used ones this is rather unlikely to change, at least in the near future, frequently used and more available in tunneling projects, therefore establishing a proper and valid stability method based on such items would be useful. Since none of them (RMR and Q) can reflect the tunnel stability condition entirely and each has some lacks in rock mass properties defining, therefore both of them were used in this analysis which can provide the whole perspective of rock mass condition and stability. For this aim, data (RMR, Q, and hydraulic radius) from 104 cases of eight tunnel projects were gathered. By observing the stability condition in each tunnel, the data were classified in three categories: stable, potentially unstable and unstable. Two models next were defined and the related formulas were found using binary and multinomial logistic regression, at last the best predictor model would be selected by using the percent of correctly predicted cases in each model. The results of this paper show that the logistic regression (LR) is a robust tool to establish and develop predicting model for tunneling projects and can assist engineers to predict the stability condition of tunnels. Key words: Logistic regression, tunneling, rock mass classification, stability.
Mehmet Sari, Celal Karpuz, Can Ayday
Published: 1 July 2010
Computers & Geosciences, Volume 36, pp 959-969; doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.02.001

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H. Basarir, A. Ozsan, M. Karakus
Published: 1 October 2005
Engineering Geology, Volume 81, pp 131-145; doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.07.010

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Natural Hazards, Volume 30, pp 309-324; doi:10.1023/b:nhaz.0000007178.44617.c6

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, H Başarır
Published: 1 March 2003
Engineering Geology, Volume 68, pp 319-331; doi:10.1016/s0013-7952(02)00235-1

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O Alekseenko, A Vaisman, A Zazovsky
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Volume 34, pp 473-473; doi:10.1016/s0148-9062(97)00149-6

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V. Venkateswarlu, A.K. Ghose, N.M. Raju
Published: 31 March 1989
Mining Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 97-107; doi:10.1016/s0167-9031(89)90507-0

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