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(searched for: Analysis of Halogenated Compounds in Fish Samples)
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, Giulia Poma, Jasper Bombeke, Franck Limonier, Els Van Hoeck, Laure Joly, Adrian Covaci
Published: 1 January 2021
Food Control, Volume 119; doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107463

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Peter Haglund
Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 413, pp 479-501; doi:10.1007/s00216-020-03018-4

Abstract:
The health of key species in the Baltic region has been impaired by exposure to anthropogenic hazardous substances (AHSs), which accumulate in organisms and are transferred through food chains. There is, thus, a need for comprehensive characterization of the occurrence and accumulation of AHSs in the ecosystem. In this study, we use a non-target screening (NTS) approach for this purpose. A major challenge in NTS of biological samples is the removal of matrix components such as lipids that may interfere with the detection and identification of compounds of interest. Here, we combine gel permeation chromatography with Florisil® column fractionation to achieve sufficient lipid removal for gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis using electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ion chemical ionization (ECNI). In addition, we present new data processing workflows designed to systematically find and identify frequently occurring and biomagnifying AHSs, including known, emerging, and new contaminants. Using these workflows, we discovered a wide range of contaminants in tissue samples from blue mussels, fish, and marine mammals, and calculated their biomagnification factors (BMFs). Compounds with BMFs above 1 for herring and at least one marine mammal included legacy chlorinated pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs, chloro-benzenes/cyclohexanes, chlordanes, toxaphenes, dieldrin), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and brominated biphenyls. However, there were also several halogenated natural products (halogenated methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers, 1′-methyl-1,2′-bipyrroles, 1,1′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyrroles, and the halogenated monoterpene mixed halogenated compound 1) as well as the novel flame retardant Dechlorane 602 and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenoids, and steroids. The legacy pollutants exhibited the expected biomagnification behavior, demonstrating the utility of the unguided data processing workflow.
Published: 18 March 2019
Foods, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/foods8030101

Abstract:
A rapid method is proposed for the determination of selected H₂SO₄ stable organic compounds-eight organochlorines (OCs; hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane-HCH-isomers, heptachlor) and six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154)-in fish samples. In the method, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation using pH-tuned dispersive liquid⁻liquid microextraction (DLLME) and H₂SO₄ digestion fish extract clean-up is followed by gas chromatography⁻triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC⁻QqQ-MS/MS) analysis. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of the method, recovery, accuracy, analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1946), and estimation of combined uncertainty of the measurement (top-down approach). For validation, chub composite samples were used, and subsequently, the method was successfully applied to analysis of real samples of eight fish species. Finally, the method passed the analytical Eco-Scale evaluation as "an acceptable green analysis method", and showed its advantages (simplicity, rapidity, low cost, high extract clean-up efficiency, good sensitivity) when compared to other reported QuEChERS based methods.
Ederina Ninga, Elvira Beli, Elona Shahu, Ilirjana Boci
European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 4, pp 37-39; doi:10.24018/ejers.2019.4.2.1099

Abstract:
The paper reports investigation on the presence of 13 halogenated compounds (six chlorinated compounds, nd-like PCBs and seven brominated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), in five marine species which are part on Albanian consumer diet. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and treated with sulfuric acid. Extract was analyzed simultaneously using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Presence of PCBs was confirmed at1.4 percent of the samples. The most dominated congener found to be present were PCB 153 and PCB 138. Form the brominated compounds 2,2′,4,4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether was the only detected compound in 3 samples.
, Fulya Okan, Yetkin Dumanoğlu, Hasan Altiok, Abdurrahman Bayram, Mustafa Odabaşi
Çukurova Üniversitesi Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi pp 267-274; doi:10.21605/cukurovaummfd.528447

Abstract:
In this study, the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and odor emissions in odorant gasses by ozonation were investigated. Poultry litter, fish feed and sewage sludge were used as odor sources. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor concentrations were determined by an olfactometer. As a result of GC-MS analysis, 122 VOCs were grouped as hydrocarbons (HC-VOC), halogenated compounds (Cl-VOC), nitrogen containing compounds (N-VOC), oxygenated compounds (O-VOC) and sulfur containing compounds (S-VOC). In poultry litter samples, predominantly HCs, O and S-containing VOCs (alpha-pinene, methyl ethyl ketone, sec-butyl alcohol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide) were determined. HCs and O-VOCs dominated the fish feed samples (propionic acid, butanoic acid, acetic acid, hexane, methylcyclopentane). Compound groups measured in treatment sludge were HCs, O-VOCs and S-VOCs (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene, o-propyltoluene, acetophenone, dimethyl sulfide). The removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds were 100% for 3 compounds, 98% to 80% for 25 compounds, and 79% to 18% for 42 compounds. On the other hand, the concentration of 52 compounds increased. Odor removal efficiencies for poultry litter, fish feed and sewage sludge ranged from 96.4% to 97.4%. The results of the study showed that odor levels for three different sources can be effectively reduced by ozonation, however newly formed compounds should be taken into consideration.
Giulia Poma, , , , Stefan Voorspoels, , Joris Van Loco
Published: 1 March 2018
Chemosphere, Volume 194, pp 256-265; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.179

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, Maria T. Hultman, Jenny Bytingsvik, Mikael Harju, Anita Evenset, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, Volume 80, pp 1017-1030; doi:10.1080/15287394.2017.1357277

Abstract:
Contaminants from various anthropogenic activities are detected in the Arctic due to long-range atmospheric transport, ocean currents, and living organisms such as migrating fish or seabirds. Although levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic fish are generally low, local hot spots of contamination were found in freshwater systems such as Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Bear Island, Norway). Higher concentrations of organic halogenated compounds (OHC), and higher levels of cytochrome P450 and DNA-double strand breaks were reported in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from this lake compared to fish from other lakes on Bjørnøya. Although several of the measured contaminants are potential endocrine disrupters, few studies have investigated potential endocrine disruptive effects of the contaminant cocktail in this fish population. The aim of this study was to compare acutely toxic and estrogenic potency of the cocktail of pollutants as evidenced by cytotoxic and/or estrogenic effects in vitro using extracts of Arctic char livers from contaminated Lake Ellasjøen with those from less contaminated Lake Laksvatn at Bjørnøya. This was performed by in situ sampling and contaminant extraction from liver tissue, followed by chemical analysis and in vitro testing of the following contaminated tissue extracts: F1-nonpolar OHC, F2-polar pesticides and metabolites of OHC, and F3-polar OHC. Contaminant levels were highest in extracts from Ellasjøen fish. The F2 and F3 extracts from Lake Laksvatn and Lake Ellasjøen fish reduced in vitro cell viability at a concentration ratio of 0.03–1 relative to tissue concentration in Arctic char. Only the F3 liver extract from Ellasjøen fish increased in vitro vitellogenin protein expression. Although compounds such as estrogenic OH-PCBs were quantified in Ellasjøen F3 extracts, it remains to be determined which compounds were inducing estrogenic effects.
Wafaa Halloum, Ronan Cariou, , Farouk Jaber, Bruno Le Bizec
Published: 20 December 2016
by Wiley
Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Volume 52, pp 54-61; doi:10.1002/jms.3899

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Rebecca S. Lazarus, , Peter C. McGowan, Robert C. Hale, , , Mary Ann Ottinger
Published: 1 April 2016
by Wiley
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 35, pp 1560-1575; doi:10.1002/etc.3386

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D. Boudjellaba, , G. Revenko, C. Démelas, J.-L. Boudenne
Published: 1 January 2016
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 541, pp 391-399; doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.046

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Dwiyitno Dwiyitno, , Nuri Andarwulan, Hari Eko Irianto, Hanifah Nuryani Lioe, Farida Ariyani,
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 10; doi:10.15578/squalen.v10i3.175

Abstract:
Identification of persistent and emerging organic contaminants in green mussels (Perna viridis), various fishes, banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and sediment samples from Jakarta Bay has been employed. A non-target GC-MS screening approach has identified more than 60 individual organic compounds from the whole fractions either non-polar, semi-polar or acidic-polar compounds. The substances comprised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane) and its metabolites as well as high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs). Noteworthy, a number of emerging contaminants detected in the present study have never been reported previously either from the same location or from Asian waters. They include some priority contaminants of non-persistence halogens and emission of technical products, such as di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs) dichlorobenzene (DCB), dichlorodiphenyl chloroethene (DDMU) and phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN). In general, the concentration order of the priority organic contaminants was sediment > green mussel > fishes > shrimp. Further analysis based on the spatial distribution, individual concentrations and bioavailability suggested that some contaminants are applicable as molecular marker for the assessment of anthropogenic emission in Jakarta Bay, i.e. DIPNs, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), PAHs, dichlorobenzene, DDT and its metabolites.
Jeremy Masbou, , Gaël Guillou, Jeroen E. Sonke, Benoit Lebreton,
Analytical Chemistry, Volume 87, pp 11732-11738; doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02918

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Jonathan D. Byer, Grazina Pacepavicius, Michel Lebeuf, , Sean Backus, Peter V. Hodson,
Published: 1 December 2014
Chemosphere, Volume 116, pp 98-103; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.032

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Veronika Hloušková, Darina Lanková, Kamila Kalachová, Petra Hrádková, Jan Poustka, Jana Hajšlová,
Published: 1 September 2013
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 461-462, pp 88-98; doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.081

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Yongqing Ma, Kunyan Cui, Feng Zeng, Jiaxin Wen, Hong Liu, Fang Zhu, Gangfeng Ouyang, Tiangang Luan, Zunxiang Zeng
Published: 1 July 2013
Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 786, pp 47-53; doi:10.1016/j.aca.2013.04.062

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, Niculina Musat, Birgit Adam, Marcel Kuypers, Rudolf Amann
Published: 1 December 2012
Systematic and Applied Microbiology, Volume 35, pp 541-548; doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2012.08.004

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Wang Yang, Zhi-Qiang Yu, Luo Xiang-Fan, Feng Jia-Liang, Zhang Dong-Ping, , Sheng Guo-Ying, Fu Jia-Mo
Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 40, pp 1187-1193; doi:10.1016/s1872-2040(11)60564-1

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Enrique Barón, Ethel Eljarrat,
Published: 1 July 2012
Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1248, pp 154-160; doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.079

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Natalie Rosenfelder,
Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Volume 14, pp 845-851; doi:10.1039/c2em10838k

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María Luisa Feo, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló
Published: 1 April 2010
Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1217, pp 2248-2253; doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.02.018

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, Anastasia Nikolaou, Maria Kostopoulou, , , Rodolfo Maria Alessandro Napoli
Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources pp 129-145; doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3509-7_7

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, , Kristin C. Pangallo, Katerina Mastovska, Helen L. Ngo, Christopher M. Reddy, Walter Vetter
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Volume 57, pp 2653-2660; doi:10.1021/jf900462p

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, , Katerina Mastovska, Helen L. Ngo, Walter Vetter, Kristin C. Pangallo, Christopher M. Reddy
Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 43, pp 3240-3247; doi:10.1021/es803486x

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Joachim Melcher, Rte Janussen, Mary J. Garson, Josef Hiebl,
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 52, pp 512-518; doi:10.1007/s00244-006-0141-0

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, Mehran Alaee, Chris Marvin, Derek C.G. Muir, Gordia Macinnis, Eric Reiner, Patrick Crozier, Vasile I. Furdui, Annamalai Subramanian, Gilberto Fillmann, et al.
Published: 1 November 2006
Environmental Pollution, Volume 144, pp 238-247; doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.024

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, A. Bruce McKague, Douglas W. Reeve, John Carey
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Volume 86, pp 867-887; doi:10.1080/03067310600739525

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Josef Hiebl, Joachim Melcher, Hans Gundersen, Martin Schlabach, Walter Vetter
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Volume 54, pp 2652-2657; doi:10.1021/jf052673c

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Patricia M. Flatt, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Robert W. Thacker, Mirjam Musafija-Girt, ,
Marine Biology, Volume 147, pp 761-774; doi:10.1007/s00227-005-1614-9

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, Dorte Janussen
Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 39, pp 3889-3895; doi:10.1021/es0484597

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, Jiaqi Liu, Xiaolin Wang
Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, Volume 46, pp 1261-1272; doi:10.1007/bf02883252

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Zhengfu Guo
Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, Volume 46, pp 1261-1272; doi:10.1360/03yd0071

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Walter Vetter, Elke Stoll
European Food Research and Technology, Volume 215, pp 523-528; doi:10.1007/s00217-002-0593-z

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Debdas Mukerjee, Patricia Ruiz
Published: 16 April 2001
by Wiley
Patty's Toxicology pp 247-332; doi:10.1002/0471435139.tox066.pub2

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Debdas Mukerjee
Published: 16 April 2001
by Wiley
Patty's Toxicology; doi:10.1002/0471435139.tox066

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Gunilla Åkesson Nilsson, Olle Nilsson, Ingemar Odenbrand, Clas Wesén
Published: 30 March 2001
Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 912, pp 99-106; doi:10.1016/s0021-9673(01)00519-2

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, Markku Viljanen, Jukka Pellinen, Jussi Kukkonen
Published: 1 December 2000
Chemosphere, Volume 41, pp 1733-1740; doi:10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00048-5

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Janice Y. Villeneuve, Arthur J. Niimi,
Published: 31 December 1999
Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 25, pp 760-771; doi:10.1016/s0380-1330(99)70775-6

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D.L. Dycus
PCB studies on fish from Watts Bar, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Melton Hill Reservoirs, 1988; doi:10.2172/6326338

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Kari Martinsen, Alfhild Kringstad, Georg E. Carlberg
Published: 1 February 1988
Water Science and Technology, Volume 20, pp 13-24; doi:10.2166/wst.1988.0042

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B. K. Afghan, J. Carron, P. D. Goulden, J. Lawrence, D. Léger, F. Onuska, J. Sherry, R. Wilkinson
Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 65, pp 1086-1097; doi:10.1139/v87-183

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James L Casterline, June A Bradlaw, Bartholomew J Puma, Yuoh Ku
Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Volume 66, pp 1136-1139; doi:10.1093/jaoac/66.5.1136

Abstract:
A sensitive biological test to detect the presence of certain contaminants, such as highly toxic halogenated dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in foods, was applied to extracts of fresh water fish that had been prepared by a food extraction-cleanup procedure developed by the Food and Drug Administration for pesticides and industrial chemicals. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in a rat hepatoma cell line was used as the biological detection system for residues that induce enzyme activity. The induction of AHH activity by the extracts was compared with a standard AHH-induction curve for the most active compound known, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and results were computed as TCDD equivalents. Several dilutions of fish extracts were used to produce AHH-induction curves from which an optimal dose-response range was determined and used to estimate TCDD equivalents. Cleaned-up extracts of fish obtained from different water bodies in the United States were examined for AHH activity. The samples which had low levels of polyhalogenated contaminants produced low biological activity, while a higher activity was obtained from fish that contained higher levels of polyhalogenated contaminants. The results suggest that the fish extracts can be screened for AHH inducers before chemical analysis.
J L Casterline, J A Bradlaw, B J Puma, Y Ku
Published: 1 September 1983
Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Volume 66, pp 1136-9

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N Berg
Water Science and Technology, Volume 15, pp 59-65; doi:10.2166/wst.1983.0130

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Elizabeth Baumann Ofstad, Hilde Drangsholt, Georg E. Carlberg
Published: 1 October 1981
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 20, pp 205-215; doi:10.1016/0048-9697(81)90090-5

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