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(searched for: Amygdalin-Therapeutic Effects and Toxicity)
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Iyanu Oduwole, Abdelnaser A
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 39-49; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280026

Abstract:
Amygdalin is a cyanide glycoside existing naturally in many fruits, predominantly in bitter almond, peaches and chemically as laetrile. It has attracted many cross talks amongst researchers especially on its anti-cancer potential and its associated cyanide toxicity. Quite number of reports have demonstrated its chemotherapeutic effect on various types of cancer cells in vitro with very few in vivo. However, its long standing several clinical failures and cyanide toxicity on variable dosage made it generally unacceptable. However, amygdalin given at the right dosage orally may not lead to toxicity, but this has not been quantified yet, and it is often influenced by the activity of microbial gut content. Its pharmacological activities have been studied extensively, but its anti-tumor activity is still inconclusive. New clinical studies with emerging scientific approaches may seek to give the satisfactory answers about its anti-tumor effects. This review discusses the metabolism, various pharmacological activities, toxicity and current understanding on the anti-tumor effect of amygdalin.
Alžběta Třísková, Jana Rudá Kučerová
Published: 15 October 2019
Klinicka onkologie, Volume 32, pp 360-366; doi:10.14735/amko2019360

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sarah Albogami, Aziza Hassan, Nibal Ahmed, Alaa Alnefaie, Afnan Alattas, Lama Alquthami, Afaf Alharbi
Published: 21 May 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9232

Abstract:
Background Little is known regarding the toxic and therapeutic doses of amygdalin. Treatment regimens and schedules can vary between humans and animal models, and there have been reports of cyanide toxicity due to amygdalin use. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of amygdalin on antioxidant gene expression and suppression of oxidative damage in mice. Methods Forty adult male mice were divided randomly into four groups (n = 10) as follows and treated orally for two weeks: a control group treated with saline solution, a group treated with amygdalin at 200 mg/kg body weight, a group treated with amygdalin at 100 mg/kg body weight, and a group treated with amygdalin at 50 mg/kg body weight. Liver and testis samples were collected for gene expression, biochemical and histopathological analyses. Results The mice treated with medium-dose amygdalin (100 mg/kg) showed upregulated mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05) in hepatic and testicular tissues compared to those in the untreated groups (controls), with mild histopathological effects. The mice treated with high-dose of amygdalin (200 mg/kg) showed downregulated mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01) and significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05) in both hepatic and testicular tissues compared to those in the untreated groups (controls), with an apparent effect at the histopathological level. No effects were observed in the mice treated with low-dose amygdalin (50 mg/kg) at the gene, protein and histopathological level. Conclusion Low-and medium-dose amygdalin did not induce toxicity in the hepatic and testicular tissues of male mice, unlike high-dose amygdalin, which had a negative effect on oxidative balance in mice. Therefore, amygdalin at a moderate dose may improve oxidative balance in mice.
Vani Jaswal, Jeyanthi Palanivelu, Ramalingam Chidambaram
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, Volume 14, pp 125-132; doi:10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.04.008

Abstract:
Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. In-vitro and in-vivo studies using various doses and modes of administration, like IV administration studies that showed no HCN formation, point to the role played by the gut microbiota for the commonly seen poisoning on consumption. The anaerobic Bacteriodetes phylum found in the gut has a high β-glucosidase activity needed for amygdalin hydrolysis to HCN. However, there are certain conditions under which these HCN levels rise to cause toxicity. Case studies have shown toxicity on ingestion of variable doses of amygdalin and no HCN side-effects on consumption of high doses. This review shows how factors like probiotic and prebiotic consumption, other CAM therapies, obesity, diet, age and the like, that alter gut consortium, are responsible for the varying conditions under which toxicity occurs and can be further studied to set-up conditions for safe oral doses. It also indicates ways to delay or quickly treat cyanide toxicity due to oral administration and, reviews conflicts on amygdalin's anti-cancer abilities, dose levels, mode of administration and pharmacokinetics that have hindered its official acceptance at a therapeutic level.
A. Baroni, I. Paoletti, R. Greco, R.A. Satriano, E. Ruocco, Maria Antonietta Tufano, Juan J. Perez
Published: 1 November 2005
by Wiley
Experimental Dermatology, Volume 14, pp 854-859; doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2005.00368.x

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Samar Hosny, Heba Sahyon, Magdy Youssef, Amr Negm
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 20, pp 1-11; doi:10.2174/1871520620666200608124003

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Future Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 799-808; doi:10.4155/fmc.13.27

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