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(searched for: A Clinical Review of COVID-19 Associated Myocarditis)
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Neha P. Raukar, Leslie T. Cooper
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach; doi:10.1177/1941738120974747

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Benjamin Hurwitz, Omar Issa
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine, Volume 22, pp 1-11; doi:10.1007/s11936-020-00875-1

Abstract:
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium that can often be associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias, and is even one of the leading causes for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes. This review aims to summarize the current evidence and treatment guidelines for the management of myocarditis in the active population. Physical exertion is likely a trigger for dangerous arrythmias and further propagates myocardial damage in athletes with myocarditis. For this reason, abstinence from sports is a critical facet of management in the initial inflammatory period. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, specifically late gadolinium enhancement, to guide return to play decisions is becoming more common in clinical practice. Establishing a stepwise approach for proper diagnosis and risk stratification, with an emphasis on contemporary cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging techniques, in myocarditis is critical. After a diagnosis of myocarditis is made, it is imperative for any athlete or highly active individual to refrain from physical exercise. Additionally, therapy for heart failure should be applied in cases of myocarditis with cardiac dysfunction. Undoubtedly, COVID 19, and its potential to cause myocarditis, is sure to change the landscape of management of this disease.
Boyangzi Li, Patrick A. Lento, Stephen Pan
Cardiology in Review; doi:10.1097/crd.0000000000000369

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Jamie Sy Ho, Ching-Hui Sia, Mark Yy Chan, Weiqin Lin, Raymond Cc Wong
Published: 1 November 2020
Heart & Lung, Volume 49, pp 681-685; doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2020.08.013

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Dermot Phelan, Jonathan H. Kim, Michael D. Elliott, Meagan M. Wasfy, Paul Cremer, Amer M. Johri, Mike Emery, Partho P. Sengupta, Sanjay Sharma, Matthew W. Martinez, et al.
Published: 28 October 2020
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging; doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.10.005

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Published: 25 October 2020
Abstract:
Objectives: To synthesize the current data on clinico-laboratory features, intensive care needs, treatment, and outcome of Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Data Sources: Articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and WHO COVID-19 research database, CDC database, and Cochrane COVID-19 study register between 1st December 2019 to 10th July 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies involving patients ≤21 years with PIMS-TS or MIS-C, that reported the clinico-laboratory features, intensive care needs, treatment, and outcome. Data Extraction: The search identified 422 citations and finally 18 studies with 833 participants were included and pooled estimate was calculated for parameters of interest utilising random effect model. Data Synthesis: The median age was 9 (8-11) years. Fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, conjunctival injection, and respiratory symptoms were common clinical features. Majority had positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody test and only 1/3rd had RT-PCR positive. The commonest laboratory abnormalities were elevated CRP, D-dimer, procalcitonin, BNP, fibrinogen, ferritin, troponin, and IL-6; and lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and thrombocytopenia. The cardiovascular complications included shock (65%), myocardial dysfunction (61%), myocarditis (65%), and coronary artery abnormalities (39%). Three-fourth children required admission in PICU for mechanical ventilation (25%) and vasoactive drugs (61%). The common treatment provided was IVIG (82%), steroids (54%), antiplatelet drugs (64%), and anticoagulation (51%). The mortality was low (n=13). Conclusion: Fever, gastrointestinal and mucocutaneous symptoms, cardiac dysfunction, shock, and hyperinflammation are common manifestations of PIMS-TS or MIS-C. The short-term outcome is good with supportive intensive care and immunomodulatory treatment.
Radha Gopal, Michael A. Marinelli, John F. Alcorn
Published: 22 October 2020
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.570681

Abstract:
Influenza virus infection causes 3–5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide annually. Although pneumonia is the most common complication associated with influenza, there are several reports demonstrating increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Several clinical case reports, as well as both prospective and retrospective studies, have shown that influenza can trigger cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI), myocarditis, ventricular arrhythmia, and heart failure. A recent study has demonstrated that influenza-infected patients are at highest risk of having MI during the first seven days of diagnosis. Influenza virus infection induces a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and recruitment of immune cells as part of the host immune response. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in influenza-associated cardiovascular diseases will help to improve treatment plans. This review discusses the direct and indirect effects of influenza virus infection on triggering cardiovascular events. Further, we discussed the similarities and differences in epidemiological and pathogenic mechanisms involved in cardiovascular events associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to influenza infection.
Sandeep Singh, Rupak Desai, Zainab Gandhi, Hee Kong Fong, Shriya Doreswamy, Virmitra Desai, Anand Chockalingam, Puja K. Mehta, Rajesh Sachdeva, Gautam Kumar
SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, Volume 2, pp 2102-2108; doi:10.1007/s42399-020-00557-w

Abstract:
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is caused by catecholamine surge, which is also observed in COVID-19 disease due to the cytokine storm. We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases to identify COVID-19-associated TTS case reports and evaluated patient-level demographics, clinical attributes, and outcomes. There are 12 cases reported of TTS associated with COVID-19 infection with mean age of 70.8 ± 15.2 years (range 43–87 years) with elderly (66.6% > 60 years) female (66.6%) majority. The time interval from the first symptom to TTS was 8.3 ± 3.6 days (range 3–14 days). Out of 12 cases, 7 reported apical ballooning, 4 reported basal segment hypo/akinesia, and 1 reported median TTS. Out of 12 cases, during hospitalization, data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was reported in only 9 of the cases. The mean LVEF was 40.6 ± 9.9% (male, 46.7 ± 5.7%, and female, 37.7 ± 10.6%). Troponin was measured in all 12 cases and was elevated in 11 (91.6%) without stenosis on coronary angiography except one. Out of 11 cases, 6 developed cardiac complications with 1 case each of cardiac tamponade, heart failure, myocarditis, hypertensive crisis, and cardiogenic shock in 2. Five patients required intubation, 1 patient required continuous positive airway pressure, and 1 patient required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The outcome was reported in terms of recovery in 11 (91.6%) out of 12 cases, and a successful recovery was noted in 10 (90.9%) cases. COVID-19-related TTS has a higher prevalence in older women. Despite a lower prevalence of cardiac comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, direct myocardial injury, inflammation, and stress may contribute to TTS with a high complication rate.
Yuri Henrique Da Silva1, José Gildo De Moura Monteiro Júnior, Rosângela Ferreira Frade De Araújo
Published: 6 October 2020
Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents as the main cause of death, respiratory and heart failures, especially in the elderly, immunosuppressed, and those with cardiovascular comorbidities. Therefore, a better understanding of these findings is needed. A systematic review was carried out looking for articles published between December 2019 and May 2020 on the MEDLINE / PubMed search platform using the following descriptors: ((((((((("cardiovascular disease") OR ("acute myocardial infarction")) OR ("coronary artery disease")) OR ("acute coronary syndrome")) OR ("atherosclerosis")) OR ("cardiac insufficiency")) OR ("pericarditis")) OR ("myocarditis")) AND ("COVID-19")) OR ("SARS-CoV-2")and considering inclusion and exclusion criteria.40% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 had hypertension or other cardiovascular comorbidities, while 27% presented cardiovascular complications, mainly acute cardiac injury, arrhythmia and heart failure. The hypotheses of involvement of an intense inflammatory response, decreased immunity and greater expression of ACE2 in the heart, associated with more severe heart conditions, were discussed in this study. The increase in cardiac and inflammatory markers was associated with worse clinical outcomes and risk of death, confirming the need to evaluate them since admission to the hospital. The 10 articles analyzed presented as a limitation the small number of patients inserted, to the detriment of the pandemic state. We warned about the need for better clinical management of patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, and the importance of including this group among the first to be immunized, aiming at reducing the number of fatal cases due to infection. Studies with greater coverage are needed for a better comprehension of the topics discussed here.
Alexa José Escudero Siosi, Hudaifa Al Ani, Antoni Chan
Rheumatology Advances in Practice, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/rap/rkaa052.005

Abstract:
Case report - Introduction Coronavirus (SARS-COV-19) typically targets the respiratory tract; however extra-respiratory manifestations such as myositis and myopericarditis may be the only presenting feature. We present a patient with myopericarditis who developed sudden onset muscle weakness. CT thorax showed typical appearance of COVID-19 with an absence of respiratory symptoms. MRI of both thighs revealed diffuse symmetrical myositis. Her clinical and paraclinical abnormalities improved with the aid of steroids. We present our approach to the case and highlight that clinicians should consider myositis as another COVID-19 manifestation when reviewing the differentials. Case report - Case description A 50-year-old female, non-smoker, presented with few days history of central chest pain radiating to her back. This was exacerbated by lying down and inspiration. Associated with mild shortness of breath on exertion. She denied upper respiratory tract symptoms. Her past medical history included hypertension and myopericarditis in 2012 and 2013 requiring pericardiocentesis. In 2017 she presented with post-streptococcal erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis in left ankle. On auscultation her heart sounds were normal, and chest was clear. Initial investigations revealed a mild lymphopenia 0.63, a C-reactive protein of 11mg/L, and a raised troponin 77 and 103 on repeat. D-dimer, Chest x-ray were normal. ECHO showed trivial anterior pericardial effusion, good biventricular function. Treatment included colchicine 500 micrograms four times a day and Ibuprofen 400 mg three times a day. On her second day of admission she developed hypotensive episodes BP 75/49 mm/Hg and mild pyrexia of 37.5 degrees. Her chest pain continued. Electrocardiogram was normal, repeat echocardiogram showed stable 1.40 cm pericardial effusion. CT thorax revealed no dissection or features suggesting pulmonary sarcoidosis but ground-glass opacity changes in keeping with COVID-19. Her COVID-19 swab test came back positive. On the 4th day of admission, she complained of sudden onset of severe pain affecting her thighs, shoulders, and arms, with marked proximal lower limbs and truncal weakness. Because of this, she struggled to mobilise. There was a rapid rise in her creatine kinase from 6.423U/L (day 5) to 32.230 U/L (day 7). ALT increased to 136. MRI showed diffuse myositis with symmetrical appearances involving the anterior, medial, and posterior muscle compartments of both thighs. In view of her previous and current presentation, autoimmune screen and extended myositis immunoblot were sent and were negative. Interestingly, her clinical and paraclinical abnormalities improved dramatically after few days with no steroids initially. Case report - Discussion The identification of extra-pulmonary manifestations neurological, cardiac, and muscular have recently increased as the number of COVID-19 cases grow. This case highlights cardiac and skeletal muscle involvement could perhaps represent early or only manifestation of COVID-19. Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 commonly manifests as acute cardiac injury (8–12%), arrhythmia (8.9–16.7%) and myocarditis. In our case the cardiac MRI demonstrated evidence of myocarditis in the basal inferoseptum and apex. Myalgia and muscle weakness are among the symptoms described by patients affected by COVID-19. Some studies report the prevalence of myalgia to be between 11%-50%. The onset of symptoms and the fact that her symptoms improved rapidly led us to consider a viral myositis as the underlying cause, the viral component being COVID-19. We also considered other potential causes. There are reported cases of colchicine myopathy however this is more common in patients with renal impairment, which was absent in this case. On further examination she did not have other clinical signs or symptoms of connective tissue disease or extra muscular manifestation of autoimmune myositis. Her abnormal ALT may be derived from damaged muscle, and therefore in this context is not necessarily a specific indicator of liver disease. Interestingly abnormal liver function tests have been attributed in 16 - 53% of COVID-19 cases. Little is known about the multiple biologic characteristics of COVID-19 and there are no established clinic serological criteria for COVID-19 related myositis nor useful values/cut offs to exclude cardiac involvement in myositis, further research is therefore warranted. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of the rare manifestation of COVID-19 and consider this in the differentials. Of course, it is important in the first instant to rule out any serious underlying disease or overlap disorder before attributing symptoms to COVID-19. Case report - Key learning points Myositis is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 that clinicians should be aware of.Detailed medical history, examination and investigations identifies the most likely underlying cause.In the right clinical context, COVID-19 – 19 testing should be included in baseline tests of patients presenting with myositis.
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