(searched for: 10.29328/journal.jro.1001034)
Published: 1 February 2021
Journal of Radiology and Oncology, Volume 5, pp 001-004; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jro.1001034
We evaluated a total of 115 patients diagnosed with anal cancer, who were treated at our clinic from 1995 to 2012. Their average age was 61 years, most often were diagnosed in stages II and III, in most cases it was a squamous cell carcinoma located in the anal canal. The mean follow-up was 83 months (minimum 1 month and maximum 240 months). We combined external radiotherapy with boost of brachytherapy or boost of external radiotherapy and possibly a combination of both boosts. Half of the patients received concomitant chemotherapy. We specifically evaluated local tumor regression, overall survival and the impact to therapeutic effect of the chosen irradiation technique. Complete regression was achieved in 92 patients, partial regression in 21 patients. Overall survival, regardless of stage, was 80% 3-year, 74% 5-year and 67% 10-year. The age of patients, the size of their own primary tumor and the therapeutic method used had a statistically significant effect on survival - especially the importance of brachytherapy was irreplaceable.
Frontiers in Genetics, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2015.00164
Like microscopes and thermal cyclers, computers are routinely used in many laboratories. Bioinformatics is a recent scientific discipline that has undergone strong and rapid progression and evolution (Ouzounis, 2012). The use of bioinformatics analyses in biological studies in fields as diverse as metagenomics (Hurwitz et al., 2014) and infectious diseases (Gire et al., 2014) is now accepted and viewed as normal. As mentioned in PLoS computational biology by Hogeweg (2011), the first time the term “bioinformatics” was used was in 1970 in a Dutch article. At the time, bioinformatics referred to “the study of informatic processes in biotic systems.” Since then, bioinformatics has gradually carved out a place for itself in the scientific community with, for example, the creation in 1985 of CABIOS (Computer Applications in the Biosciences), which is now known as Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). However, the main impulse for the emergence of bioinformatics came from the completion of the human genome project at beginning of the new century. However, it also gave rise to a fundamental question. What exactly is bioinformatics? Because of the importance of bioinformatics, this neologism was quickly added to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), and discussions about the definition of bioinformatics also heated up (Luscombe et al., 2001). According to the OED, bioinformatics is “the branch of science concerned with information and information flow in biological systems, especially the use of computational methods in genetics and genomics.” While this definition is very broad and can be unclear and somewhat open to interpretation, the definition of bioinformatician is even less clear: “An expert in or practitioner of bioinformatics.” Because bioinformatics is carving out an increasingly important place in research and because we have to help students to understand their future role in research, a simple but complex question came to mind: Who qualifies to be a bioinformatician? To attempt to answer this question, let us start with a simple observation. In the past few years, there has been an explosion in bioinformatics tools, some are free and are under a public license (Vincent and Charette, 2014) while others are proprietary and are sometimes distributed by companies (Smith, 2014). In the early years of bioinformatics, the tools were mainly command lines and were less accessible to neophytes. The people developing and using these tools were mainly considered bioinformaticians, that is, people with sufficient skills in informatics and biology to use the tools and analyze the results. However, in fact, bioinformaticians designed these tools for themselves not for biologists, which caused a certain degree of discontent in the scientific community (Kumar and Dudley, 2007). However, powerful and much simpler tools are now available with an easy-to-understand interface, including NCBI Blast (Johnson et al., 2008), Unipro UGENE (Okonechnikov et al., 2012), the web server CONTIGuator (Galardini et al., 2011), the genome viewer Artemis (Rutherford et al., 2000), and many others. These tools have provided biologists with user-friendly bioinformatics tools. Since many biologists now conduct sophisticated bioinformatics analyses, can they be called bioinformaticians? This is not an easy question to answer, in part because of the broad definition of bioinformatics. At the very beginning of his book Perl Programming for Biologists (Jamison, 2003), Curtis D. Jamison differentiates between two conceptual aspects of bioinformatics: computational biology and analytical bioinformatics. Computational biology uses algorithms to mathematically (statistically) analyze biological problems and tries to build a model to infer solutions using a computational approach. On the other hand, analytical bioinformatics uses bioinformatics tools to conduct analyses in a biological context. Consequently, we can reformulate the question posed above in a more accurate way. Can people working in the fields of computational biology or analytical bioinformatics be considered bioinformaticians? We are aware that gray zones exist and will likely always exist, even as the field of bioinformatics evolves. However, it will be easier to provide an answer to our question. As for the definition provided by OED, we propose that bioinformaticians are experts in the field of bioinformatics. They may be users, but this is not enough to consider them as bioinformaticians (i.e., an expert). Bioinformaticians are scientists who develop and conduct research based on a bioinformatics approach, they do not just use the tools to better understand a biological problem. It is a little like saying that driving your car to work does not make you a mechanic. A bioinformatician is a scientist who understands the underlying “mechanics” of bioinformatics or, more realistically, an aspect of bioinformatics (genomics, protein structure predictions, phylogenetic models, etc.). In a more conceptual framework, bioinformaticians can perhaps be seen as the “missing link” required for improving multidisciplinary research. Since they can bridge biological sciences, informatics, and mathematics, fully fledged bioinformaticians can be valuable assets for multidisciplinary studies. For example, more and more bioinformaticians are becoming involved in major multidisciplinary studies such as those on cancer (Hanauer et al., 2007; Valencia and Hidalgo, 2012) as well as in whole-exome sequencing (WES), which is an increasingly important method used in medical studies (Sanders et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2015). In fact, we are probably able to separate the bioinformaticians in two categories which are not mutually exclusives: (1) the developers who are working directly on algorithms (conception), the development aspects and the maintenance of tools and (2) the curators who architecturally design and maintain data resources and provide an integration of the curated data. There are great bioinformaticians for example at NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), EMBL (http://www.ebi.ac.uk), and The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) (McArthur et al., 2013), who maintain and curate databases and others who are developing and maintaining the different tools. These databases and others need bioinformaticians who are skilled in both informatics and biology and who can provide a link between the various tools and the data and who can validate the entries in order to maintain a high level of scientific rigor. Consequently, in our opinion a biologist who only uses bioinformatics tools to perform analyses but does not contribute at the conception of such tools or not fits in the curator definition provided above is not a bioinformatician. She or he may use the tools proficiently, but as a user not as a bioinformatician. In fact, a strict user of bioinformatics tools could be an expert in another field, for example a genomicist can uses bioinformatics tools, without being a bioinformatician. But, what about the flip side of the coin: a bioinformatician who focuses on informatics problems? We believe that it is easier for a bioinformatician to become an informatician. However, the term bioinformatics encompasses two concepts: “bio,” which refers to biological sciences, and “informatics,” which refers to computational sciences. Just like a biologist is not a bioinformatician, an informatician is not a bioinformatician. It is important to keep in mind that bioinformatics has to be applied in a biological context. For example, maintaining a biological web server (without a curating aspect) is not a bioinformatics task. Informaticians with networking and programming language (SQL, HTML, Python) skills can do the job. It could be a part of a bioinformatician's job, but it should not be the only part of his or her job, otherwise the bioinformatician becomes an informatician. As bioinformatics gains in importance, it is crucial that the concept of bioinformatician be clearly defined. A clear definition will help universities to adapt their bioinformatics programs to their true needs and to produce real bioinformaticians with the proper skills. This will also help human resources departments to improve the accuracy of job descriptions and avoid the many knotty administrative issues involved in defining tasks, categorizing employees for union purposes and perhaps, most importantly, recognizing and certifying bioinformaticians. Like virus taxonomy, a good definition of a bioinformatician should not be based on a single concept but should be polythetic, this is, real bioinformaticians share a number of common characteristics, but none of which is essential. Many university departments, including ours, now give mandatory bioinformatics courses to students enrolled in biology, biochemistry, and microbiology programs, among others. This is essential in a context where these students will be called on to use bioinformatics tools and the results provided by them during their careers. However, it is also important for students to realize that a 45-h bioinformatics course will not make them experts in the field or qualify them as bioinformaticians. Much more training will be needed to reach that goal. The goal of this paper is thus to contribute to the discussion of how best to define people working in a constantly evolving field like bioinformatics, which in turn is part of the larger discipline of computational science. As for bioinformatics, other sciences such as physics, mathematics, and chemistry will probably also have to evolve and adapt at this emerging and important field. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors thank Jeff Gauthier, Bachar Cheaib, and Katherine H. Tanaka for their critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada [RGPIN-2014-04595]. Galardini, M., Biondi, E. G., Bazzicalupo, M., and Mengoni, A. (2011). CONTIGuator: a bacterial genomes finishing tool for structural insights on draft genomes. Source Code Biol. Med. 6:11. doi: 10.1186/1751-0473-6-11 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Gire, S. K., Goba, A., Andersen, K. G., Sealfon, R. S. G., Park, D. J., Kanneh, L., et al. (2014). Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak. Science 345, 1369–1372. doi: 10.1126/science.1259657 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Hanauer, D. A., Rhodes, D. R., Sinha-Kumar, C., and Chinnaiyan, A. M. (2007). Bioinformatics approaches in the study of cancer. Curr. Mol. Med. 7, 133–141. doi: 10.2174/156652407779940431 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Hogeweg, P. (2011). The roots of bioinformatics in theoretical biology. PLoS Comput. Biol. 7:e1002021. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002021 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Hurwitz, B. L., Westveld, A. H., Brum, J. R., and Sullivan, M. B. (2014). Modeling ecological drivers in marine viral communities using comparative metagenomics and network analyses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 10714–10719. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319778111 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Jamison, D. C. (2003). “Introduction,” in Perl Programming for Biologists (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), 1–5. doi: 10.1002/047172274X.ch0 CrossRef Full Text Johnson, M., Zaretskaya, I., Raytselis, Y., Merezhuk, Y., McGinnis, S., and Madden, T. L. (2008). NCBI BLAST: a better web interface. Nucleic Acids Res. 36. W5–W9. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn201 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kumar, S., and Dudley, J. (2007). Bioinformatics software for biologists in the genomics era. Bioinformatics 23, 1713–1717. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm239 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Luscombe, N. M., Greenbaum, D., and Gerstein, M. (2001). What is bioinformatics? A proposed definition and overview of the field. Methods Inf. Med. 40, 346–358. doi: 10.1053/j.ro.2009.03.010 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text McArthur, A. G., Waglechner, N., Nizam, F., Yan, A., Azad, M. A., Baylay, A. J., et al. (2013). The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57, 3348–3357. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00419-13 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Okonechnikov, K., Golosova, O., and Fursov, M. (2012). Unipro UGENE: a unified bioinformatics toolkit. Bioinformatics 28, 1166–1167. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts091 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Ouzounis, C. A. (2012). Rise and demise of bioinformatics? promise and progress. PLoS Comput. Biol. 8:e1002487. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002487 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Rutherford, K., Parkhill, J., Crook, J., Horsnell, T., Rice, P., Rajandream, M. A., et al. (2000). Artemis: sequence visualization and annotation. Bioinformatics 16, 944–945. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/16.10.944 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Sanders, S. J., Murtha, M. T., Gupta, A. R., Murdoch, J. D., Raubeson, M. J., Willsey, A. J., et al. (2012). De novo mutations revealed by whole-exome sequencing are strongly associated with autism. Nature 485, 237–241. doi: 10.1038/nature10945 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Smith, D. R. (2014). Buying in to bioinformatics: an introduction to commercial sequence analysis software. Brief Bioinform. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbu030. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Valencia, A., and Hidalgo, M. (2012). Getting personalized cancer genome analysis into the clinic: the challenges in bioinformatics. Genome Med. 13, 61. doi: 10.1186/gm362 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Vincent, A. T., and Charette, S. J. (2014). Freedom in bioinformatics. Front. Genet. 5:259. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00259 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Wang, Z., Liu, X., Yang, B.-Z., and Gelernter, J. (2013). The role and challenges of exome sequencing in studies of human diseases. Front. Genet. 4:160. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00160 PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Zhu, X., Petrovski, S., Xie, P., Ruzzo, E. K., Lu, Y.-F., McSweeney, K. M., et al. (2015). Whole-exome sequencing in undiagnosed genetic diseases: interpreting 119 trios. Genet. Med. doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.191. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed Abstract | Full Text | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: bioinformatician, bioinformatics, biologist, informatician, scientist Citation: Vincent AT and Charette SJ (2015) Who qualifies to be a bioinformatician? Front. Genet. 6:164. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00164 Received: 13 January 2015; Accepted: 12 April 2015; Published: 24 April 2015. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2015 Vincent and Charette. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Antony T. Vincent, [email protected]
Journal of Radiation Oncology, Volume 3, pp 333-333; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13566-014-0159-2
The American College of Radiation Oncology (ACRO) is pleased to be able to call JRO its ‘official journal’ and to provide a subscription as one of many benefits of membership in the College. ACRO strives to ensure the highest quality care for radiation therapy patients and promote success in the practice of radiation oncology through education, responsible socioeconomic advocacy, and integration of science and technology into clinical practice. Membership is open to all radiation oncologists throughout the world, and colleagues who read this journal are invited to join the College and submit abstracts for the annual conferences, which are subsequently published in JRO. For more information go to www.acro.org.
Agronomy Journal of Nepal, Volume 3, pp 117-122; https://doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9013
Area and production of raw jute has decreased, though there is a high demand of raw jute in the country. In order to assess production constraints, a survey was carried out in 2005/06 in Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari districts. The study revealed that unstable or low price of raw jute, unavailability of quality jute seed, limited irrigation water at sowing period, diseases complex (wilt), labor shortage during peak season, weed problem, lack of retting water/retting pond were the main constraints in jute production and processing. The study indicates that the maximum production cost has involved in fiber extraction (16.9%) and weeding (16.33%). Jute productivity ranged from 1788 to 2260 kg per hectare. JRO-524 variety of jute has been widely grown across the region due to its wider adaptability, high yield potential and quality fiber. Jute area has been replaced by sugarcane due to its high yield potential and high profit margin. It is observed that the cost of production of jute is high as compared to other crops in the season. Average cost of production of fiber was estimated to be Rs.1563/quintal. For the promotion of jute cultivation in the eastern Terai, it would be better to provide subsidies on seeds and fertilizer to jute growers as practiced in neighboring countries thereby profit margin becomes high and will encourage growers in producing more raw jute within the country for the fulfillment of raw jute requirement of local jute industries. Cost effective technologies have to be developed in jute production and processing aspects for lowering the production cost and increasing the profit margin. Popular genotypes JRO- 524 which was widely adopted needs to be recommended officially for the general cultivation in this region. Being an eco-friendly crop, promotion is required to adapt climate change effect and maintaining the soil properties in jute growing areas. Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 3. 2013, Page 117-122 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9013
Journal of Radiation Oncology, Volume 1, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13566-012-0017-z
It is our great honor to announce the inaugural issue of our newly founded Journal of Radiation Oncology (JRO). With the help of a world-class editorial advisory panel made of an excellent blend of radiation oncologists, physicists, and biologists, JRO aims to help bridge the gap between knowledge and clinical practice, as well as improve the dissemination of important research findings, with the ultimate aim of improving cancer care through multidisciplinary management including radiation therapy. The editorial team is honored to present an impactful journal that will strengthen and accelerate the communication of important scientific knowledge to the international community of radiation oncology.
Food Research International, Volume 42, pp 1131-1140; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.05.014
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.