Refine Search

New Search

Results: 29

(searched for: 10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001080)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Alberione Enrique Javier
Journal of Plant Science and Phytopathology, Volume 6, pp 087-090; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001080

Abstract:
The wheat production (Triticum aestivum L.) in Argentina is the third in importance after soybeans and corn (source: BCR).
Richard C. Sherman, Amy M. Buddie, Kristin L. Dragan, Christian M. End, Lila J. Finney
Published: 1 February 1999
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 25, pp 177-187; https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167299025002004

Abstract:
This investigation assessed the nature of research published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB) during the past 20 years (1976-1996) compared to another major journal in the field, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP). Articles in both journals have tended to become longer, to contain more studies, to be authored by more collaborators, and to employ a greater diversity of statistical analyses. Research in both journals has relied heavily on experimental designs using college undergraduates as participants, although the temporal pattern of this reliance is somewhat different in the two journals. Articles in PSPB have consistently emphasized the domain of attitudes and social cognition more than those in JPSP. The implications of these patterns are discussed in terms of their significance for progress in the field and their impact on the career experiences of researchers.
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, , Don Bergh, Chris Chambers, Harold Pashler, Jan De Ruiter, , Roger Giner-Sorolla, , Kai Jonas, et al.
Published: 1 January 2017
by 10.17605
Abstract:
We outline an array of journal policies that JPSP:ASC could adopt to further promote transparent and responsible research practices; in turn, these practices will increase the reliability of research findings published in JPSP:ASC.
, Amanda Kay Montoya, John Price,
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
Mediation analysis plays a central role in marketing research due to its usefulness in helping to explain complex processes. Like other forms of inference, mediation analyses are susceptible to false positive results. This is particularly true when analytic decisions are based on the data, rather than a priori hypotheses. To assess the collective evidential value of mediation analyses in marketing, we used an approach first implemented by Götz and colleagues (2021) that (1) measures the relative proximity of confidence intervals to zero (RP) and (2) aggregates a related set of RP scores into a single distribution. For our analysis, we compared the RP distribution of top marketing journals (2018-20) to simulations of low power, adequate power, and null effects. We also compared the marketing journals to real-world data from Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) (2018-20). We found that, in terms of evidential value, mediation analyses in marketing substantially deviated from simulations of adequate power and JPSP but were similar to simulations of low power and null effects. We propose study preregistration, corrections for multiple testing, and increased statistical power as solutions to increase evidence quality going forward.
Colin Wayne Leach
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 120, pp 30-32; https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000226

Abstract:
In this editorial, Colin Wayne Leach says it seems that personality and social psychology is at a crossroads. His hope is that we will learn from past failings and fractures and begin to consolidate our most important lessons into a renewed sense of shared purpose and practice. As the incoming Editor of Journal of Personality & Social Psychology: Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes (JPSP: IRGP), it is his mission to facilitate our collective effort in our common cause. Leach wishes to see the full range of social psychology topics and approaches rigorously pursued in the pages of JPSP: IRGP. The only thing necessary to publish in JPSP: IRGP is sufficient principled argument and evidence for the desired inference(s). Outside of the basic desire to see key results replicated, the evidence in a JPSP: IRGP article needs to be as comprehensive as the argument being made. Argument and evidence regarding ancillary (conceptual, methodological, or statistical) assumptions can be reported in targeted supplemental materials and simply mentioned in the main text. Leach expresses his gratitude to Editor Kerry Kawakami, the entire team of former Associate Editors, and the legion of regular reviewers who have served the journal and the field so well for so long. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
, Juan José Loźpez-García, María Peñarañda-Ortega, Francisco Tortosa-Gil
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 86, pp 435-452; https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.3.435

Abstract:
A bibliometric analysis of the first 36 years (1965-2000) of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) is presented. The authors analyzed the structure of JPSP on the basis of contents and other aspects related to productivity, such as growth in the number of articles and authors, and "invisible colleges." In 2001, JPSP articles were cited over 23,000 times. An increasing number of older, classic articles are cited, suggesting that there are an accumulating number of citations whose influence endures over time. JPSP articles have grown in length, number of studies included, number of references, and number of authors and have become more international with an increasing proportion of authors from outside the United States. The pattern of findings suggests an increasingly complex and mature science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Shinobu Kitayama
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 112, pp 357-360; https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000077

Abstract:
In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is his hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that he feels honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, he would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Jamie Chamberlin, American Psychological Association; Public Information and Media Relations; Public Communications
Published: 1 January 2003
Bibb Latané
Published: 1 January 1979
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 5, pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.1177/014616727900500105

Abstract:
To understand the traumatic events of 1977, I explore the role of JPSP in the process of scientific communication in personality and social psychology and argue that the journal's visibility and reputation derive from its position as the mass medium of its field. I trace the history and describe the governance of the journal and show how it has been difficult to apply policies designed to cope with the problems of other "large" APA journals to JPSP. I report the events leading up to JPSP's precipitous decline in size and present reasons why the page reduction was such a problem. Finally, I review the prospects facing JPSP.
E. B. Khedkar, Atul Kumar, Arun Ingle, Rupali Khaire, Jaiprakash M. Paliwal, Dhananjay Bagul, Satish Warpade, B. M. Londhe, Vinod Malkar, S. P. Huddedar, et al.
Published: 20 July 2022
Publishing Research Quarterly, Volume 38, pp 558-572; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-022-09907-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
The Editors
Published: 11 January 2010
Carbohydrate research, Volume 345, pp 9-9; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2009.11.001

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 January 2007
Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490700500108

Abstract:
Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.
, Jennifer A. Hall,
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 68, pp 870-884; https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.68.5.870

Abstract:
Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.
Published: 1 January 2013
European journal of personality, Volume 27, pp 5-14; https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1843

Abstract:
Nine principal personality psychology journals— Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), Journal of Personality (JP), Journal of Research in Personality (JRP), European Journal of Personality (EJP), Personality and Individual Differences (PAID), Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB), Personality and Social Psychology Review (PSPR), Journal of Personality Assessment (JPA), and Journal of Personality Disorders (JPD)—have published 8510 research papers from 2001 to 2010. These papers have been cited 149 108 times (September 2011) by papers published in journals indexed in the Web of Science. Although personality psychologists from the US published the largest number of papers (4924, 57.9%) and had the largest number of citations (101 875, 68.3%), their relative contribution to personality literature has slightly diminished during the first decade of the new millennium. Unlike other countries, personality psychologists residing in the US demonstrated a strong country self–citation bias: They were about 14% more likely to cite papers which were written by their compatriots rather than non–US authors in three leading journals JPSP, PSPB, and PSPR. The intensity and pattern of citations indicate that personality psychology indeed occupies one of the core positions at the heart of psychological knowledge. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
, Guy Elcheroth, Daniel Figini
Published: 19 December 2008
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, Volume 19, pp 165-181; https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.991

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Kana Yamauchi
The Annual Report of Educational Psychology in Japan, Volume 60, pp 122-136; https://doi.org/10.5926/arepj.60.122

Abstract:
本稿では,2019年7月から2020年6月までの1年間に『教育心理学研究』に掲載された29編のうち,有意性検定を用いた研究論文のサンプルサイズ設計に関する記述状況について概観した。その際,『心理学研究』,Japanese Psychological Research (JPR),Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP)のそれと比較し論じた。研究のサンプルサイズの根拠について何らかの記述がみられた論文の割合はJPSPが最も高く(93%),他の3誌(7―15%)の約8倍であった。また,検定力分析と同様,統計改革の柱である効果量や信頼区間が分析結果に併記されているかを調べたところ,概して4誌ともサンプルサイズ設計の記載より実践度は高く,JPSPでは対象論文全てにいずれかの記載がみられた。一方,『教育心理学研究』では効果量,信頼区間のいずれも記載がない論文が全体の44%を占め,実践度が最も低かった。最後に,『教育心理学研究』における統計改革の促進について,特にサンプルサイズ設計の実践の促進に向けた方策について筆者なりの見解を述べた。
Karl Halvor Teigen
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5964/spb.v13i2.26110

Abstract:
In the target article, Doliński (2018, this issue) showed that empirical studies of “real” behaviour are an almost extinct species of research, judged from articles published in the most recent volume of JPSP (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). This finding continues a trend identified by Baumeister and colleagues ten years ago. The reliance on self-reports and rating scales can hardly be explained as an aftermath of the cognitive revolution in psychology, or a preoccupation with measurements and advanced statistical analyses, as Doliński suggests, but is more compatible with the ease of collecting questionnaire data, combined with the pressure to publish large multi-study papers and to obtain approval from ethical review boards. This development is further strengthened by the accessibility of online participant pools. An informal count showed that students participating for course credit were in 2006 involved more than 90% of empirical JPSP studies, as against 22.5% in 2017. In contrast, Amazon Mechanical Turk workers, non-existent in 2006, participated in 55.3% of the empirical studies published in the most recent volume. Parallel to this development the number of participants per study and the number of studies per article have vastly increased.
Carnot E. Nelson, Peter H. Kannenberg
Published: 1 January 1976
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 2, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.1177/014616727600200103

Abstract:
References in the Handbook of Social Psychology (2nd Edition) were used to examine the field of social psychology during the period of 1953 to 1967. Measures were developed to indicate the "hotness" and "hardness" of material in the five volumes and in each chapter. The extent to which chapters referenced articles published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology was ascertained. There was no relationship between the "hotness" and "hardness" of an area indicating that social psychology had not become more basic research experimentally oriented. During the period studied, more emphasis was being placed on theory and methodology and less on groups. Data also indicated a variety of changes in more specialized areas. The content of JPSP as reflected in the Handbook emphasized the "harder" areas of social psychology and neglected the applied areas. The views of commentators on the field were discussed.
Richard L. Moreland, Michael A. Hogg, Sarah C. Hains
Published: 30 November 1994
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 30, pp 527-555; https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1994.1025

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Torrin M. Liddell, John K. Kruschke
Published: 1 January 2015
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2692323

Abstract:
We surveyed all articles in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), Psychological Science (PS), and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (JEP:G) that mentioned the term "Likert," and found that 100% of the articles that analyzed ordinal data did so using a metric model. We present new evidence that analyzing ordinal data as metric is problematic. We demonstrate that treating ordinal data as metric can yield low correct detection rates, distorted effect size estimates, and greatly inflated false alarm rates. Moreover, we demonstrate that the averaging of multiple ordinal items into a Likert scale does not solve these problems. We provide examples of real data in the contexts of the difference of two groups and simple linear regression. To solve these problems we use an ordered probit model with Bayesian estimation of parameters. The ordered probit model shows appropriate correct detection rates and false alarm rates, and produces accurate effect sizes estimates and response probabilities. Bayesian estimation of this ordinal model is straight forward, yields rich and accurate information, and has no need for auxiliary sampling assumptions. We conclude that ordinal data ought to be analyzed with ordinal models, and that Bayesian estimation is an excellent method for accomplishing that goal.
Torrin Liddell, John Kruschke
Published: 1 January 2017
by 10.17605
Abstract:
We surveyed all articles in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), Psychological Science (PS), and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (JEP:G) that mentioned the term "Likert," and found that 100% of the articles that analyzed ordinal data did so using a metric model. We present new evidence that analyzing ordinal data as metric is problematic. We demonstrate that treating ordinal data as metric can yield low correct detection rates, distorted effect size estimates, and greatly inflated false alarm rates. Moreover, we demonstrate that the averaging of multiple ordinal items into a Likert scale does not solve these problems. We provide examples of real data in the contexts of the difference of two groups and simple linear regression. To solve these problems we use an ordered probit model with Bayesian estimation of parameters. The ordered probit model shows appropriate correct detection rates and false alarm rates, and produces accurate effect sizes estimates and response probabilities. Bayesian estimation of this ordinal model is straight forward, yields rich and accurate information, and has no need for auxiliary sampling assumptions. We conclude that ordinal data ought to be analyzed with ordinal models, and that Bayesian estimation is an excellent method for accomplishing that goal.
, John K. Kruschke
Published: 7 September 2018
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 79, pp 328-348; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2018.08.009

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Comment
, Alison Wood Brooks, Karen Huang, Julia Minson, Francesca Gino
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 117, pp 1139-1144; https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000220

Abstract:
In a recent article published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP; Huang, Yeomans, Brooks, Minson, & Gino, 2017), we reported the results of 2 experiments involving "getting acquainted" conversations among strangers and an observational field study of heterosexual speed daters. In all 3 studies, we found that asking more questions in conversation, especially follow-up questions (that indicate responsiveness to a partner), increases interpersonal liking of the question asker. Kluger and Malloy (2019) offer a critique of the analyses in Study 3 of our article. Though their response is a positive signal of engaged interest in our research, they made 3 core mistakes in their analyses that render their critique invalid. First, they tested the wrong variables, leading to conclusions that were erroneous. Second, even if they had analyzed the correct variables, some of their analytical choices were not valid for our speed-dating dataset, casting doubt on their conclusions. Third, they misrepresented our original findings, ignoring results in all 3 of our studies that disprove some of their central criticisms. In summary, the conclusions that Kluger and Malloy (2019) drew about Huang et al. (2017)'s findings are incorrect. The original results are reliable and robust: Asking more questions, especially follow-up questions, increases interpersonal liking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Ayana Izumi, Ayaka Hirano, Kurumi Iida, Mizuki Nouchi, Saori Fujimaki, Keiko Morimoto, Akira Takamata
Published: 1 April 2019
The FASEB Journal, Volume 33, pp 553.1-553.1; https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.553.1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Kurumi Iida, Konomi Kanamori, Sayaka Kondo, Ayana Izumi, Keiko Morimoto, Akira Takamata
Published: 1 April 2019
The FASEB Journal, Volume 33, pp 553.2-553.2; https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.553.2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 17 January 2022
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.819854

Abstract:
The existence of outliers has been a methodological obstacle in various literature (Grubbs, 1969; Tian et al., 2018; Erdogan et al., 2019). There are many cases when we should deal with outliers of univariate data. If inappropriate methods are used, it can lead to biased and wrong conclusions (Aguinis et al., 2013; Fife, 2020). Hence, how to detect outliers is one of the hottest topics among researchers in many fields (Tian et al., 2018; Dutta and Banerjee, 2019; Saneja and Rani, 2019), including psychology (Gladwell, 2008; Blouvshtein and Cohen-Or, 2018; Leys et al., 2019). Although outlier detection methods should be considered enough in psychology, many researchers have used inappropriate methods without any theoretical basis (Simmons et al., 2011; Leys et al., 2013; Obikee and Okoli, 2021). Leys et al. (2013) investigated outlier detection methods in 127 articles published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) and Psychological Science (PSS) from 2010 to 2012. As a result, 56 papers (about half of the 127 papers) used the outlier detection methods with the mean and standard deviation (Leys et al., 2013). I call the method “the conventional method” in this article. In this method, outliers are the values which do not fall within the mean ± x times standard deviation (x = 2 or 2.5 are common; Leys et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2019). Because of its simplicity, this method has been used in a great many psychological studies (Simmons et al., 2011; Leys et al., 2013). However, the conventional method has the three major theoretical problems (Chiang et al., 2003; Simmons et al., 2011). First, a normal distribution is assumed including outliers (Miller, 1991; Yang et al., 2019). Second, the mean and standard deviation are highly skewed by outliers and it leads to increasing the likelihood of Type I and Type II errors (Cousineau and Chartier, 2010; Leys et al., 2013). Third, it is difficult to detect outliers in data with a small sample size (Cousineau and Chartier, 2010). As shown above, the conventional method has several theoretical problems, but it has been used in many studies without sufficient consideration (Simmons et al., 2011; Leys et al., 2013; Obikee and Okoli, 2021). There are two possible reasons for this situation. First, there are not many known more appropriate methods other than the conventional method. Second, how to perform those desirable methods is not fully understood by researchers. Each researcher should choose the method that is appropriate for data. The purpose of this opinion paper is reviewing more desirable methods for detecting outliers of univariate data (specifically, square root transformation, median absolute deviation, Grubbs' test, and Ueda's method), and presenting source code and sample data that allow us to conduct each detection method. These detection methods have desirable advantages over the conventional method and they are relatively easy to implement. In addition, the results of applying each outlier detection method to a real data set are shown. Presented methods in this article can be conducted using R (R Core Team, 2021), a free statistical software. By summarizing various outlier detection methods and providing analysis source codes, useful knowledge in psychological research can be provided. The method of square root transformation can be used for the biased data with which normal distribution cannot be assumed, but it cannot be used for data that are too asymmetric (Cousineau and Chartier, 2010). When dealing with extreme asymmetric data, please refer to Carling (2000). First, the data x is transformed according to the following equation (1). In equation (1), x is each data, Xmin is the minimum value of the data, and Xmax is the maximum value of the data. The data y is a number falling between 0 and 1. In the square root transformation, the z-score is calculated by equation (2), for the data y. In equation (2), Ym is the mean of y and Sy is the standard deviation of y. A robust z-score transformation has higher power in detecting outliers. Then, the outlier is determined by Bonferroni correction (Armstrong, 2014). The Bonferroni correction is performed to avoid Type II errors that may occur in response to a larger standard deviation (Cousineau and Chartier, 2010). The z-values before and after Bonferroni correction for a representative sample size N were shown in the Open Science Framework repository (OSF; https://osf.io/szt5n/?view_only=5cd1c734b392442d9633d3b7414c0914). The method of using median absolute deviation (MAD) was proposed by Hampel (1974) and can be used for the biased data with which normal distribution cannot be assumed, but the method is not yet common in psychological research (Leys et al., 2013). The statistic MAD uses the median, which has a very desirable characteristic that it is stable against the influence of outliers (Leys et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2019). MAD is obtained by the following equations (3) and (4). Med(x) denotes the median value in data x. Q(0.75) refers to the 75th percentile (third quartile) of z-scores. When a normal distribution can be assumed, b = 1/Q(0.75) = 1.4826 is often used (Huber, 1981; Leys et al., 2013; Kannan et al., 2015). Then, the median ± k times of MAD is considered to be the border of outliers. For example, Miller (1991) recommends using 2, 2.5, or 3 as the value k, depending on the purpose of outlier detection, while Leys et al. (2013) recommend a criterion of 2.5 as the value k. By adjusting the coefficient b, it is possible to use this method when normal distribution is not assumed (e.g., those with high kurtosis), but robust detection cannot be achieved for extremely asymmetric data (Rousseeuw and Croux, 1993; Yang et al.,...
, Yuki Yamada, Tsunehiko Tanaka
Published: 26 February 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.659975

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicBehavioral Immune System: Its Psychological Bases and Functions Currently, the world is in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has reminded us of the threat posed by infectious diseases. In some countries, cities were temporarily locked down and people were restricted from traveling. This severely affected our economy and culture, and mental health problems associated with this situation have arisen. This infectious disease has significantly impacted societies and people. Moreover, the threat has significantly altered individual behavior. People have become socially distant and have had to frequently sterilize their hands. In some areas, wearing masks has become mandatory, and there have even been legal penalties for those who violated local rules. The pandemic has changed our behavior dramatically. These behavioral changes, both at the individual and community levels, appear to have been driven by the goal of disease avoidance. From the standpoint of this Research Topic, it can also be said that the threat of infectious diseases has resulted in a collective activation of the behavioral immune system (BIS). When we started this Research Topic, we did not anticipate this situation. Now, however, it has become highly relevant. While not welcome, it has provided a basis for understanding human behaviors under pandemics. BIS is a motivational system with the goal of disease avoidance. It estimates the presence of pathogens from perceptual cues in the environment and elicits relevant emotional and cognitive responses. Such responses induce avoidance behavior in a pathogenic environment (Schaller and Park, 2011). This sequence of psychological responses, by preventing contact with and penetration into the body of these infectious sources, compensates for the physiological immune system which can sometimes be physically high cost (Murray and Schaller, 2016). The theory of BIS has an evolutionary psychological basis, and it has been used to explain and predict a wide range of human behaviors (Ackerman et al., 2018). Additionally, the description of detailed mechanisms for disease avoidance redefined the adaptive value of disgust, which is a key emotion in BIS. BIS has been revealed to be associated with diverse human behaviors. However, it remains unclear what components it consists of and how it is derived from our biological foundations. In this regard, Murray et al. provided a comprehensive discussion of the psychophysiological basis of BIS, which included sensory, cellular, and genetic perspectives. They offered an in-depth description of the current state of PsychoBehavioroimmunology regarding BIS, including an extensive review. The work of Cañas-Gonzaléz et al. demonstrated that physiological immunity affects the state of depression. A study by Iwasa et al., which provided a psychophysical analysis of visual pathogen detection, can be understood as a practical example of a specific study for the general remarks made by Murray et al.. Additionally, Shakhar provided a conceptual analysis of a more inclusive view of BIS based on its genetic origins. While referring to Hamilton (1964) inclusive selection theory, Shakhar stated that BIS works to protect not only an individual itself but also the kin around the person. In this regard, BIS protects others through the individual's disease behaviors and social immunity behaviors, favoring the whole “kin selection.” This is an attempt to conceptually extend BIS and provide a fresh perspective in this field. The study of the relationship between BIS and various human behaviors elucidates its functional characteristics. One of the human behaviors affected by BIS is sexual conduct. Sexual behavior is inevitably associated with the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual arousal and physical attractiveness influence male sexual decision making; considering the risk of STI, the disgust emotion may also be associated with it. Oaten et al., using a survey to detect substantial sexual arousal, indicated that arousal decreases state disgust and STI risk judgments, and increases willingness to have sex. Furthermore, they identified that low trait disgust predicted a strong willingness to have sex. This study is a good example of the functional characteristics of BIS, describing how the sexual motivation system and BIS work against each other to control sexual decision-making. Considering the functional aspects of BIS, we cannot ignore its pervasive influence on our attitudes. Liuzza et al. revealed that moral judgments about purity are influenced by disgust sensitivity to body odor; Tsegmed et al. observed that negative implicit attitudes toward agricultural and aquatic products from Fukushima were related to thoughts about nuclear contamination. These studies reiterate how the BIS functions to avoid disease through attitude change. The work of Stewart et al., revealing the impact of disgust on people's religiosity, is another example depicting the influence of BIS on people's attitudes. In contrast, some articles presented new research agendas in this area. Horita and Takezawa reexamined the impact of pathogen stress on collectivism and conformity using Bayesian statistics and revealed that the impact may be more limited than originally thought. Wu et al. revealed that the degree of acceptance of ingroup members tended to decrease compared to outgroup members in the context of disease (e.g., ingroup derogation). Concerning the association between BIS and outgroup prejudice, Kusche and Barker's article, which proposed a model including social contexts such as family environment and mass media, provided us with substantial inspiration. Research on BIS has come to encompass a wide range of human behavior. Ito et al. discussed the role of BIS in social anxiety in terms of the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system; the impact of BIS on mental and physical health is one of the areas that is expected to grow, especially in today's world, under the influence of serious infectious diseases. In conclusion, based on the psychophysiological foundation of BIS, it is necessary to further clarify the relationship between perception, cognition, personality, social relationships, and psychiatric disorders, and individual behavior and attitudes, thus developing a conceptual, mathematical, and psychological model that comprehensively explains their functioning. Only then will we be able to understand the practical applicability of BIS to psychotherapies and policymaking. The editorial was drafted by KI and YY and approved by the topic co-editors. All authors listed have made a substantial contribution to this Research Topic and have approved this editorial for publication. This work was supported by the JPSP KAKENHI (Grant Number: JP18K03024). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Ackerman, J. M., Hill, S. E., and Murray, D. R. (2018). The behavioral immune system: current concerns and future directions. Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass 12:e12371. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12371 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Hamilton, W.D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. J. Theor. Biol. 7, 17–52. doi: 10.1016/0022-5193(64)90039-6 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Murray, D. R., and Schaller, M. (2016). The behavioral immune system: implications for social cognition, social interaction, and social influence. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 53, 75–129. doi: 10.1016/bs.aesp.2015.09.002 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Schaller, M., and Park, J. H. (2011). The behavioral immune system (and why it matters). Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 20, 99–103. doi: 10.1177/0963721411402596 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: behavioral immune system, disgust, disease avoidance, emotion, cognition, perception, attitudes Citation: Iwasa K, Yamada Y and Tanaka T (2021) Editorial: Behavioral Immune System: Its Psychological Bases and Functions. Front. Psychol. 12:659975. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.659975 Received: 28 January 2021; Accepted: 03 February 2021; Published: 26 February 2021. Edited and reviewed by: Bernhard Hommel, Leiden University, Netherlands Copyright © 2021 Iwasa, Yamada and Tanaka. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Kazunori Iwasa, [email protected]
Published: 25 March 2021
Frontiers in Communication, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.641865

Abstract:
On March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic and sent the global economy spiraling into a state of chaos (Adnan, 2020). Higher education like many other industries has had to evolve from the traditional methods which worked in the pre-pandemic world. For most higher education institutions, this meant shifting most if not all classes which were offered face to face to an online environment. This move was not gradual but had to be done essentially overnight to help curve the severity of the virus and keep campuses safe (Dhawan, 2020). Therefore, classes that have never been offered online before were being transitioned to be taught online. This also means that students who may have never taken an online class are now being asked to take an entire load of online classes. Everyone is dealing with different situations, so students, professors, and others involved in higher education have had to try to find the best solutions. This pandemic creates an educational environment that has never been seen before. Therefore, we must embrace previous research and new communication technologies pertaining to online instruction to balance the fears and tensions amidst such crises (Dhawan, 2020). Due to COVID-19, the classroom culture has changed to a culture of high distraction. Students are now learning from home, surrounded by all their entertainment devices. Yet, despite their distracting environment, they are expected to either log in to class and communicate with their teachers and peers through an entertainment device for which classwork can be one small part of the screen or set their own schedule to regularly engage with an asynchronous learning environment. With all these distractions, educators must engage in strategies to keep their students engaged in order to be effective in the COVID-19 teaching landscape. This paper aims to review research on the strategies that have been found to foster student engagement with online classes. Research was reviewed from both information systems/technology as well as communication to make collective conclusions for helping faculty transition into this new culture. Bolliger and Martin (2018) distinguished between three different levels of student engagement. 1. Learner-learner engagement: This includes activities such as discussion boards and other various ways of sharing experiences and resources between students. Notably, a feeling of community and belonging in a class can help students to disclose their experiences allowing students to learn experientially. 2. Learner-instructor engagement: This focuses on communication between the instructor and student, which is an important predictor of student success and achievement. Through modeling positive behaviors and establishing presence, the instructor can foster the learners' sense of community. 3. Learner-content engagement: This consists of the organization of instructional materials and planned activities, which is another component of engagement crucial to student success. In other words, it refers to the time students are involved in reviewing instructional content such as textbook, video, audio, and interactive games. Findings suggest that students and faculty both agreed on the importance of each of these three methods of engagement and that some combination of the three should be used for online learning (Bolliger and Martin, 2018). While all three levels of student engagement are found to be important, it is sometime necessary to prioritize and focus on one or two of these types of engagement depending on the class goals and subject. Students feel that the most valuable elements for engagement in an online class were ensuring instructor presence or personal contact, including relevant course content, and providing frequent communication with the student. Learner-learner engagement can include items such as class introductions or icebreaker activities and collaborative activities. If students are not motivated to engage with one another at the beginning of the semester, the classroom culture will be one of independent study rather than interactivity, so the first 3 weeks are most critical (Kelly and Claus, 2015). Professors must strive to develop a positive rapport between students and engagement in this orientation activity. This means that whatever interactive assignments the students are expected to engage in, so too should the professor to set the example and develop relationships. Being active and encouraging to students as a professor will set an example for how the students should interact with one another. Assignments that foster interactivity should be extended throughout the semester so that students learn from their peers and gain different perspectives on subjects of interest. Grading rubrics should allow students flexibility to expand ideas and should also help to ensure that students are actively interacting with one another in the discussion boards. An alternative to the traditional discussion board model, is hosting discussion boards through Twitter, where students are more likely to engage due to their familiarity with and time naturally spent on the platform (Denker et al., 2018). Learner-instructor engagement includes regular announcements (email reminders), informal question and answer forums, personalized emails, and discussion board postings, posting grading rubrics for assignments, and creating course orientations (Bolliger and Martin, 2018). Communication between instructor and learner is essential to the success of an online class. Personalized communication (where plausible) is preferred and should continue throughout the entire semester to enhance social presence. Above all, it is critical that students receive messages from the instructor that addresses them by name; this both directly increases students' motivation to engage with subject material and indirectly decreases their classroom anxieties through perceived immediacy (Kelly and Fall, 2011; Kelly and Westerman, 2016). Instructors should consider all communication with students through the lens of that message's potential impact on perceived immediacy and rapport (Culpeper and Kan, 2020). For example, when giving assignment feedback, start with what students did well before explaining everything that was incorrect. Lastly, learner-content engagement includes items such as working on realistic scenarios, providing structured discussions, and interacting with content in more than one media format. One of the most critical pieces of developing a successful online class is developing a course with high social presence (Kelly and Westerman, 2016). Social presence is the sense of non-mediation, so the more social presence in an online course, the more it feels like a face-to-face course. Developing assignments that have realistic scenarios is essential to engage students in course concepts because it brings a stronger sense of reality to the class so that these concepts feel part of their world, rather than concepts constrained to their learning environment. For example, using real data from local businesses will help show your students that these are not just numbers on a spreadsheet, but that they are data which can be transformed into information that will help this business be successful. It is also important to use richer channels of communication when appropriate to develop social presence between the learner and class content (Kelly and Westerman, 2016). For example, allowing students to read about a concept in their textbook then watch a video about the same concept from an expert in the field will help validate its importance while engaging students with the material across multiple sensory platforms. Teaching an online class is very different from teaching in a face-to-face environment and when professors try to replicate what they do using technology, it often falls short. The lack of face-to-face interaction with the instructor and increased response time for answering questions can be challenges for online learners (Adnan, 2020). So, educators must move forward in the online environment not attempting to replicate the delivery of their face-to-face courses, but rather adapting them to the online environment, leveraging the strengths of the online classroom vs. the traditional brick and mortar classroom (Kelly and Westerman, 2016). COVID-19 may have changed the world and higher education forever. It is my hope that we get to return to the classroom for face-to-face instruction soon, but in the meantime, providing a balanced student engagement strategy will help students be more engaged and lead to better learning outcomes. Online education is evolving, and we must strive to continue to develop more efficient ways of creating classroom cultures in online classes that we achieve in face-to-face classes. By putting forth the effort to use classroom technology skillfully and communicating effectively through the online learning platforms, we can provide virtual learning experiences for our students that are as effective as their traditional face-to-face classroom experiences (Kelly and Westerman, 2020). The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Adnan, M. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: students perspectives. J. Pedagogical Res. 1, 45–51. doi: 10.33902/JPSP.2020261309 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Bolliger, D. U., and Martin, F. (2018). Instructor and student perceptions of online student engagement strategies. Distance Educ. 39, 568–583. doi: 10.1080/01587919.2018.1520041 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Culpeper, J., and Kan, Q. (2020). Communicative styles, rapport, and student engagement: an online peer mentoring scheme. Appl. Linguist. 41, 756–786. doi: 10.1093/applin/amz035 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Denker, K. J., Manning, J., Heuett, K. B., and Summers, M. E. (2018). Twitter in the classroom: modeling online communication attitudes and student motivations to connect. Comput. Hum. Behav. 79, 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.09.037 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: a panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. J. Educ. Technol. Syst. 49, 5–22. doi: 10.1177/0047239520934018 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kelly, S., and Claus, C. J. (2015). Practicing nonverbal awareness in the asynchronous online classroom. Commun. Teach. 29, 1–5. doi: 10.1080/17404622.2014.985597 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kelly, S., and Fall, L. T. (2011). An investigation of computer-mediated instructional immediacy in online education: a comparison of graduate and undergraduate students' motivation to learn. J. Advertising Educ. 15, 44–51. doi: 10.1177/109804821101500107 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kelly, S., and Westerman, D. (2020). Doing communication science: thoughts on making more valid claims. Ann. Int. Commun. Assoc. 44, 177–184. doi: 10.1080/23808985.2020.1792789 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kelly, S., and Westerman, D. K. (2016). “New technologies and distributed learning systems,” in Handbooks of Communication Science, Vol. 16, Communication and Learning, ed P. L. Witt (Boston, MA; Berlin: DeGruyter Mouton) 455–480. Google Scholar Keywords: COVID-19, communication, student engagement, classroom culture, online education strategies Citation: Brown WS (2021) Successful Strategies to Engage Students in a COVID-19 Environment. Front. Commun. 6:641865. doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2021.641865 Received: 15 December 2020; Accepted: 08 March 2021; Published: 25 March 2021. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2021 Brown. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Wiley S. Brown, [email protected]
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top