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, Sidra Aamer, Fizza Sahar Anwar, Farah Farhan, Mehreen Wajahat,
European Journal of General Dentistry;

Objectives The aim of this study was to survey the educational experiences, knowledge, and attitude of dentists in Pakistan about the professional use of silver diamine fluoride (SDF). This study also aimed to determine if SDF educational experience at the undergraduate level can result in a more positive attitude and increased clinical usage of SDF. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional survey, conducted at multiple dental institutes across Pakistan using a pre-validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and professional expertise of dentists regarding the use of SDF. The data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS (version 23.0) data management software by IBM. Results The results of this study were deemed significant in terms of achievement of the study aims. The majority of the responders, 178 (79.8%), reported online resources to be the main source of information about SDF treatment, whereas 103 (46.1%) responders gained information from a dental journal. A higher number of consultants were reported to be well educated regarding SDF treatment during their residency training as compared with demonstrators, house officers, and postgraduate trainees (p < 0.001). About 64 (28.7%) responders agreed that SDF is a better alternative treatment for children with behavioral issues, 74 (33.2%) agreed that it is a better treatment option for medically fragile patients, and 79 (35.4%) agreed that it can be used as an alternative for patients with dental anxiety. It was agreed by 82 (36.8%) responders that SDF is a good treatment option for patients who recently have received chemotherapy radiation therapy. Conclusion It is the need of time to put all educational efforts together to enhance knowledge regarding the use, advantages, and potential problems of SDF.
Paola Ghanem, Joseph Murray, Melinda Hsu, David Ettinger, Josephine Feliciano, Patrick Forde, Christine Hann, Vincent Lam, Benjamin Levy, Julie Brahmer, et al.
Published: 10 November 2021
by BMJ
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Volume 9;

Background: Five-year survival analyses of patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have demonstrated continued clinical benefit compared to chemotherapy.1 2 Our study aims at understanding and defining the unique clinical and genomic underpinnings of a durable response to ICI in advanced NSCLC.Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study using information abstracted from a Johns Hopkins IRB-approved database of NSCLC patients treated with an ICI-containing regimen. We defined long-term responders (LR) as patients who have achieved an overall survival (OS) of at least 3 years. We identified a comparison arm (C) of patients whose OS was less than a year. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the clinical and molecular characteristics were conducted between the LR and C groups using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.Results: A cohort of 89 patients were included; 41 patients as LR and 48 as C. Mean duration of ICI was 21.6 months and 3.5 months for LR and C, respectively. On univariate analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, race, histology or treatment characteristics between arms. However, ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 (p=0.011) and evidence of liver metastases were independently associated with a shorter response to ICI (p=0.012). Increased PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with likelihood of LR status (OR= 1.018, p=0.027). 65.9% (n=27) of LR patients developed an immune-related adverse event (irAE), of which 20 patients required discontinuation of therapy. In the C arm, 16.7% (n=8) of patients developed an irAE of which 4 patients required discontinuation. On multivariate analysis, including age, sex, race, ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, PS, liver and brain metastases as well as the presence of common oncogenic molecular alterations, PS of < 2 was statistically significantly associated with an OS ≥3 years (OR=16.7, p= 0.017). Molecular profiling was completed in 53 patients (LR=29, C=24). Common molecular alterations were identified in 28 out of 53 patients (LR=16, C=12). KRAS mutation was assessed in 34 patients (LR=16, C=18) and was associated with LR status versus C (Fisher’s exact test value p=0.0386).Conclusions: Our retrospective study assessing multiple clinical and molecular determinants of patients with long-term response to immune checkpoint blockade, identified PS at diagnosis and KRAS mutation status to be associated with long-term response. Current efforts are ongoing to interrogate more deeply molecular features of LR, as well as their relationship to clinical aspects of a sustained benefit from ICI in NSCLC.References: Borghaei H, et al. Five-year outcomes from the randomized, phase III trials checkMate 017 and 057: nivolumab versus docetaxel in previously treated non–small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 0, JCO.20.01605, doi:10.1200/jco.20.01605 (2021) Reck M, et al. Five-year outcomes with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with PD-L1 tumor proportion score ≥ 50. J Clin Oncol 39:2339–2349, doi:10.1200/jco.21.00174 (2021) Ethics Approval: The retrospective case-control study has obtained ethics approval from the Institutional Review Board at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Megan B Sears-Smith, Lillian Charboneau, Renju Raj, R. Eric Heidel
Published: 5 November 2021
Blood, Volume 138, pp 4085-4085;

Introduction: Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is considered standard of care in young and fit patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. ASCT has shown to improve depth of response, progression free survival and overall survival compared to systemic therapy alone in myeloma patients (Harousseau et al. New England Journal of Medicine). Proximity to a stem cell transplant center may influence the utilization of this therapeutic option in transplant eligible multiple myeloma patients. Our cancer center did not have a stem cell transplant program in the 100-mile driving radius. The goal of this study was to assess the referral patterns and utilization of ASCT in newly diagnosed, young (age <65 years) multiple myeloma patients in a setting where patients are lacking proximity to a transplant center. Methods: The study was an IRB-approved retrospective cohort study. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age at the time of diagnosis who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2020, were included. Data including age at diagnosis, sex, race, zip code, treatment regimen, clinical data-including referral to a transplant center, stem cell collection and transplant-were collected and analyzed. Staging was calculated using lab values at the time of diagnosis or within 2 weeks of starting treatment. Date of diagnosis was defined as the date of bone marrow biopsy confirming systemic disease. All frequency and descriptive analyses were performed using SPSS Version 26 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) Results: There were n = 62 patients that met the study inclusion criteria. Patients were mainly white (86%) and male (58%) with an average age at diagnosis of 55.9 (SD = 6.83) years. All patients (n = 62, 100%) lived at zip codes that were more than 100 miles from the closest transplant center. ISS staging showed 37% (n = 23, 95% CI 25% - 50%), 29% (n = 18, 95% CI 18% - 42%), and 18% (n = 11, 95% CI 9% - 30%) to have stage I, II, and III disease respectively. Twelve patients (n = 12, 19.4%, 95% CI 10.4% - 31.4%) had insufficient data for staging. The most common first line regimens were bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (n = 39, 62.9%, 95% CI 49.7% - 74.8%) and bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (n = 13, 21%, 95% CI 11.7% - 33.2%). Most patients (n = 48, 77.4%, 95% CI 65% - 87.1%) achieved a very good partial response or better. Eight (n = 8, 13%, 95% CI 5.7% - 23.9%) patients had refractory disease to first line therapy. Forty-six (n = 46, 74%, 95% CI 62% - 85%) patients were referred for HSCT evaluation, n = 16 (26%, 95% CI 15.5% - 38.5%) patients were not. Of the forty-six (n = 46) patients that were referred, n = 44 (96%, 95% CI 85% - 99.5%) patients had a clinical consultation with the transplant team. Of the entire cohort, n = 36 (58%, 95% CI 44.9% - 70.5%) patients underwent stem cell collection and n = 34 (55%, 95% CI 42% - 68%) patients underwent an ASCT after induction therapy. Conclusions: Our study found that more than one third of young patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma did not undergo stem cell collection or stem cell transplant. Lack of geographic access to a transplant center may be a contributing factor to the under utilization of this highly effective therapeutic strategy. Further investigation into interventions to improve ASCT referral and completion rates is imperative for improving outcomes for patients in such geographic locations. Disclosures: Raj: Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jazz pharmaceuticals: Speakers Bureau; Glaxo-Smith Kline: Speakers Bureau.
, Layla Fatima, Abdul Moiz Ahmed, , , , , Sana Gul, , Farheen Malik, et al.
Published: 28 October 2021
Vaccine hesitancy has been a huge challenge in controlling preventable diseases. With the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, it is vital to know their acceptance rates among the masses. No comparative data is available on the current subject from Pakistan yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acceptance of a potential COVID-19 vaccine among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan, along with their perceptions and barriers to acceptance. An online cross-sectional study was carried out in Pakistan from December 19, 2020, to January 10, 2021, using convenience sampling. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 31 items was distributed after informed consent. Inclusion criteria consisted of HCWs and non-HCWs (general population) aged 18 years and above, residing in Pakistan. All analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Chi-square and T-test were used and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all cases. Of the 404 respondents (n=196 general population and n=208 HCWs), 73.5% were willing to get a proven, safe, and effective COVID-19 vaccine if it was free of cost. This was reduced to only 64.3% if the vaccine was not free and had to be paid for. A total of 168 (41.6%) participants agreed to get vaccinated immediately, while 149 (36.9%) participants concurred to get it on a delayed basis. Eighty-seven (21.5%) participants refused to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, amongst which a significant majority (p<0.001) of the participants were from the general population. Doctors or scientists/scholarly journals were found to be the most trusted source of information (67.6%; n=273), while fear of unknown side effects (45.5%; n=184) was found to be the most common barrier towards COVID-19 vaccination. More than half (53.5%) participants believed that the vaccine is safe, effective, and has minimal side effects, amongst which a significantly large fraction (p<0.001) belonged to the HCWs. The acceptance rate of a safe, effective, proven, and free COVID-19 vaccine was 73.5%. The fear of unknown side effects was the most common barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake. The general population demonstrated less knowledge, more false perceptions, and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine. Adequate measures should be taken to educate the masses about the COVID-19 vaccine, and its safety, and further studies are required.
Farzaneh Tofighi Zavareh, Yasser Bagheri, Abbas Ali Keshtkar
Published: 13 October 2021
Immunology and Genetics Journal;

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, which manifests a wide range of clinical phenotypes from recurrent infections of the respiratory system to autoimmunity, enteropathy and lymphoproliferative disorders. Some abnormalities in T and B lymphocyte subpopulations may associate with the development of such clinical complications. Aim of study: The main objective of this case-control study is to investigate the frequency and absolute count of different lymphocyte subsets in CVID patients as well as the cellular proliferation response. Correlation between lymphocyte abnormalities and different clinical phenotypes of the disease such as infection only (IO), autoimmunity (AI), chronic enteropathy (CE) and lymphoproliferative disorders (LP) are determined. We also aim to evaluate the prognosis of CVID for each clinical manifestation based on lymphocyte phenotype. Methods: A population of genetically unsolved CVID patients after whole exome sequencing (WES) will be subdivided into 4 clinical phenotypes i.e. IO, AI, CE and LP and an equal number of age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) will be examined for the frequency of distinct subgroups of CD19+ B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. The proliferation response of their CD4+ T cells is then evaluated by Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) test, using stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Data analysis will be assessed by parametric or nonparametric tests based on normality of data distribution using IBM SPSS Statistics, V.24 and Stata software V.14. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval of this study is received from the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (ID number: IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1396.3380) and all participants will be asked to sign the informed consent statement. Due to the wide range of variables, objectives and questions, the findings of this study are intended to release as multiple publications in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences.
Shaarna Shanmugavadivel, Danilo Buonsenso, Jo-Fen Liu, Tessa Davis, Damian Roland
Published: 30 September 2021
by BMJ
Background There is increasing recognition of the lack of diversity representation in all areas of medicine, in particular within medical education. Studies assessing diversity of skin tone image representation among textbooks and major scientific journals showed that the majority of images reported are in children with light skin tones. However, the impact of the lack of diversity of skin tone representation in medical resources on the ability of healthcare workers to recognise childhood skin conditions has not been explored. Objectives To assess diversity in medical training resources and its impact on self-confidence in diagnosing skin conditions on different skin tones of healthcare workers across the globe. Methods Participants were asked to log in to the online platform ( and self-declare the following information: continent of practice, ethnicity, profession, specialty, years of experience, majority Training Resources (white skin, a mix of skin tones, darker skin tones only), and confidence in diagnosing skin conditions. Data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 26.0 for Windows (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY USA). Categorical variables were presented as proportions, and Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the distribution between groups as appropriate. A p-value of <0.05 was deemed statistically significant in all analyses. Results 600 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Demographics Participants responded from all continents, although Europe (56%) and Oceania (23%) were the most represented. The majority of participants were white/Caucasian (69%). 439 (73%) were clinicians, mostly paediatricians (37%), emergency doctors (22%) paediatric emergency doctors (12%) and a minority were dermatologists (3%). Just over half of participants (56%) reported at least six years of practice since graduation. Training resources Participants were asked to report the majority of training resources used during their training. 441 (74%) reported that only white skin was usually represented, while resources including a mix of skin tones (24%) or other skin tones (3%) were rarely used. Self-confidence When diagnosing skin conditions in darker skin tones, participants reported that they are ‘generally uncertain if correct’ in 43% cases, ‘sometimes uncertain but clinically safe’ (43%), and ‘confident across a range of skin tones’ in a minority of cases (5%). Self-confidence levels were associated with geographical location (higher in Africa (4/14, 29%) and Latin America (1/9, 11%), (P < 0.001); diversity of training resources used (higher with a mix of skin tones (15/144, 10%) or darker skin tones only (3/15, 20%) (< 0.001); with longer working experience (6 to 10 (9/188, 5%) or >10 years of practice (18/159, 11%) (P < 0.001) and with specialty (higher in dermatologists (9/17, 53%, P < 0.001). Self-confidence was very low among paediatricians, emergency medicine and paediatric emergency medicine specialists (0.05). Conclusions Our study provides further support of the lack of diversity in training resources used by healthcare professionals on a global scale. Moreover, our findings provide preliminary evidence that this lack of diversity affects self-confidence in diagnosing skin conditions on a variety of skin tones.
Suripto Suripto, Dedy Suhendra, Sukiman Sukiman
Jurnal Pengabdian Magister Pendidikan IPA, Volume 4;

The implementation of science and technology for community (IbM) farmer groups who are facing the problem of the cabbage caterpillar population explosion was carried out in Sembalun Lawang Village, East Lombok Regency. The IbM activity was designed based on the agreement between the IbM team and the Village Head of Sembalun Lawang together with the Sangka Bira Farmers Group and the Sebun Kedit Farmers Group in Sembalun Lawang Village. IbM activities are carried out with the stages of socialization, practice, and tutorials with various media used including blackboards, LCDs, manuals (leflet), seeds, saplings, specimens, and leaf dry powder of jayanti plants (S. sesban). Partners also provide media for this IbM activity, which includes cabbage plantations and water facilities. The results achieved at this stage are that farmers in Sembalun Lawang Village recognize jayanti plants as a source of natural insecticides, are skilled at drying leaves properly and making leaf solutions from Jayanti plants and trying to apply them as natural insecticides to control cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plants. The results of trials by farmers showed that direct administration of 50 ppm Jayanti leaf solution could kill 52 to 56% of cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plants. If the Jayanti leaf solution was stored for the previous 24 hours, then 50 ppm of the solution could only kill 15 to 16% of cabbage caterpillars. After participating in this IbM activity, the farmers were also able to identify the type of parasitoid insect, Diadegma semiclausum, which can control the cabbage caterpillar population. The outputs of this IbM activity include 1) Farmer's Guide Book (leflet) Making and Application of Insecticides from Jayanti Plants for Integrated Control of Cabbage Caterpillars, 2) IbM results publication at national seminars (poster presenter certificate), and 3) Publication of IbM results in national scientific journal (submitted). The next stage to be carried out is to monitor and continue the mentoring (tutorial) by the team to IbM participants in the implementation of Jayanti plant cultivation and the manufacture and use of Jayanti insecticide in controlling cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plantations in Sembalun Lawang Village, East Lombok Regency.The implementation of science and technology for community (IbM) farmer groups who are facing the problem of the cabbage caterpillar population explosion was carried out in Sembalun Lawang Village, East Lombok Regency. The IbM activity was designed based on the agreement between the IbM team and the Village Head of Sembalun Lawang together with the Sangka Bira Farmers Group and the Sebun Kedit Farmers Group in Sembalun Lawang Village. IbM activities are carried out with the stages of socialization, practice, and tutorials with various media used including blackboards, LCDs, manuals (leflet), seeds, saplings, specimens, and leaf dry powder of jayanti plants (S. sesban). Partners also provide media for this IbM activity, which includes cabbage plantations and water facilities. The results achieved at this stage are that farmers in Sembalun Lawang Village recognize jayanti plants as a source of natural insecticides, are skilled at drying leaves properly and making leaf solutions from Jayanti plants and trying to apply them as natural insecticides to control cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plants. The results of trials by farmers showed that direct administration of 50 ppm Jayanti leaf solution could kill 52 to 56% of cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plants. If the Jayanti leaf solution was stored for the previous 24 hours, then 50 ppm of the solution could only kill 15 to 16% of cabbage caterpillars. After participating in this IbM activity, the farmers were also able to identify the type of parasitoid insect, Diadegma semiclausum, which can control the cabbage caterpillar population. The outputs of this IbM activity include 1) Farmer's Guide Book (leflet) Making and Application of Insecticides from Jayanti Plants for Integrated Control of Cabbage Caterpillars, 2) IbM results publication at national seminars (poster presenter certificate), and 3) Publication of IbM results in national scientific journal (submitted). The next stage to be carried out is to monitor and continue the mentoring (tutorial) by the team to IbM participants in the implementation of Jayanti plant cultivation and the manufacture and use of Jayanti insecticide in controlling cabbage caterpillars on cabbage plantations in Sembalun Lawang Village, East Lombok Regency.
Jasper Debrabander,
Published: 15 September 2021
by BMJ
Many ethical concerns have been voiced about Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs). Special attention has been paid to the effect of CDSSs on autonomy, responsibility, fairness and transparency. This journal has featured a discussion between Rosalind McDougall and Ezio Di Nucci that focused on the impact of IBM’s Watson for Oncology (Watson) on autonomy. The present article elaborates on this discussion in three ways. First, using Jonathan Pugh’s account of rational autonomy we show that how Watson presents its results might impact decisional autonomy, while how Watson produces knowledge might affect practical autonomy. Second, by drawing an analogy with patient decision aids we identify an empirical way of estimating Watson’s impact on autonomy (ie, value-congruence). Lastly, McDougall introduced the notion of value-flexible design as a way to account for the diverging preferences patients hold. We will clarify its relation with the established domain of value-sensitive design. In terms of the tripartite methodology of value-sensitive design, we offer a conceptual clarification using Pugh’s account of rational autonomy, an empirical tool to evaluate Watson’s impact on autonomy and situate a group of technical options to incorporate autonomy in Watson’s design.
Eda Tülek, Filiz Yarici, Dudu Özkum Yavuz, Mustapha Bulama Modu, Filiz Meriçli
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 487-504;

Objective: To identify the herbal medicinal products used in pregnancy in community pharmacies, the approach of pharmacists in Northern Cyprus and to compare the availability of the most commonly mentioned medicinal plants in accessible databases, in Northern Cyprus. Design: Questionnaire was designed and administered to 263 community pharmacists in Northern Cyprus and gathered the data on herbal medicinal products they had and recommended to pregnant women. Databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, OpenAcces Journals were searched through the Near East University Grand Library’s Online Resources for keywords relating to the ‘herbal medicine’, ‘pregnancy’ ‘pregnant women’, ‘herbal products’. Descriptive statistics was used with IBM® Statistical product and service solutions software platform. Location/Setting: Northern Cyprus Outcome Measures: Herbal medicinal products used and recommended in pregnancy by community pharmacists in Northern Cyprus were identified. It has also been determined which of the most used plants in the world are grown in Northern Cyprus. Results: The most recommended herbal pharmaceutical forms were herbal lozenges (n = 76, 31%), then herbal form of teas (n = 60, 24%), herbal oils (n = 57, 23%), herbal capsules (n = 36, 14%), other pharmaceutical forms (n=20, 8%). Within the limitation of our literature search, totally 650 medicinal plants (single or formula) used in pregnancy were determined. Out of these 74 were mostly used worldwide, and it was discovered that 56 species out of these plants are grown or cultivated; 18 of the compiled species were imported species some of the genera have species growing naturally growing in Cyprus. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Cyprus also follow their counterparts in other countries in developing interest in herbal medicines. The number of herbal medicines in the pharmacies owned by Turkish Cypriots is small. Interestingly, the result of this study showed that the pharmacists that were mainly Turkish Cypriots were found not to be selling herbal medicinal products to pregnant women without doctor’s prescriptions. This study recommends that the herbal medicines use in pregnancy should be the ones that have undergone in-depth evidence-based scientific researches with clinically proven efficacy that are known not only to the healthcare professionals such as medical doctors, midwives but also the pharmacists and the general public.
Cristina A F Román, Sarah Pillemer
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 36, pp 1091-1091;

Objective MS impacts individuals from diverse racial/ethnic groups, yet they are not always well represented in research. The objectives of the current study are to examine how often neuropsychologically-focused MS research (NFMSR) studies: (1) include diverse populations; (2) explicitly describe the race/ethnicity of their participants; and (3) discuss generalizability/cultural implications. Methods A sample of NFMSR studies (defined here as studies examining cognitive functioning, mood, neuroimaging, fatigue, and quality of life) published within major journals between 2017–2020 were identified. Articles focusing on clinically isolated syndrome or pediatric populations were excluded. Variables of interest included sample size, sex/gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, socioeconomic status (SES), generalizability/cultural limitations, discussion of racism/disparities, and recruitment procedures. Data were coded and analyzed in IBM’s Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; version 27). Results Race/ethnicity was not often reported in NFMSR studies, and when described, the representation of diverse individuals with MS was low (i.e., samples were mostly Caucasian). In addition, specific information about recruitment methods and SES was lacking. Generalizability/cultural implications or disparities were not discussed in the majority of studies. Report of education was variable, while sex, age, disease course, and EDSS were more often reported. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the significant gaps in representation in NFMSR. These results have significant implications for how we should be using the current literature to characterize patients or guide treatments. In addition, the current study serves as a call to action for MS researchers to work toward more inclusive and generalizable studies.
Ali Ghorbi, Mohsen Fazeli-Varzaneh, Erfan Ghaderi-Azad, Marcel Ausloos, Marcin Kozak
Published: 29 August 2021
This study aims to analyze 343 retraction notices indexed in the Scopus database, published in 2001-2019, related to scientific articles (co-)written by at least one author affiliated with an Iranian institution. In order to determine reasons for retractions, we merged this database with the database from Retraction Watch. The data were analyzed using Excel 2016 and IBM-SPSS version 24.0, and visualized using VOSviewer software. Most of the retractions were due to fake peer review (95 retractions) and plagiarism (90). The average time between a publication and its retraction was 591 days. The maximum time-lag (about 3,000 days) occurred for papers retracted due to duplicate publications; the minimum time-lag (fewer than 100 days) was for papers retracted due to ''unspecified cause'' (most of these were conference papers). As many as 48 (14%) of the retracted papers were published in two medical journals: Tumor Biology (25 papers) and Diagnostic Pathology (23 papers). From the institutional point of view, Islamic Azad University was the inglorious leader, contributing to over one-half (53.1%) of retracted papers. Among the 343 retraction notices, 64 papers pertained to international collaborations with researchers from mainly Asian and European countries; Malaysia having the most retractions (22 papers). Since most retractions were due to fake peer review and plagiarism, the peer review system appears to be a weak point of the submission/publication process; if improved, the number of retractions would likely drop because of increased editorial control.
, Pin-Yu Chen, Xue Lin, Bo Li
Published: 6 August 2021
Frontiers in Big Data, Volume 4;

Editorial on the Research Topic Safe and Trustworthy Machine Learning Machine learning (ML) provides incredible opportunities to answer some of the most important and difficult questions in a wide range of applications. However, ML systems often face a major challenge when applied in the real world: the conditions under which the system was deployed can differ from those under which it was developed. Recent examples have shown that ML methods are highly susceptible to minor changes in image orientation, minute amounts of adversarial corruptions, or bias in the data. Susceptibility of ML methods to test-time shift is a major hurdle in a universal acceptance of these solutions in several high-regret applications. To overcome this challenge, in this research topic “Safe and Trustworthy Machine Learning”, a wide range of solutions are contributed as potentially viable solutions to address trust, safety and security issues faced by ML methods. Song, et al., considered the problem of dataset shift detection for safety-critical graph applications. The authors proposed a practical two-sample test approach for shift detection in large-scale graph structured data. Anirudh, et al., considered the problem of post-hoc interpretability tasks, such as, prediction explanation, noisy label detection, adversarial example detection. The authors introduced MARGIN, a simple yet general approach, that exploits ideas rooted in graph signal analysis to determine the most influential nodes in a graph to solve the aforementioned tasks. Majumdar, et al., considered the problem of mitigation of bias arising due to unbalanced representation of sub-groups in the training data. The authors proposed a bias mitigation algorithm to generate Subgroup Invariant Perturbation (SIP) which when added the input dataset reduces the bias in model predictions. Huang, et al., showed that seq2seq models, successful in natural language correction, is also applicable in programming language correction. Their results show that seq2seq models can provide suggestions to potential errors and have a decent correct rate in code auto-correction task. Qayyum, et al., conducted a systematic evaluation of literature of cloud-hosted ML/DL models along both the important dimensions -- attacks and defenses -- related to their security. The authors identified the limitations and pitfalls of the analyzed papers and highlight open research issues that require further investigation. Berghoff, et al., presented a comprehensive list of threats and possible mitigations of IT security of connectionist artificial intelligence (AI) applications. AI-specific vulnerabilities such as adversarial attacks and poisoning attacks as well as their AI-specific root causes are discussed in detail. The article concluded that single protective measures are not sufficient but rather multiple measures on different levels must be combined to achieve a minimum level of IT security for AI applications. Kusters, et al., analyzed key challenges to interdisciplinary AI research, and deliver three broad conclusions: 1) future development of AI should not only impact other scientific domains but should also take inspiration and benefit from other fields of science, 2) AI research must be accompanied by decision explainability, dataset bias transparency as well as development of evaluation methodologies and creation of regulatory agencies to ensure responsibility, and 3) AI education should receive more attention, efforts and innovation from the educational and scientific communities. The papers included in this research topic “Safe and Trustworthy Machine Learning” discussed some promising solutions, highlighted open research issues, and offered visionary perspectives regarding trust, safety and security issues faced by machine learning. We hope that challenges and potential solutions presented here will help researchers better understand the current limitations of machine learning methods and motivate future work in the direction of developing trustworthy, safe, and robust machine learning methods, and their applications to high-regret application areas. All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication. Author P-YC was employed by the company IBM Research. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Keywords: robust machine learning, safe machine learning, trust, deep neural network, adversarial example defense Citation: Kailkhura B, Chen P-Y, Lin X and Li B (2021) Editorial: Safe and Trustworthy Machine Learning. Front. Big Data 4:731605. doi: 10.3389/fdata.2021.731605 Received: 27 June 2021; Accepted: 27 July 2021;Published: 06 August 2021. Edited and Reviewed by: Copyright © 2021 Kailkhura, Chen, Lin and Li. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Bhavya Kailkhura, [email protected]
, Adrienne Alayli, Franziska Krebs, Laura Lorenz, Arim Shukri, Anne-Madeleine Bau, Stephanie Stock
Published: 1 July 2021
by BMJ
Introduction Pregnancy is a vulnerable period that affects long-term health of pregnant women and their unborn infants. Health literacy plays a crucial role in promoting healthy behaviour and thereby maintaining good health. This study explores the role of health literacy in the GeMuKi (acronym for ‘Gemeinsam Gesund: Vorsorge plus für Mutter und Kind’—Strengthening health promotion: enhanced check-up visits for mother and child) Project. It will assess the ability of the GeMuKi lifestyle intervention to positively affect health literacy levels through active participation in preventive counselling. The study also explores associations between health literacy, health outcomes, health service use and effectiveness of the intervention. Methods and analysis The GeMuKi trial has a hybrid effectiveness–implementation design and is carried out in routine prenatal health service settings in Germany. Women (n=1860) are recruited by their gynaecologist during routine check-up visits before 12 weeks of gestation. Trained healthcare providers carry out counselling using motivational interviewing techniques to positively affect health literacy and lifestyle-related risk factors. Healthcare providers (gynaecologists and midwives) and women jointly agree on Specific, Measurable, Achievable Reasonable, Time-Bound goals. Women will be invited to fill in questionnaires at two time points (at recruitment and 37th−40th week of gestation) using an app. Health literacy is measured using the German version of the Health Literacy Survey-16 and the Brief Health Literacy Screener. Lifestyle is measured with questions on physical activity, nutrition, alcohol and drug use. Health outcomes of both mother and child, including gestational weight gain (GWG) will be documented at each routine visit. Health service use will be assessed using social health insurance claims data. Data analyses will be conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 26.0. These include descriptive statistics, tests and regression models. A mediation model will be conducted to answer the question whether health behaviour mediates the association between health literacy and GWG. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the University Hospital of Cologne Research Ethics Committee (ID: 18-163) and the State Chamber of Physicians in Baden-Wuerttemberg (ID: B-F-2018-100). Study results will be disseminated through (poster) presentations at conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals and press releases. Trail registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00013173). Registered pre-results, 3rd of January 2019,
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrition & Dietetics, Volume 78, pp 333-342;

Aim Dietitians must be statistically literate to effectively interpret the scientific literature underpinning the discipline. Despite this, no study has been conducted that objectively identifies common statistical methods and packages specific to current nutrition and dietetics literature. This study aimed to identify statistical methods and software frequently used in nutrition and dietetics research. Methods A text mining approach using the bag-of-words method was applied to a random sample of articles obtained from all journals in the ‘Nutrition and Dietetics’ subject category within the SCImago Journal and Country Rank portal and published in 2018. A list of 229 statistical terms and 19 statistical software packages was developed to define the search terms to be mined. Statistical information from the methods section of included articles was extracted into Microsoft Excel (2016) for data cleaning. Statistical analyses were conducted in R (Version 3.6.0) and Microsoft Excel (2016). Results Seven hundred and fifty-seven journal articles were included. Numerical descriptive statistics were the most common statistical method group, appearing in 83.2% of articles (n = 630). This was followed by specific hypothesis tests (68.8%, n = 521), general hypothesis concepts (58.4%, n = 442), regression (44.4%, n = 336), and ANOVA (30.8%, n = 233). IBM SPSS statistics was the most common statistical software package, reported in 41.7% of included articles. Conclusion These findings provide useful information for educators to evaluate current statistics curricula and develop short courses for continuing education. They may also act as a starting point for dietitians to educate themselves on typical statistical methods they may encounter.
, Geert E. Smid, Barbara Goodfellow, Rachel Wilson, Paul A. Boelen
Published: 10 June 2021
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12;

A Corrigendum on The UK National Homicide Therapeutic Service: A Retrospective Naturalistic Study Among 929 Bereaved Individuals by Soydas, S., Smid, G. E., Goodfellow, B., Wilson, R., and Boelen, P. A. (2020). Front. Psychiatry 11:878. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00878 1. In the original article “Djelantik AAAMJ, Smid GE, Kleber RJ, Boelen PA. Symptoms of prolonged grief, post-traumatic stress, and depression after loss in a Dutch community sample: a latent class analysis. Psychiatry Res. (2017) 247:276–281.” and “Lenferink LIM, van Denderen M, de Keijser J, Wessel I, Boelen PA. Prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress among relatives of missing persons and homicidally bereaved individuals: a comparative study. J Affect Disord. (2017) 209:1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.012” were not cited in the article. The citations have now been inserted in “Introduction,” “Paragraph 1” and should read: “In response to the death of a loved one, many people experience acute emotional distress and symptoms of mental health disorders, which generally decrease over time. However, for a significant minority, these symptoms may persist and develop into psychopathology, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) [e.g., (1, 2)].” 2. In the original article “IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp (2017).” was not cited in the article. The citation has now been inserted in “Method,” “Data analyses,” “Paragraph 1” and should read: “Descriptive analyses were performed and assumptions were checked using SPSS [version 25.0; (43)].” The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. 1. Djelantik AAAMJ, Smid GE, Kleber RJ, Boelen PA. Symptoms of prolonged grief, post-traumatic stress, and depression after loss in a Dutch community sample: a latent class analysis. Psychiatry Res. (2017) 247:276–81. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.11.023 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 2. Lenferink LIM, van Denderen M, de Keijser J, Wessel I, Boelen PA. Prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress among relatives of missing persons and homicidally bereaved individuals: a comparative study. J Affect Disord. (2017) 209:1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.012 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 43. IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp (2017). Keywords: homicide, bereavement, loss, grief, posttraumatic stress disorder, bereavement interventions, psychological interventions Citation: Soydas S, Smid GE, Goodfellow B, Wilson R and Boelen PA (2021) Corrigendum: The UK National Homicide Therapeutic Service: A Retrospective Naturalistic Study Among 929 Bereaved Individuals. Front. Psychiatry 12:668178. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.668178 Received: 15 February 2021; Accepted: 07 May 2021; Published: 10 June 2021. Edited and reviewed by: Andrea Fagiolini, University of Siena, Italy Copyright © 2021 Soydas, Smid, Goodfellow, Wilson and Boelen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Suzan Soydas, [email protected]
Fan Yang, Junjie Kou, Zizhao Liu, Wei Li,
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9;

A Corrigendum on MYC Enhances Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Supports Cell Proliferation Through SQLE by Yang, F., Kou, J., Liu, Z., Li, W., and Du, W. (2021). Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:655889. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.655889 In the original article, there was a mistake in Figure 1I and Figure 1J as published. The statistical significance was calculated between the siCtrl and siMYC+cho group. However, the correct comparison is between siMYC and siMYC+cho group. The corrected Figure 1I and Figure 1J appear below. Figure 1. In the original article, there was a mistake in Figure 3E and Figure 3F as published. The statistical significance was calculated between the siCtrl+pRK5-V and siMYC+pRK5-SQLE group. However, the correct comparison is between siMYC+ pRK5-V and siMYC+pRK5-SQLE group. The corrected Figure 3E and Figure 3F appear below. The authors apologize for these errors and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. Figure 3. Keywords: cholesterol synthesis, cell proliferation, cancer, SQLE, MYC Citation: Yang F, Kou J, Liu Z, Li W and Du W (2021) Corrigendum: MYC Enhances Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Supports Cell Proliferation Through SQLE. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:705769. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.705769 Received: 06 May 2021; Accepted: 12 May 2021; Published: 09 June 2021. Edited and reviewed by: Binghui Li, Capital Medical University, China Copyright © 2021 Yang, Kou, Liu, Li and Du. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Wenjing Du, [email protected]; [email protected] †These authors have contributed equally to this work
Gideon Iheme, Chinwe Uzokwe, Happiness Ezenwa, Chinaza Nwamadi, Elizabeth Okonkwo
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 875-875;

Objectives The study was designed to assess the application of WHO 2007 growth reference by local studies published from 2008 to 2020 in data generation of Nigerian adolescents’ anthropometric status. Methods Meta-analysis of literatures on anthropometric status of adolescents in Nigeria by articles published from 2009–2020 was conducted. A bibliographic survey was carried out in several databases –Google Scholar, PubMed and African Journal Online. Review of abstracts and full texts followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The methodology for anthropometric assessment of these eligible studies were compared to WHO 2007 growth reference. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 25. Results A total of 24 articles which captured 12,482 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. More than one fifth (20.8%) of the studies adopted the WHO 2007 growth references in their data generation. A weak positive correlation was observed between year of publication and application of WHO 2007 reference in data generation (r = .0.28; p = 0.04). Conclusions The low application of an age long guideline by local researchers is of concern. Hence, the need to ensure quick adoption of standard indicators/guidelines in local studies will not only promote the generation of pooled evidence to reveal cross-cutting gaps but also ensure that the public health situation is not under/over estimated. Funding Sources This research work received no funding.
Adele Pacquette, Eugene J. O'Sullivan, Mahadevaiyer Krishnan
ECS Meeting Abstracts, pp 934-934;

For technology nodes beyond 5 nm, copper metal may not be feasible as conductor material in Damascene interconnects.1 The bulk resistivity of copper increases exponentially and electromigration of copper is possible with the scaling down of the technology nodes. Metals such as inert platinum group metals have been proposed as alternative metal conductors for interconnects.2 Platinum group metals exhibit less electron scattering and lower electromigration in narrow line widths compared to copper; the electron scattering is proportional to the bulk resistivity. Thus, certain platinum group metals, e.g., ruthenium2, have been proposed as alternative conductors for interconnects.3 Ruthenium electrodeposition needs further development because of slow kinetics, resulting in poor control of morphology, and defects in the film due to hydrogen evolution at the high overpotential required to initiate ruthenium deposition.4 Another challenge is that ruthenium has multiple oxidation states, which may result in disproportionate reactions, and, thus, electrodeposition may not occur reproducibly.3This study investigates the electrodeposition of ruthenium from nitrosyl ruthenium complexes, and/or inorganic ruthenium compounds such as chlorides, sulfates or phosphates in acidic electrolytes. Figure 1 shows ruthenium electrodeposited on an ultrathin seed layer with high sheet resistance. Electrodeposition techniques such as chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry are compared for the initiation of ruthenium nuclei on such highly-resistive (up to 400 Ω/sq) seed layers. In this study, a multi-step electrodeposition process was developed for the nucleation, then growth of a uniform, void-free ruthenium film. A constant voltage was applied for a short time (few seconds) to initiate plating by providing the overpotential necessary to form ruthenium nuclei. Next, a low current density was applied to grow the film to the desired thickness (50 – 100 nm). This method allows for minimal hydrogen evolution and prevents void formation since the high potential is applied for a short time compared to other typical pulse plating methods. The multi-step method is reproducible and results in uniform plating on 200 mm wafer scale by utilizing plating tool shields that can control center and edge plating rates. This talk describes the effect of electrolyte bath composition and plating parameters on the morphology, adhesion and uniformity of the electrodeposited ruthenium.Figure 1: Electrodeposited ruthenium on Si substrate with ultrathin seed layer.1) Chen, Q.; Lin, X.; Valvede, C.; Paneccasio, V.; Hurtubise, R.; Ye, P.; Kudrak, E.; Abys, J., Electroless copper deposition on ruthenium for damascene interconnects. ECS Transactions. 2007, 6 (8), 179-184.2) Mainka, G.; Beitel G.; Schnabel R.F.; Saenger, A.; Dehm, C., Chemical mechanical polishing of iridium and iridium oxide for damascene process. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2001, 148, G552-G558.3) Bernasconi, R.; Magagnin, L., Review—Ruthenium as diffusion barrier layer in electronic interconnects: Current literature with a focus on electrochemical deposition methods. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2019, 166 (1), D3219-D3225.4) Oppedisano, D.K.; Jones, L.A.; Junk, T.; Bhargava, S.K., Ruthenium electrodeposition from aqueous solution at high cathodic overpotential. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2014, 161 (10), D489-D494.AcknowledgementThe authors acknowledge the researchers of the Microelectronics Research Laboratory (MRL) at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, for the fabrication work.Figure 1
Isabel Shamsudeen, Mehr Jain, Jeffrey Ding, Faisal Khosa
Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 5;

Background: Subscription-based (SB) is the traditional publication model for peer-reviewed research; however, open-access (OA) models have been rising in popularity in recent years. Journals may be owned by commercial, professional society, university or government publishers. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator is a measure of the scientific influence of scholarly journals. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the publication model, ownership and SJR indicator of the top Endocrinology journals. This will help inform researchers’ decisions when selecting a journal to submit their work to. Methods: The SCImagoJR website was used to obtain a database of active, peer-reviewed Endocrinology journals worldwide. Publishers were grouped by parent company and categorized as commercial, professional society, university or government. Journals were searched on the National Library of Medicine catalogue to determine whether they are indexed on MEDLINE. Data was analyzed using IBM Statistics version 25. Fischer’s exact test was performed to assess the distribution of publication model and indexing status. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to assess the distribution of SJR. Results: 207 Endocrinology journals were included; 134 SB (64.73%) and 73 OA (35.27%). 122 journals are indexed in MEDLINE. The top three publishers of Endocrinology journals are Elsevier, Springer Nature and Wiley, all of which are commercial entities. They collectively own 91/207 (43.96%) Endocrinology journals and 70/122 (57.38%) MEDLINE-indexed journals. The top three publishers own more SB than OA journals, though this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.080). There was no significant difference in the distribution of indexing status across the top three publishers (p = 0.250) and the four publisher types (p = 0.928). There were significantly more SB than OA journals indexed in MEDLINE (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the distribution of SJR indicator across the top three publishers (p = 0.283) and publisher types (p = 0.873) (see Table 1). SB journals had significantly higher SJR indicators compared to OA journals (all journals, p = 0.002; indexed journals only, p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Endocrinology journals are largely controlled by a few commercial entities and are primarily SB. Compared to OA, SB journals have significantly higher SJR indicators, meaning they are more influential. This is an important consideration for researchers when considering where to submit their work.
Hayden Robert Lewis
Published: 11 April 2021
This research analyzes coverage of major artificial intelligence events representing the thematic concept of "man versus machine." Rooted in grounded theory and rhetorical criticism, this research applies symbolic convergence theory and fantasy theme analysis to reporting from The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post immediately surrounding three cultural and scientific milestones in the development of artificial intelligence technology: IBM Deep Blue's 1997 defeat of chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov; IBM Watson's 2011 defeat of Jeopardy! champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter; and Google DeepMind AlphaGo's 2016 defeat of Lee Sedol. This research analyzes how symbolic realities are dramatized in the context of these events such that the competitions themselves represent ideological battles between humanism or technological superiority. This research also demonstrates subtle variations in how fantasy themes and rhetorical visions manifest in coverage from each outlet, amounting to what is effectively a competition for shared consciousness between these two competing ideological constructs.
, Jebli Nejib, Hamimed Rayene, Landoulsi Ahmed, Chatti Abdelwaheb
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 5, pp 001-006;

The outbreak of new coronavirus acute respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2) has been a major global challenge for the scientific community to save humanity. While, the unviability of the vaccine keeps most classes of society, especially African countries, suffer from the healthcare problem. Conventional medicine plants become the alternative method for the therapeutic because it contains valuable bioactive compounds. This brief review devoted the importance of medicinal plants such as Citrus, olive, garlic, ginger, green tea, woad, broad-leaf privet, Japanese torreya, and saffron crocus, by their antiviral effects (anti-SARS coronavirus, anti-HSV, and anti-HIV diseases) and their promising uses as probable boosters of the immune and anti-inflammatory response from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on scientific reports, bioactive compounds could inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease and human protein ACE2, where these facts can be attractive to develop effective drugs.
International Journal of Surgery: Protocols, Volume 25, pp 123-128;

Barriers to care cause delays in seeking, reaching, and getting care. These delays affect low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 9 out of 10 LMIC inhabitants have no access to basic surgical care. Knowledge of healthcare utilization behavior within underserved communities is useful when developing and implementing health policies. Little is known about the neurosurgical health-seeking behavior of African adults. This study evaluates public awareness, knowledge of availability, and readiness for neurosurgical care services amongst African adults. The cross-sectional study will be run using a self-administered e-survey hosted on Google Forms (Google, CA, USA) disseminated from 10th May 2021 to 10th June 2021. The Questionnaire would be in two languages, English and French. The survey will contain closed-ended, open-ended, and Likert Scale questions. The structured questionnaire will have four sections with 42 questions; Sociodemographic characteristics, Definition of neurosurgery care, Knowledge of neurosurgical diseases, practice and availability, and Common beliefs about neurosurgical care. All consenting adult Africans will be eligible. A minimum sample size of 424 will be used. Data will be analyzed using SPSS version 26 (IBM, WA, USA). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, Chi-Square test, and ANOVA will be used to test for associations between independent and dependent variables. A P-value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Also, a multinomial regression model will be used. The study findings will be published in an academic peer-reviewed journal, and the abstract will be presented at an international conference. The burden of neurosurgical diseases is enormous in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa.Unfortunately, most neurosurgical needs in Africa are unmet because of delays in seeking, reaching, and getting care.Most efforts aimed at reducing barriers to care have focused on improving the neurosurgical workforce density and infrastructure. Little or no efforts have been directed towards understanding or reducing the barriers to seeking care.We aimed to understand public awareness, willingness to use, and knowledge of the availability of neurosurgical care in Africa.The study findings can inform effective strategies that promote the utilization of neurosurgical services and patient education in Africa.
Arnab Ghosh
Published: 8 March 2021
SAE Technical Paper Series;

Andrew Grove (founder CEO Intel) defines strategic inflection points as what happens to a business when a major event alters its fundamentals. The Covid-19 pandemic is one such historic event that is changing fundamental business assumptions in the Oil industry. Companies with a hunter-gatherer mindset will ride this wave with the help of technologies that make their operations lean and efficient. Current developments in AI, specifically around Cognitive Sciences is one such area that will empower the early adopters to a many-fold improvement in engineering and research productivity. This paper explores 'how to augment the human intelligence with insights from engineering literature, leveraging Cognitive AI techniques?'. The key challenge of acquiring knowledge from engineering literature (patents, books, journals, articles, papers etc.) is the sheer volume at which it grows annually (100s of millions existing and new papers growing at 40% year-on-year as per IDC). 6 million+ patents are filed every year, of which a mere 20-40% are relevant to any technology domain. It is humanely impossible to scour, review and take the right decisions by reading them all. This paper describes key cognitive techniques like concept extraction, cause-effect formulation, sentiment analysis, document summarization, topic modeling, automatic metadata extraction etc., that conforms to the analytical methodology used by E&P researchers worldwide. Such techniques can also be applied to legacy internal data of energy companies, empowering digitalization and knowledge management initiatives. Cognitive techniques have been around for a while now (first generic patents from IBM in early 1990s) but have never been applied to the engineering world, until the 2010s when IHS Markit (under entity Invention Machine Corp.) patented and productized this as an engineering research, problem solving and innovation platform. This paper also explores the efficiency gains and values accrued by the researcher community, while using IHS Markit's Cognitive AI platform.
Yi-Zu Wang, Cheng-Cheng Wu,
Published: 19 February 2021
Neural Plasticity, Volume 2021, pp 1-15;

Background. The prevalence of comorbid pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is relatively high in clinical observations and has continued to increase over time. Neuropathic pain (70.14%) is the most popular subject in academic journals after SCI. However, studies that used the bibliometric method to analyze comorbid pain after SCI are still lacking. This study is aimed at combining and integrating acquired information to analyze the global trends of research on the comorbidity of pain after SCI in the last three decades (1990–2019). Methods. Systematic works of literature published from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection. CiteSpace software was used to analyze the relationship of publication year with the country, institution, journals, authors, references, and keywords. The regression analysis is used to evaluate the percentage of the category increase or decrease over time significantly. IBM SPSS Statistics was used in the statistical analysis. Results. A total of 730 publications were included in the analysis. A remarkable increase in the number of publications was observed in the study period ( P < 0.05 ). A total of 202 academic journals focused on the categories of clinical neurology, neurosciences, and rehabilitation, and the annual growth rate of articles in these three categories was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The USA (356, 48.77%) and the University of Miami (64, 8.77%) were the country and institution with the highest number of publications, respectively. Spinal Cord, which was the main journal for research on pain after SCI, had the most publications (88, 12.05%). Burst keywords showed that the individual, inflammation, and central sensitization with pain after SCI are the research development trends and focus in this research field. Conclusions. Overall, this study provides the latest research direction for pain after SCI. This historical overview of research into pain after SCI will be a useful basis for further research into development trends, focus issues, cooperators, and cooperative institutions.
Mushtaq Ahmad, Farial Naima Rahman, Zubaidur Rahman, Zulfikar Ali, Mohammad Ali
Published: 11 February 2021
KYAMC Journal, Volume 11, pp 166-170;

Background: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease which has created a global health emergency status. It is now super spreading in the community of Bangladeshi population causing morbidity and mortality amongst masses. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and practices of medical college students and their family members towards the Covid-19. Materials & Methods: This online cross sectional study was conducted from the 15 April to 30 April 2020 during the lockdown period in Bangladesh. Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS IBM version 22.0. Results: A total of 517 responses were obtained. The majority of the population 326 (63.06%) were female and 352 (68.09%) belonged to an age group of 21-30 years. This study has revealed that 412(79.69%) believe COVID-19 affect all age group, 311(60.15%) thinks that it affect the elder people seriously, 215(41.59%) thinks specific treatment is not available for COBID-19, Greater part of respondents 256(49.52%) says COVID-19 infection is preventable, 452(87.43%) gives positive opinion about government lockdown to avoid further spread of infection and 402(77.76%) believes physical distancing is helpful to prevent spread of this disease. Regarding 14 days quarantine period 375(72.53%) give positive answer, 425(82.20%) says COVID-19 affects world economy badly, 298(57.64%) thinks the situation may be controlled soon. Conclusion: Since prevention is better that cure, hence an increasing need of awareness amongst the local population regarding COVID-19 is required. Further extensive survey studies are required in future that can provide supportive data in developing and implementing public health policies regarding COVID-19 pandemic in our country. KYAMC Journal Vol. 11, No.-4, January 2021, Page 166-170
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1083;

All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The International Scientific Conference “Construction and Architecture: Theory and Practice for the innovation Development” (CATPID-2020 Part II)• Type of peer review: Single-anonymous • Describe criteria used by Reviewers when accepting/declining papers. Was there the opportunity to resubmit articles after revisions? The main criterion used by reviewers is the scientific significance of the submitted materials. The authors had the opportunity to correct the article according to the comments of the reviewers. • Conference submission management system: used own systems • Number of submissions received: 158 submissions were received • Number of submissions sent for review: 146 submissions were sent for review • Number of submissions accepted: 114 submissions were accepted • Acceptance Rate (Number of Submissions Accepted/Number of Submissions Received X 100): 72.2 • Average number of reviews per paper: 2 reviews per paper • Total number of reviewers involved: 18 reviewers were involved • Any additional info on review process (ie plagiarism check system):• Contact person for queries: Professor Batyr Yazyev Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia [email protected]
Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), Volume 6, pp 199-221;

Background and Purpose: Recent technological advancements and Covid-19 pandemic have prompted more opportunities for online learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research that is focused on high school students. Therefore, this study aims to obtain a more comprehensive view of ESL learners’ involvement or word contributions in a ‘normal’ face-to-face situation and in a synchronous online text-based environment by relating it to their personality and language proficiency. Methodology: In this study, a quasi-experiment was carried out over four weeks. It involved eight sessions of face-to-face and online discussions with 48 Malaysian high school students who were divided into two matched-sample groups. The participants' feedback was used to support and provide insights on the findings. The quantitative data were analysed using using IBM SPSS statistics 26 software while the participants’ responses to the online feedback session were analysed using open coding and axial coding strategies. Findings: Statistically significant difference was found in learners’ word contributions during face-to-face and online discussions. Apart from the extroverts with high-intermediate language proficiency, the other groups of learners who are either introverts or having lower level language proficiency were found to produce significantly more words in synchronous online text-based discussions. The non-face-to-face context of online forums might have lowered the learners’ level of anxiety and increased their confidence to interact with their peers. Contributions: Learners’ personalities and language proficiency levels should be considered when choosing a discussion setting and when facilitating discussion activities. More support should be provided for the less proficient or introverted learners to express themselves in a face-to-face discussion. Keywords: Personality, Language proficiency, Computer-mediated communication, Synchronous text-based online discussions, Word contributions Cite as: Chew, S. Y., & Ng, L. L. (2021). The influence of personality and language proficiency on ESL learners' word contributions in face-to-face and synchronous online forums. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 6(1), 199-221.
Z Qamar, O Y Alturki, A F Aljarallah, T Zeeshan
Published: 1 January 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Тетяна Гура, Олександр Гура
Науковий часопис НПУ імені М. П. Драгоманова. Серія 12. Психологічні науки pp 16-25;

Статтю присвячено дослідженню здатності до схематизації здобувачів ступеня доктора філософії (Ph.D.) як механізму їх професійного мислення і мислекомунікації. Проаналізовано основні положення сучасної психологічної науки щодо розуміння сутності схематизації, як інструменту мислення і комунікації, засобу спільного проєктування і розвитку миследіяльності, а здатності до схематизації – як провідної професійної якості науковця, що має формуватися на етапі його професійної підготовки. Методи дослідження: теоретичні (аналіз: теоретичний, термінологічний; узагальнення, систематизація, класифікація); емпіричні (методи діагностики, адаптовані до завдань дослідження – самооцінювання, опитування, тестування); математичної статистики (метод середніх величин, кореляційного аналізу за допомогою IBM SPSS Statistics v.23). За результатами проведеного емпіричного дослідження визначено, що більшість здобувачів ступеня доктора філософії, які взяли участь у діагностиці, мають недостатній рівень знань (на рівні інтуїтивного знання) щодо сутності схем, усвідомлення їх місця серед інших методів візуалізації інформації, а також типів та принципів побудови, що унеможливлює актуалізацію їх здатності до схематизації як усвідомленої, відрефлексованої. Крім того, більшість здобувачів ступеня доктора філософії мають недостатній рівень розвитку уміння схематизації як об’єктів, так і процесів, порушують їх родо-видову організацію, існуючі правила символічної, графічної презентації. Попри це, оцінюють рівень розвитку власних умінь переважно на середньому та високому рівнях і кожен третій з них має низький рівень індивідуальної актуалізованості парціальної рефлексії діяльності, що забезпечує осмислення, оцінку їх миследіяльності й мислекомунікації. Встановлено, що актуальним завданням вітчизняної вищої освіти є цілеспрямований розвиток здатності до схематизації здобувачів ступеня доктора філософії, що забезпечується реалізацією у змісті освітньо-наукових програм таких принципів, як: забезпечення усвідомленості сутності схематизації, вбудованості в існуючий досвід, вербалізації, колективної миследіяльності, актуалізації різнорівневої рефлексії та мисленнєвої діяльності, поступового ускладнення побудованих схем, єдності конструктів, згорнутості інформації, етапності схематизаційного руху. Література Акопова, Э.С., Глазунова, О.И., & Громыко, Ю.В. (2020). Диагностическая методика оценки способностей к проектированию деятельности в групповой работе «Периметр». Психологическая наука и образование, 25(2), 5– doi: 10.17759/pse.2020250201 Бохан, Т.Г., Алексеева, Л.Ф., Шаболовская, М.В., Морева, С.А., & Кузнецова, Т.М. (2014). Ресурсы и дефициты психологической готовности к научно-исследовательской деятельности. Психологическая наука и образование, 6(2), 198–208. Режим доступа: Громыко, Ю.В. (2018). К проблеме создания общенародной школы будущего: синтез предметного и проектного образования. Психологическая наука и образование, 23(1), 93– Гура, Т.Є. (2015). Схематизація: ресурси для розвитку професійного мислення фахівців у системі вищої та післядипломної освіти. Технології розвитку інтелекту, 1(9). Режим доступу: Дубровский, В.Я. (2011). Очерки по общей теории деятельности. Москва : ННФ «Институт развития им. Г.П. Щедровицкого». Тюков, А.А....
Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav, Dogan Gursoy, Monika Prakash
An SPSS Guide for Tourism, Hospitality and Events Researchers pp 20-34;

Since the authors started working on this book, the editors were asked the question – Why do you need Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)? Editors frequently thought that IBM SPSS is a very intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and surveyed their email inbox from 2014 to 2019. Many of the workshops, faculty development programs (FDPs), orientation r refresher programs, summer or winter schools have an increasing trend toward SPSS. The next stage of the survey was looking at the papers, published in tourism, hospitality, and events related journals, over 10 years. Here again, it was observed that the trend of using SPSS for analysis is continuously increasing. Finally, the editors came to the decision that their next product will satisfy the needs of upcoming and young researchers – SPSS is the trend. Therefore, the editors thought to compile all the necessary information that a researcher needs to understand before starting her journey to the world of statistics world and SPSS.
Natalie Victoria Wilmot, Susanne Tietze
critical perspectives on international business;

Purpose This study aims to investigate the treatment of translation within the international business and management (IBM) literature to highlight colonialist assumptions inscribed in this treatment as a result of the hegemonic status of English. Design/methodology/approach This investigation takes the form of a systemic literature review to examine the treatment of translation in the IBM literature through a postcolonial lens. Findings The findings demonstrate that despite growing interest in language in international business, matters of translation have received comparatively little attention. However, those articles that do address translation matters tend to do so in five key ways, including epistemological/methodological considerations, exploring translator agency, the investigations of the discursive void/conceptual fuzziness between languages, and approaches that discuss translation as social practice. Research limitations/implications Despite the authors’ critique of English-language hegemony, this literature review is restricted to English-language journals, which the authors acknowledge as problematic and discuss within the article. Practical implications In exposing the limited treatment of translation within the literature, the authors provide a call to action for IBM scholars to be more explicit in their treatment of translation to ensure representation of cultural and linguistic Others, rather than providing domesticated accounts of multilingual research. Originality/value Although there have been other articles that have examined translation in the past, this paper is the first to do so through a postcolonial lens, demonstrating from a linguistic perspective the colonialist assumptions that are still prevalent in IBM knowledge production, as evidenced by the treatment of translation in the field.
Anath N V Steffens, David W G Langerhuizen, Job N Doornberg, David Ring, Stein J Janssen
Published: 2 December 2020
Acta Orthopaedica, Volume 92, pp 240-243;

Background and purpose — There is ongoing debate as to whether commercial funding influences reporting of medical studies. We asked: Is there a difference in reported tones between abstracts, introductions, and discussions of orthopedic journal studies that were commercially funded and those that were not commercially funded? Methods — We conducted a systematic PubMed search to identify commercially funded studies published in 20 orthopedic journals between January 1, 2000 and December 1, 2019. We identified commercial funding of studies by including in our search the names of 10 medical device companies with the largest revenue in 2019. Commercial funding was designated when either the study or 1 or more of the authors received funding from a medical device company directly related to the content of the study. We matched 138 commercially funded articles 1 to 1 with 138 non-commercially funded articles with the same study design, published in the same journal, within a time range of 5 years. The IBM Watson Tone Analyzer was used to determine emotional tones (anger, fear, joy, and sadness) and language style (analytical, confident, and tentative). Results — For abstract and introduction sections, we found no differences in reported tones between commercially funded and non-commercially funded studies. Fear tones (non-commercially funded studies 5.1%, commercially funded studies 0.7%, p = 0.04), and analytical tones (non-commercially funded studies 95%, commercially funded studies 88%, p = 0.03) were more common in discussions of studies that were not commercially funded. Interpretation — Commercially funded studies have comparable tones to non-commercially funded studies in the abstract and introduction. In contrast, the discussion of non-commercially funded studies demonstrated more fear and analytical tones, suggesting them to be more tentative, accepting of uncertainty, and dispassionate. As text analysis tools become more sophisticated and mainstream, it might help to discern commercial bias in scientific reports.
Kristina Kaljo, Robert Treat, Janet S. Rader
Poster Presentations - Proffered Abstracts, Volume 29;

Amidst the COVID-19 global health pandemic and safer-at-home orders, Student- centered Pipeline to Advance Cancer Careers (SPARCC) was redesigned to immerse undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students in an intensive 8-week virtual summer program to address cancer-specific disparities and advance clinical research careers. Medical mistrust affects cancer screening frequency, adherence to treatments, and ultimately, rates of cancer mortality. Racial and ethnic concordance or a shared identity between patient and healthcare professionals positively impacts patient outcomes. Recruitment and retention of URM researchers and physicians has posed challenging due to the ‘leaky pipeline’ at the undergraduate level. More than a third of Black and Latinx students change away from STEM majors or drop out of college all together. The lack of URM representation in healthcare has significant implications on research, clinical trials recruitment and ultimately, the wellness of diverse patients. By sealing the ‘leaks’, SPARCC addresses cancer-related health disparities and equips URM students to enter the field of clinical cancer research. Due to the COVID-19 global pandemic, face-to-face learning opportunities were restricted and SPARCC was redesigned utilizing Microsoft Teams, a video conferencing/learning platform. Maintaining authenticity of the original SPARCC curriculum, workshops and clinical practicums synchronously engaged Scholars in content framed by the Joint Task Force for Clinical Trial Competency with emphasis on cancer-related health disparities. A holistic evaluation of SPARCC includes pre- post- and retention assessments of knowledge, attitudes, satisfaction and practice. Data from the first and second cohort will be analyzed with stepwise multivariate regression analysis, Spearman rho correlations and inter-item reliability via Cronbach alpha using IBM® SPSS® 24.0. Consensual qualitative research methods identified themes distilled from the Scholar’s experiences. From fall 2019 to winter 2020, 41 undergraduate URM students submitted a complete application. A structured rubric was used to evaluate and rank applicants. Eight Scholars were accepted and participated from June to August 2020. Daily virtual workshops were facilitated by 100 faculty from 32 departments and institutional affiliations. Six clinical practicum rotations provided a virtual shadowing experience of various specialties. Scholars led weekly journal clubs, participated in institutional tumor boards and formally presented a culminating cancer-focused research project. Upon the conclusion of SPARCC 2020, data will be compared from the 2020 virtual experience and the 2019 in-person program. SPARCC builds and sustains a diverse and inclusive network of professionals who engage burgeoning leaders in clinical cancer careers. Regardless of physical location, Scholars acquire knowledge, skills, and mentors for immediate employment and advanced degrees in clinical research. Citation Format: Kristina Kaljo, Robert Treat, Janet S. Rader. Virtually SPARCC-ing clinical cancer careers among URM students during a global pandemic [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Virtual Conference: Thirteenth AACR Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved; 2020 Oct 2-4. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020;29(12 Suppl):Abstract nr PO-032.
Rizki Indrawan
The International Journal of Business & Management, Volume 8;

Import tax is one of the state revenues under the responsibility of DJBC, which significantly contributes to total revenue in terms of customs and excise sector, standing at approximately 50.51%. In the previous 3-year of period from 2016 to 2018, this always rose; however, in 2019, there was a drop by 6.42% compared to 2018, which resulted in the optimization of import tax revenue unmerged with its target. This research aims to examine and analyse the effect of import tax revenue optimization on both COVID-19 and Dwelling Time as independent variables. This research was conducted by quantitative approach whereas primary data were collected by distributing a questionnaire using Google Form to 150 respondents consisted of importers and customs consultants. On the other hand, a literature review method through secondary information such as various books, journals and websites was also conducted. Furthermore, IBM SPSS 23.0 was used regarding statistic test to acquire validity, reliability, classical assumption test, T-test and R2value. The research result stated that partially, both COVID-19 and Dwelling Time had a significant negative effect on the optimization of import tax revenue. As COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire economic activities worldwide, the growth of economic becomes negative. The government, on one hand, puts effort to curb the proliferation of COVID-19 and it is expected that vaccines will be distributed to society by the beginning of 2021. Another implication is the government’s attempt involves all stakeholders to synergize in order to decrease Dwelling Time, which finally results in the effort to optimize import tax revenue.
Yang Hu, Qiang Huang
Published: 23 November 2020
ECS Meeting Abstracts, pp 1456-1456;

As the copper interconnects used in integrated circuits1 are facing a physical limitation of resistivity increase in dimensions below the electron mean free path of Cu, alternative metals with a shorter electron mean free path such as cobalt (Co) are being explored as alternative conductors2. The damascene fabrication of Cu interconnects relies on the synergistic interactions between organic additives3. Such interactions result in bi- or even multi- steady states of deposition, which not only enables defect-free filling of Cu into small trenches but also often results in oscillatory behavior between these steady states during thin film deposition4. For example, the rapid self-breakdown of a suppressor-accelerator complex molecule mediated by a cuprous ion, together with the slow formation and accumulation of such a complex on the electrode surface, results in potential oscillations during galvanostatic deposition of Cu using 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPS) as accelerator and a copolymer of imidazole and epichlorohydrin (Imep) as leveler4. While similar oscillations have also been reported with other commercial Cu chemistries, MPS or its dimer remains as the key component of the chemistry, the accelerator. Here, we are reporting a study of Co deposition with MPS as a single-component additive, where potential oscillations are also observed. A systematic study on the effects of several influencing factors (e.g. pH, Co2+/ MPS concentrations, current density and agitation) are thoroughly investigated and will be presented. A competitive adsorption mechanism is proposed to explain these observations. In addition, the effect of potential oscillation on the morphology of electrodeposited Co films will also be discussed.Figure 1 (a) shows the cyclic voltammograms of Co deposition on platinum rotating disk electrode with the absence and presence of 300 ppm MPS at pH = 4. The suppression effect of MPS on Co deposition is observed regardless of agitation. Figure 1 (b) shows the potential oscillation at different current densities with 300 ppm MPS at pH = 4 with the magnified oscillation curves included as insets. Stable oscillations are observed when the current is increased to -6.12 mA/cm2, which indicates that a threshold current or potential must be reached to enable such oscillation phenomenon.References Andricacos, P. C.; Uzoh, C.; Dukovic, J. O.; Horkans, J.; Deligianni, H., Damascene copper electroplating for chip interconnections. IBM Journal of Research and Development 1998, 42 (5), 567-574. Gall, D., Electron mean free path in elemental metals. Journal of Applied Physics 2016, 119 (8), 085101. Moffat, T.; Wheeler, D.; Huber, W.; Josell, D., Superconformal electrodeposition of copper. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 2001, 4 (4), C26-C29. Hai, N. T.; Odermatt, J.; Grimaudo, V.; Krämer, K. W.; Fluegel, A.; Arnold, M.; Mayer, D.; Broekmann, P., Potential oscillations in galvanostatic Cu electrodeposition: antagonistic and synergistic effects among SPS, chloride, and suppressor additives. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2012, 116 (12), 6913-6924. Figure 1
Runyu Ye, Rufeng Shi, Kai Liu, Xin Zhang, Si Wang, Hang Liao, Xinran Li, Qiling Gou, Xi Rong, Zhipeng Zhang, et al.
Published: 16 October 2020
by BMJ
IntroductionThe control rate of hypertension is low in China, especially in rural, western and minority areas. This is related to poor medical skills among physicians in primary care institutions and low levels of trust among patients. However, primary healthcare institutions are the main battleground for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. It is worth exploring how to most effectively integrate patients, primary care physicians and cardiologists in tertiary hospitals, to build a long-term mechanism for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and conduct a health economic evaluation of an internet-based patient–primary care physician–cardiologist integrated management model of hypertension in areas of China with different socioeconomic levels.Methods and analysisThis is a 12-month, multicentre, randomised controlled trial involving patients with hypertension in urban communities and rural areas of Sichuan Province, China. Each primary healthcare institution will cooperate with their tertiary hospital through the Red Shine Chronic Disease Management System (RSCDMS). Patients will be randomly assigned 1:1 to two groups: (1) a traditional care group; (2) an intervention group in which primary care physicians and cardiologists can share patient data and manage patients together through the RSCDMS. Patients can upload their blood pressure (BP) values and communicate with physicians using the system. The primary outcome is the change in systolic BP over a 12-month period. Secondary outcomes are changes in diastolic BP, BP control rate, values of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, difference in cost-effectiveness between the groups, patient satisfaction, medication adherence and home BP monitoring compliance. All data will be recorded and stored in the RSCDMS and analysed using IBM SPSS V.26.0.Ethics and disseminationThis study has been approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Sichuan, China (No. 2020-148). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration numberChiCTR2000030677.
Hadry Harahap, Dewi Andriani, Harris Oemar
International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, Volume 8, pp 1964-1982;

Lecturers play an important role in carrying out tasks that are neatly packaged in the Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi which consists of conducting research, writing, and publishing the results of their research in reputable journals and providing service to the surrounding community according to the subject specialization of individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine. Structural Equation Model to Measure the Leveraging Factors of Research Productivity in Private Universities: Lecturers' Perceptions This study was conducted to test the proposed hypothesis using quantitative research methods and was designed according to the variables to be studied. as well as data analysis techniques using SEM with IBM AMOS 2 software. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that a new model was found on the positive direct effect of the reward system, transformational leadership style, communication, and motivation on productivity.
Mohammed Zaid Jaffar H. Desai, Atiqur Rahman Khan, Rutuja Kulkarni, Bhoomika Hegde
Journal of Ideas in Health, Volume 3, pp 190-195;

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has various unfavorable effects on individuals and the community. This study aims to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent social isolation on the general population of Karnataka, India. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karnataka from 8 to 14 April 2020 using the snowball technique. The psychological impact was assessed with the help of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and seven-item General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaires. IBM SPSS Statistics Subscription version 16.0 was recruited to analyze the data. Descriptive (Mean + Standard Deviation) and bivariate (Pearson chi-square and ANOVA tests) analysis used to present data with the significance level set at less than 0.05. Results: This study included 1537 participants from 26 cities in Karnataka. About two-thirds of the respondents were undergraduate students (951, 61.9%), females (768, 50.0%), and 40.1% stayed about 15-20 days in social isolation. The prevalence of depression was 47.0%, and anxiety was 41.5%, respectively, among the surveyed sample. After the analysis, the age group 21-30 year old (P < 0.001), females P < 0.001), urban residents (P = 0.021), and the students (P p < 0.001) were significant for depression. However, only the age group 31-40 years was found to be more susceptible to anxiety. Conclusion: As important as addressing the psychological effects, knowing people at risk of developing mental illnesses will contribute effectively to providing appropriate psychological rehabilitation programs at the right time. References World Health Organization, Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report –1, 21 January 2020. Available from:, [Accessed on 30 August 2020]. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, Ho RC. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 6;17(5):1729. World Health Organization, WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Available from: [Accessed on 13 April 2020] Coronavirus in India: Latest Map and Case Count. Available from: [Accessed 13 April 2020]. Arakal RA. First COVID-19 case in Karnataka: Techie who returned to Bengaluru from US tests positive, (9 March2020). Available from: [Accessed on 13 April 2020] India Today on 24 March 2020. Modi announces lockdown Updates: No panic buying please. Stay indoors, tweets PM. Available from: [Accessed on 13 April 2020] Ali Jadoo SA. Was the world ready to face a crisis like COVID-19? Journal of Ideas in Health2020;3(1):123-4. Steptoe A, Shankar A, Demakakos P, Wardle J. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(15):5797-5801. Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, et al. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res. 2020; 287:112934. Taylor HO, Taylor RJ, Nguyen AW, Chatters L. Social Isolation, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Health2018; 30(2): 229–246. Sim K, Huak Chan Y, Chong PN, Chua HC, Wen Soon S. Psychosocial and coping responses within the community health care setting towards a national outbreak of an infectious disease. J Psychosom Res. 2010;68(2):195-202. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020; 51:102083. Karnataka Population. Available from: [Accessed on 8 April 2020] Sample Size Calculator: Understanding Sample Sizes. Available from: [Accessed on 5 March 2020] Toussaint A, Hüsing P, Gumz A, Wingenfeld K, Härter M, Schramm E, Löwe B. Sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the 7-item generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). J Affect Disord. 2020; 265:395–401. Williams N. The GAD-7 Questionnaire [Review of the test Generalized anxiety disorder (gad-7) Questionnaire, by R. L. Spitzer]. Occupational Medicine2014; 64(3): 224. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–613. Albert PR. Why is depression more prevalent in women? J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015;40(4):219-221. Patten SB, Wang JL, Williams JV, Wang JL, McDonald K, Bulloch ACM. Descriptive epidemiology of major depression in Canada. Can J Psychiatry. 2006; 51:84–90. Jones C. Student anxiety, depression increasing during school closures, survey finds. EdSorce, 13 May 2020. Available from:...
Keith W Buffinton, Xiannong Meng, Margot A Vigeant
2013 ASEE International Forum Proceedings pp 21.25.1-21.25.9;

Exploring Engineering in China in a Global and Societal Context AbstractWe discuss in this paper our experiences and assess the outcomes of a three-week long course insummer 2012 in which we took a group of 22 engineering students of various majors to China.We share our experiences and thoughts in working through the logistics and academics whenpreparing such a course, in conducting the course activities in China, and in assessing theoutcomes of the course.It is becoming increasingly critical for American engineering students to have experiences or anawareness of many of the global and societal issues related to engineering. The College ofEngineering of Bucknell University established a course called “ENGR 290: Engineering in aGlobal and Societal Context” in 2004 to address this aspect of the curriculum. The format of thecourse is based on three weeks of travel in a foreign country, typically at the beginning of thesummer (mid-May through early June), so students can continue other scheduled summeractivities after the course. Faculty members in groups of two or three take 20 to 30 engineeringstudents to different countries to examine various aspects of engineering and to experience theculture and life in that country. In past years, ENGR 290 has taken students to Switzerland,England, Scandinavia, Argentina, and Brazil.In summer of 2012, three faculty members took a group of 22 engineering students to China for asession of ENGR 290. During the course we visited a number of international companiesincluding DuPont, Air Products, IBM, Lenovo, HP, AECOM, and GE, some local Chinese-owned companies, well-known Chinese engineering sites such as the Three Gorges Dam, andcultural attractions with significant engineering elements such as the Great Wall, Forbidden City,Beijing National Aquatics Center (Water Cube), Beijing National Stadium (Bird’s Nest),National Center for the Performing Arts (China), and the Terracotta Warriors. We also visitedtwo Chinese universities, Southeast University in Nanjing and the University of ElectronicScience and Technology in China in Chengdu. Before each of these visits, a student team studiedthe cultural, engineering, and other important aspects of the site or company and reported to theentire group to give an overview of what is to be visited. During the visit, students attendedpresentations made by the company or the university, many of which included a question-and-answer session, or listened to stories about a cultural attraction by a tour guide. After the visit,students debriefed the visit in a group meeting and each wrote thoughts and reflections in theircourse journals. At the end of the course, each student was required to write a summary paper todiscuss what they learned and to reflect on what they experienced during the course. In additionto the benefit of experiencing engineering in a different culture, students were also able to makeconnections with Bucknell alumni who currently work in various parts of China. The courseassessment is based on student’s participation, the daily journals, the team presentations, and theindividual final reflection paper.Students, as well as the faculty members, gained a deeper understanding of engineering in adifferent culture. We gained an appreciation for more diverse ways of thinking and conductingengineering. We are better prepared to work with engineers in other countries and to engage inengineering projects that may involve different cultural backgrounds.
Peter J. Knoke
2014 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings pp 24.1191.1-24.1191.7;

THE COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPLIANCE PROBLEM: IMPORTANCE AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONSABSTRACT1) IMPORTANCEThe computer software compliance problem is discussed in the context of the standard softwareengineering model, which addresses components of requirements, design, construction, test, andmaintenance. It is especially relevant to the requirements and design phases. It is important becausemishandling the problem can lead to lengthy development times, large development costs, andserious quality and liability risks for the software developer.2) COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPLIANCE PROBLEMThe problem may become more difficult to solve because of the current trend toward cloudcomputing. This is because legal liabilities of the developed software can be different if it isconsidered to be “software as a service” instead of “software as a product”. Problems are bestaddressed in the requirements and design development phases, because solutions in laterdevelopment phases are much more expensive to apply. However non-compliance is often detectedin later phases because software-related legal requirements tend to be complex, ambiguous, andsubject to changes due to legal changes. Also software developers and software engineers can beunaware of or baffled by legal requirements.3) SOLUTION APPROACHESSolutions are most cost-effective if applied at the requirements or design levels. Lawyers tend to bequite familiar with laws that are complex, ambiguous and changeable, and so their presence could bemost effective at the requirements level. Problem solutions at a requirements level can be addressedby tools and processes, whether the problem solver is a lawyer or a software engineer. Sometimeslawyers and software engineers have something to offer each other in the solution of the computersoftware compliance problem. At the software design and software architecture levels softwareengineers are likely to be most helpful. Some modularity and object definition ideas of Parnas andothers are promising at this level. At the test level both lawyers’ and software engineers’ ideas couldbe helpful. The meaning of some laws is often clarified by the application of standard legal tests.4) MINING LEGAL CASE STUDIES FOR SOLUTION IDEAS Software law litigation documents can be good sources of lessons learned. The documents could helpsoftware developers avoid liability problems. The ongoing Apple v. Samsung case is provided as anexample to illustrate this point. In this lawsuit wherein Apple charges Samsung of copying Apple iPadand iPhone products in violation of Apple “look and feel” design patents, and reportedly seeks tocollect $25 billion from Samsung for this infringement. The broad legal concept of “ IntellectualProperty” applies in this case. The concept is quite old but in recent years it has been specialized todeal with software property rights. The trial case has a judge and a jury, and is now being held inCalifornia. It is reported by many sources on a daily basis. However, the lessons learned are not yetknown because at this writing the trial is still incomplete. It is also not clear how long it will be beforethe trail is completed.5) REASONS FOR HOPEThere are some reasons for hope that progress will continue toward solutions for the computersoftware compliance problem. They include the increasing numbers of well-documented and relevantlegal case studies, an increasing number of law schools with programs addressing technology law, anincreasing number of lawyers and judges with significant technical understanding and expertise, andan increasing number of software engineers with awareness of software-related legal issues.6) REFERENCESSome key references for ideas in the paper are provided below as a draft list 1) IMPORTANCE references (many recent trials with high publicity US FTC v. many large US software and computer companies EU v. Microsoft, Google, Facebook Oracle v. Google (IP, Java language) Apple v. Samsung (“look and feel”, IP) Westlaw Journal Software Law 2) COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPLIANCE PROBLEM references (many results from Google Bing, Wikipedia, IBM Systems Journal) Lessig papers and books Knoke papers and reports Samuelson papers (ACM) Stern papers (IEEE Micro) 3) SOLUTION APPROACHES references (software tools and methods of various kinds) Books by Supreme Court Justice Scalia Parnas papers on objects Financial compliance software HIPAA compliance software SOX compliance software Checkers for open source software presence Software license checkers 4) MINING LEGAL CASE STUDIES references (many media reports) Apple v. Samsung Oracle v. Google “Pirates of Silicon Valley” video (CD from 5) REASONS FOR HOPE references (law school programs, etc. reports on web) Judge actions at high interest trials Advertised specialty law practicesOpen source advocates (many lawyers. FOSS licenses are based on copyright law)Many new books on Internet Law, Cyber law, etc.A number of CS professors are also lawyers
Richard Johnson
2004 Annual Conference Proceedings pp 9.1435.1-9.1435.8;

Session 1532 “Smart Pallet” Design using Optoelectronics and Programmable Microcontrollers Richard T Johnson Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Introduction: The project goal was to design and implement a cost effective and autonomous product transport device capable of functioning in an automated assembly line manufacturing environment. All the information necessary for the automated assembly of a finished product accompanies the product through the manufacturing process. Specific assembly information is communicated from the device to each assembly workstation using a specialized wireless infrared system with a programmable microcontroller. This proof-of-concept project was one of several components in a Manufacturing Engineering Technology senior capstone course. The resulting device was given the name “Smart Pallet” by Dr. Wesley Baldwin who also presented the original concept for the project. Background: The operating environment for this project is a student constructed computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) laboratory. A 15 foot by 6 foot oval assembly line track is the central component in the CIM laboratory. Assembly workstations are positioned at several points around the outside perimeter of the assembly line track. In addition, GE Fanuc PLC’s, Mitsubishi Movemaster robots, and IBM class personal computers. When the services of a workstation are needed, stop pins in front of the assembly workstation are triggered halting the movement of the pallet. Another set of pins are then activated lifting the pallet off the assembly track. Next a transport arm extends under the pallet, the pallet is lowered onto the arm, then the arm and pallet are retracted to the workstation assembly position. When the workstation assembly process is complete, the sequence is reversed placing the smart pallet back on the assembly line track. Historically students in the Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MET) capstone course are charged with enhancing, replacing and/or adding one or more major features in the CIM laboratory. Student activities can include everything from fabricating machine parts to bit level programming of microcontrollers. Students are assigned to project teams, inter-team and intra- team communications are stressed as absolutely critical for the success of the course project. Typically each student is required to maintain a chronological activity journal, and each team Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright © 2004, American Society for Engineering Education
Kathryn Jablokow
2002 Annual Conference Proceedings pp 7.289.1-7.289.18;

Main Menu Session 2642 Characterization of Project Team Dynamics for Engineering and Management Students Based on Cognitive Style Keith W. Buffinton and Kathryn W. Jablokow Bucknell University / Pennsylvania State University Abstract The problem-solving styles and interpersonal dynamics of project teams are often critical dimensions of the ability of a team to function effectively. In order to study the problem-solving styles of engineering and management students and to track intra-team interactions, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) was used to determine the cognitive styles of the students in Bucknell’s Institute for Leadership in Technology and Management (ILTM) during the summer of 2001. The KAI scores were then utilized to interpret and characterize data collected through journaling assignments in which the students recorded their observations about the abilities of project team members to work and communicate with each other. Results show that KAI scores correlate well with both positive and negative aspects of project team experiences. 1.0 Introduction Each summer at Bucknell University, a select group of 20 undergraduate engineering and management students are invited to participate in Bucknell’s Institute for Leadership in Technology and Management (ILTM). The core offerings of the ILTM are an on-campus summer course taken by students after their sophomore year and an off-campus internship completed during the summer after their junior year. The on-campus portion of the ILTM, which is the primary source of material for this paper, engages the students in an extremely intensive six-week program that focuses on issues such as globalization, ethics, communication skills, critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership. The students hear lectures and attend workshops by faculty and corporate leaders, travel to selected industrial and business sites, and work with companies on significant and real-world management and technological projects. For the project portion of the program, the 20 students are div ided into 4 project teams of 5 students each. Each team is assigned a faculty advisor and given a project description developed by a sponsoring company. The projects discussed here were sponsored by General Electric, IBM, Corning, and Brodart Contract Furniture Division and were conducted during the summer of 2001. Although each project team has a faculty advisor, the projects are primarily guided by executives from the sponsoring corporations. The goal of each project is to expose the students to a real and significant corporate initiative that has both technological and managerial dimensions, as well as to let them experience the conflicts and management issues that can arise in an intensive team environment. Traditionally, the project teams are assembled to maximize heterogeneity in three areas: gender, major, and grade point average (GPA). The heterogeneity of the project teams is sought not only to balance the capabilities and skill sets of the groups, but also to force the students to work with Proceedings of the 2002 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright Ó 2002, American Society for Engineering Education Main Menu
The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Volume 45, pp 1-5;

Https:// Goode et al. (2017), Culnan and Williams (2009) and Rasoulian et al. (2017) include information breach, which they define as unauthorised access to personal information of a group of individuals, as a source of cyber risk. See the excellent cyber insurance reviews of Eling and Schnell (2016) and Marotta et al. (2017). Greisinger (2016) writes (p. 1): ʽPII was the most frequently exposed data (28.7% of breaches), followed closely by PHI (27.2% of breaches)ʼ. Asmat, D.P., and S. Tennyson. 2014. Does the threat of insurer liability for ‘bad faith’ affect insurance settlements? Journal of Risk and Insurance 81 (1): 1–26. Article Google Scholar Culnan, M.J., and C.C. Williams. 2009. How ethics can enhance organizational privacy: Lessons from the Choicepoint and TJX data breaches. MIS Quarterly 33 (4): 673–687. Article Google Scholar Doherty, N.A., and H. Schlesinger. 1990. Rational insurance purchasing: Consideration of contract nonperformance. Quarterly Journal of Economics 105 (1): 243–253. Article Google Scholar Eling, M. 2018. Cyber risk and cyber risk insurance: Status quo and future research. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance—Issues and Practice 43: 175–179. Article Google Scholar Eling, M., and W. Schnell. 2016. What do we know about cyber risk and cyber risk insurance? The Journal of Risk Finance 17 (5): 474–491. Article Google Scholar Goldstein, J., A. Chernobai, and M. Benaroch. 2011. An event study analysis of the economic impact of IT operational risk and its subcategories. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 12 (9): 606–631. Article Google Scholar Goode, S., H. Hoehle, V. Venkatesh, and S.A. Brown. 2017. User compensation as a data breach recovery action: An investigation on the Sony Playstation network breach. MIS Quarterly 41: 703–727. Article Google Scholar Greisinger, M. 2016. NetDiligence 2013 cyber liability & data breach insurance claims. Liu, J., S. Sarkar, S. Kumar, and Z. Jin. 2016. An analysis of stock market impact from supply chain disruptions in Japan. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 67 (1): 192–206. Article Google Scholar Marotta, A., F. Martinelli, S. Nanni, A. Orlando, and A. Yautsiukhin. 2017. Cyber-insurance survey. Computer Science Review 24 (2017): 35–61. Article Google Scholar Peter, R. and J. Ying. Do you trust your insurer? Ambiguity about contract nonperformance and optimal insurance demand. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (forthcoming). Pooser, D.M., M.J. Browne, and O. Arkhangelska. 2018. Growth in the perception of cyber risk: Evidence from U.S. P&C insurers. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance—Issues and Practice 43: 208–223. Article Google Scholar Rasoulian, S., Y. Grégoire, R. Legoux, and S. Sénécal. 2017. Service crisis recovery and firm performance: Insights from information breach announcements. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 45: 789–806. Article Google Scholar Romanosky, S. 2016. Examining the cost and causes of cyber incidents. Journal of Cybersecurity 2 (2): 121–135. Google Scholar Romanosky, S., A. Kuehn, L. Ablon, and T. Jones. 2019. Content analysis of cyber insurance policies: How do carriers price cyber risk? Journal of Cybersecurity 5 (1): 1–19. Article Google Scholar Download references Power Corporation of Canada Research Chair, Department of Finance, HEC Montréal (Université de Montréal), 3000, chemin de la Côte-Ste-Catherine, Montréal, QC, H3T 2A7, Canada M. Martin Boyer You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar Correspondence to M. Martin Boyer. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Reprints and Permissions Boyer, M.M. Cyber insurance demand, supply, contracts and cases. Geneva Pap Risk Insur Issues Pract (2020). Download citation Published: 26 August 2020 DOI:
Joanne Pransky
Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, Volume 47, pp 643-646;

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a “Q&A interview” conducted by Joanne Pransky of Industrial Robot Journal as a method to impart the combined technological, business and personal experience of a prominent, robotic industry PhD-turned successful business leader, regarding the commercialization and challenges of bringing technological inventions to market. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The interviewee is Dr Tessa Lau, an experienced entrepreneur with expertise in AI, machine learning, and robotics, who thrives on the challenges of creating startups. She is currently Founder/CEO at Dusty Robotics, whose mission is to address construction industry productivity by introducing robotic automation on the jobsite. In this interview, Lau discusses her technical and business insights from the startups she built. Findings Dr Lau received her BA and BS from Cornell University in computer science and applied & engineering physics; and an MS and PhD degree in computer science from University of Washington. Prior to co-founding Dusty in April 2018, she was CTO/co-founder at Savioke, where she orchestrated the deployment of 75+ delivery robots into hotels and high-rises. Previously, Lau was a research scientist at Willow Garage, where she developed simple interfaces for personal robots. She also spent 11 years at IBM Research working in business process automation and knowledge capture. Originality/value Dr Lau, known as the Chief Robot Whisperer, is a robot industry disruptor who is passionate about pioneering technology that gives people super-powers. Lau has built two businesses, large, successful venture capital-funded companies. Lau was named 2017 Woman of Influence by The Silicon Valley Business Journal and one of the most creative business people by Fast Company in 2015. Over the years, Lau has served on program committees for various major HCI and AI conferences and on the board for the CRA-W – the committee for the status of women in computing research.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 913;

All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. □ Type of peer review: Double-blind □ Conference submission management system: 1. Registration on the conference website 2. Checking the materials’ correspondence to the conference scope 3. Checking the articles’ content for borrowing 4. Blind peer review by two reviewers 5. Checking the articles in English for the content quality or translation of the articles in Russian into English by the involved professional interpreters 6. The materials submission to IOP publishing house for content quality control □ Number of submissions received: 354 □ Number of submissions sent for review: 307 □ Number of submissions accepted: 294 □ Acceptance Rate (Number of Submissions Accepted / Number of Submissions Received X 100): 83% □ Average number of reviews per paper: 2 □ Total number of reviewers involved: 12 □ Any additional info on review process: In addition to the main peer review, essentially all the accepted articles were checked and translated by the involved professional interpreters. □ Contact person for queries: Batyr Yazyev ([email protected])
Kanwal Ashiq, Sana Ashiq, Mayyda Asif Bajwa, Samreen Tanveer, Mehwish Qayyum
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science;

Background: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease and has reached a status of global health emergency. It is widespread in Pakistan causing morbidity and mortality amongst masses. Objectives: Undertaken study aims at investigating knowledge, attitude and practices of the people residing in Lahore, Pakistan whilst the global crisis with sparse data available previously. Methodology: Following lockdown announcement, an immediate online cross sectional study was conducted from the 31st March to 6 April 2020. Data was analyzed by using SPSS IBM version 22. 00. Results: A total of 316 responses were received. Our study has shown that people 95.80% were well familiar with COVID-19, informed via news channels 46.2%. 91.7% believed the virus is contagious, 95.8% reported that the virus is spread by the respiratory droplets, 89.2% believed that all ages are at risk while 62.3% believed it risky for geriatrics only. 60.4% believed in its prevention with 91.7% respondents agreeably quarantined themselves while 6.6% didn’t. 99.7% participants were aware of social/physical distancing and 75.6% found it affecting mental health i.e. cause anxiety, depression etc. 59.2% of respondents were optimistic expecting it to end soon while 32.3% were uncertain. 49.1% said they have diagnostic facility and 89.6% acknowledged efforts of researchers/healthcare providers (doctors, pharmacist, nurses, allied health professionals and paramedical staff) for the society. 94.3% believed that there is need of awareness regarding COVID-19. Conclusion: An ever increasing need of awareness amongst the local population regarding COVID-19 is needed. It will lend hands in preventing spread of COVID-19 with minimal secondary transmission. It is recommended that extensive survey studies are required that can provide supportive data in developing and implementing public health policies regarding COVID-19 pandemic. It would further control and arrest the spread of COVID-19 in country. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(0) 2020 p. S 69-S 76
Julie Pallant
Published: 16 July 2020
SPSS Survival Manual pp 148-152;

Partial correlation is similar to Pearson product-moment correlation, except that it allows the students to control for an additional variable. This is usually a variable that the students suspect might be influencing two variables of interest. By statistically removing the influence of this confounding variable, the students can get a clearer and more accurate indication of the relationship between two variables. This variable refers to people's tendency to present themselves in a positive, or socially desirable, way when completing questionnaires. This tendency is measured by the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Although IBM SPSS Statistics provides the correlation coefficients using three decimal places, they are usually reported in journal articles as two decimals. An inspection of the zeroorder correlation coefficient suggested that controlling for socially desirable responding had very little effect on the strength of the relationship between these two variables.
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