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Corrigendum
, Takashi Kunugi
Published: 27 September 2021
Frontiers in Earth Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.765487

Abstract:
A Corrigendum on An Evaluation of Strong-Motion Parameters at the S-Net Ocean-Bottom Seismograph Sites near the Kanto Basin for Earthquake Early Warning by Yadab P. Dhakal and Takashi Kunugi Front. Earth Sci. 9:699439. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.699439 In the original article, there was a mistake in the legend for S-net buried and S-net non-buried stations in Figures 4, 5, and 6. The symbols for the S-net buried and S-net non-buried stations were mistaken for each other. The correct legend appears below. The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. FIGURE 4. Plots of PGAs (A, B, C) and PGVs (D, E, F) as a function of hypocentral distance for the 2018 event (see Table 1 for the event information). The left and middle panels show the peak values of the 20 s time windows starting from the S-onset for the horizontal (hor) and vertical (ver) components, respectively. The right panels show the peak values of the 5 s time windows starting from the P-onset for the vertical components. The plotted values for the horizontal components are the larger ones of the peak values of the two horizontal components. The circles denote the K-NET/KiK-net stations, simply written as Land in the legends, and the triangles S-net stations of which the inverse triangles (blue colored) denote the buried S-net stations. The black and red solid lines represent the fitted lines between the observed values and hypocentral distances for the K-NET/KiK-net and S-net stations in each panel. The solid and dashed grey lines denote the median prediction curves and range of one standard deviation for soil site condition in (A) and Vs30 = 300 m/s in (D) using the GMPEs in Si and Midorikawa (1999), written as SM (1999) in the legend, for an intraslab-type earthquake. The dashed black and red lines in (B, C) and (E, F) denote the fitted black and red solid lines in (A) and (C), respectively, for comparison. FIGURE 5. Same as Figure 4, but for the 2020a interplate event (see Table 1 of the original article for the event information). The GMPEs for an interplate-type earthquake are used in the panels (A) and (D). FIGURE 6. Same as Figure 4, but for the 2020b crustal event (see Table 1 of the original article for the event information). The GMPEs for a crustal-type earthquake are used in the panels (A) and (D). All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Keywords: S-net, ocean-bottom seismograph network, Japan Trench, MeSO-net, Kanto Basin, earthquake early warning, peak ground acceleration, strong-motion duration Citation: Dhakal YP and Kunugi T (2021) Corrigendum: An Evaluation of Strong-Motion Parameters at the S-Net Ocean-Bottom Seismograph Sites Near the Kanto Basin for Earthquake Early Warning. Front. Earth Sci. 9:765487. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.765487 Received: 27 August 2021; Accepted: 31 August 2021;Published: 27 September 2021. Edited and reviewed by: Copyright © 2021 Dhakal and Kunugi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Yadab P. Dhakal, [email protected]
Charles George
Ecclesiastical Law Journal, Volume 23, pp 342-348; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0956618x21000399

Abstract:
Personally, I am feeling both buoyed up, and also a bit deflated, as a result of Norman's lecture (and the accompanying Ecclesiastical Law Journal article, to which the lecture is just an hors d'oeuvre). Buoyed up that, according to Oughton's treatise of 1728, in the seat of justice the dean should be addressed as Domine Judex or more frequently Domine Decane. Either will do excellently for the future! Deflated because, while Dean Phillimore's letters patent as Dean of the Arches recognised his ‘sound doctrine, good morals, purity of conscience’, my own were, probably rightly, considerably less effusive.
Hong Xu, Jiahui Zhang
University Management: Practice and Analysis, Volume 25, pp 123-140; https://doi.org/10.15826/umpa.2021.02.019

Abstract:
This research paper studies trends and hotspots of management internationalization in the sphere of higher education. The survey is based on CiteSpace visualization technology and on the corpus approach to studying keywords and annotations for 2010–2021 publications in 25 major higher education journals. Keywords analysis by CiteSpace showed that the hotspots of the management internationalization research are focused on postgraduate education management, on the projects «Double First Class University Plan», «Greater Bay Area», «Cooperation in Running Schools», etc. The future possible areas of investigation are the «local internationalization» of university management, the internationa lization of management in terms of international-level specialties and first-class universities’ nationalization, as well as the contradiction of the «spillover effect» between university management and cross-university cooperation. The corpus-based analysis showed that over the past 12 years the studies of internationalization of higher education and its mana gement have been carried out within the large-scale project «One Belt – One Road» and economic globalization. These studies include the modules of universities’ development, university education, academic research, school management strategy, etc. To effectively address the challenges faced by higher education internationalization management, the aut hors propose to take advantage of consistent teaching quality and to leverage regional and local resources, so as to create a multidimensional platform that would interconnect talents and ways to use them. Of no less importance, when summarizing such experience, is it to take into account the historical background, so that this platform, certainly engaging state policy, would allow a reform of higher education globalization for its further development.
W.K. Stratton
Published: 25 June 2021
Abstract:
Véritable biographie orale du film, La Horde sauvage est un livre sur l’Amérique. Entre les strates de l’ancien et du Nouvel Hollywood, W.K. Statton délivre un tour de force où tous les protagonistes sont présents : de John Ford à Sergio Leone, de John Wayne à Dennis Hopper, de Pancho Villa à Richard Nixon, américains et mexicains, musiciens et cascadeurs, tous composent cette épopée de feu et de sang. Chaque portrait, qu’on dirait saisi par l’œilleton de Walker Evans, déploie un thesaurus incomparable sur l’histoire du genre, le western et son ethos. La Horde sauvage démontre la difficulté de faire carrière à la fin des années 60 dans une industrie du film en pleine mutation et un monde en effervescence (Guerre au Vietnam, révoltes étudiantes). En résulte l’audace inconsciente et forcenée d’un réalisateur maudit, qui croit encore aux vieilles valeurs de l’Ouest dont il est issu. Sam Peckinpah est un Rubens hanté qui documente le travail harassant des wranglers, cowboys d’un autre temps, et la géographie infernale du désert. Voici un journal de bord illuminé sur la genèse du film (un labeur) et du tournage (un enfer), une plongée dans le Far West au temps de la Révolution Mexicaine, théâtre de l’autodestruction illimitée. C’est aussi un récit de guerre visionnaire. Pirates hostiles au rêve préfabriqué de l’usine à rêves mais rétifs au cauchemar technicisé qu’ils sentent venir à l’orée des années 70, le cinéaste et sa bande sont un clan hors-normes. La Horde sauvage est un film coup de poing, un film admiré des plus grands cinéastes (Scorsese, Tarantino ) qui s’en sont nourris, et un western UNIQUE qui condense tous les westerns et atteint aujourd’hui le statut d’ œuvre d’art.
Laurent Thiong-Kay
Sur le journalisme, About journalism, Sobre jornalismo, Volume 10, pp 162-173; https://doi.org/10.25200/slj.v10.n1.2021.444

Abstract:
FR. Tiré de notre travail de thèse sur la médiatisation de l'opposition au barrage de Sivens sur Internet, cet article suit deux objectifs. Tout d'abord, il tente de réinscrire les mobilisations informationnelles contre les « Grands Projets Inutiles et Imposés » (GPII) dans leur contexte historique, politique, médiatique et technologique. En conséquence, à travers cette étude, nous revenons sur la genèse et la continuité du mouvement altermondialiste, avant de nous intéresser aux termes et aux modalités de sa critique du travail journalistique. En nous approchant progressivement des enjeux plus contemporains de Sivens, l'article se penche alors sur la pérennité de cette critique des médias, qui devient « critique en actes », avec la création puis l'enracinement de pure-players d'information en ligne explicitement politisés, en France. Ce cadre théorique et contextuel étant posé, l'article détaille ensuite le rapport problématique et paradoxal que les militants de notre enquête entretiennent vis-à-vis du champ journalistique. En effet, les acteurs de l'opposition au barrage de Sivens oscillent entre la mise en place de stratégies d'intéressement vis-à-vis des entreprises de presse et l'exploitation d'un potentiel d'autonomie médiatique en ligne (sites internet militants, réseaux socionumériques). Avec la couverture journalistique de la mobilisation par ces médias « de la critique des médias » situés à gauche du spectre politique, les relations entre acteurs évoluent sensiblement. L'article entre ainsi dans la boîte noire des interactions qu'ont entretenues les professionnels de l'information appartenant aux marges du champ journalistique, les entrepreneurs de cause et les média-activistes. Ces parties-prenantes de la médiatisation de la mobilisation ont ainsi cultivé « hors ligne » une proximité qui se décline « en ligne », suivant un mouvement de concentration info-communicationnelle. Autrement dit, l'article cherche à analyser les caractéristiques d'une certaine division du travail médiatique, entre militants-communicants et journalistes engagés, au cœur de l'événement politique en ligne. *** EN. Drawn from our thesis work on Internet media coverage of the Sivens dam opposition, this study has two objectives. First, it attempts to re-contextualize historically, politically, technologically and in the media information disseminated against Grands Projets Inutiles et Imposés (GPII) (Large, Useless and Imposed Projects). This study will go back to the birth and growth of the alter-globalization movement before focusing on definitions and methods in its critique of pertinent journalism. In culminating with the more current Sivens issues, the paper will study the sustainability of this type of media criticism, which becomes “critical in action,” (critique en actes) with the creation and subsequent entrenchment in France of explicitly politicized pure players of online news. After establishing the theoretical and contextual framework, the paper then lays out the problematic and paradoxical relationship activists in our study have with the journalistic field: opponents of the Sivens dam oscillate between strategies to garner press coverage and creating an autonomous online media presence (activist websites and social networks). Journalistic coverage of this movement (including media critical of media, which is situated left on the political spectrum) is significantly altering the relationship between actors. This paper thus enters the “black box” of interactions between news professionals from the fringe of the journalistic field, militants and media activists. These stakeholders in the mediatization of a cause have cultivated an “offline” closeness that is expressed “online,” reflecting the shift toward info-communicational concentration. In other words, the paper analyzes the characteristics of a certain division of media work (e.g., activist-communicators and socially-committed journalists) at the heart of an online political event. *** PT. Retirado de nosso trabalho de tese sobre a cobertura midiática da oposição à barragem de Sivens na Internet, este artigo segue dois objetivos. Em primeiro lugar, tenta registrar novamente as mobilizações de informação contra os “Grandes Projetos Inúteis e Impostos” (GPII) em seu contexto histórico, político, midiático e tecnológico. Consequentemente, por meio deste estudo, voltamos à gênese e à continuidade do movimento alter-globalista, antes de nos concentrarmos nos termos e métodos de sua crítica ao trabalho jornalístico. Aproximando-se gradativamente das questões mais contemporâneas de Sivens, o artigo examina a sustentabilidade dessa crítica midiática, que se torna uma "crítica em ação", com a criação e, posteriormente, a constituição de pure-players da informação online explicitamente politizados na França.Estabelecido esse quadro teórico e contextual, o artigo detalha a relação problemática e paradoxal que os militantes de nossa pesquisa mantêm com o campo jornalístico. Com efeito, os atores da oposição à barragem de Sivens oscilam entre a implementação de estratégias de incentivo às empresas de imprensa e a exploração de um potencial de autonomia dos meios...
Andrée-Anne Houle, Audrey Dupuis, Patricia Dionne, Julie Lane, Danyka Therriault
Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.3138/cjpe.70931

Abstract:
Plusieurs programmes de prévention de l’anxiété chez les adolescents ont été élaborés et implantés dans les écoles dans les dernières années. Ces programmes sont cependant rarement évalués de manière systématique et mis à l’échelle à l’ensemble des écoles. Plusieurs évaluations de ces programmes utilisent le journal de bord rempli par les personnes animatrices comme méthode de collecte de données. Toutefois, sa fonction méthodologique spécifi que dans une évaluation de programme impliquant plusieurs sources de données n’a pas été systématiquement analysée. Le présent article utilise l’exemple du programme HORS-PISTE pour illustrer les avantages, les limites et les défi s de cette méthode.
Wang Shan-Ying, Lin Liang-Ting, Lin Bing-Ze, Chang Chih-Hsien, Chang Chun-Yuan, Lin Min-Ying, Lee Yi-Jang
Heighpubs Otolaryngology and Rhinology, Volume 5, pp 001-012; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.hor.1001024

Abstract:
Background: 188Re-liposome has been used for evaluating the theranostic efficacy on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at preclinical stages. Here we furthercompared the microRNA expressive profile in orthtopic HNSCC tumor model exposed to 188Re-liposome. Methods: A single dose or dual doses of 188Re-liposome was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice followed by the Cerenkov luminescent imaging (CLI) for monitoring the accumulation of 188Re-liposome in tumors. The microRNA expressive profile was generated using the Taqman® OpenArray® Human MicroRNA Panel followed by the DIANA mirPath analysis, KEGG signaling pathways prediction, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for predicting the prognostic role of 188Re-liposome affected microRNAs. Results: Dual doses of 188Re-liposome exhibited a better tumor suppression than a single dose of 188Re-liposome, including reduced tumor size, Ki-67 proliferative marker, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related factors. The microRNA expressive profiles showed that 22 microRNAs and 19 microRNAs were up-regulated and down-regulated by dual doses of 188Re-liposome, respectively. Concomitantly, these two groups of microRNAs were inversely regulated by a single dose of 188Re-liposome accordingly. These microRNAs influenced most downstream genes involved in cancer related signaling pathways. Further, miR-520e and miR-522-3p were down-regulated whereas miR-186-5p and miR-543 were up-regulated by dual doses of 188Re-liposome, and they separately affected most of genes involved in their corresponding pathways with high significance. Additionally, high expressions of miR-520e and miR-522-3p were associated with lower survival rate of HNSCC patients. Conclusion: MicroRNA expression could be used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and regarded prognostic factors using different doses of 188Re-liposome.
Koffi Ahébé Marie Hélène, Yah N’Guéttia Marie, Koffi N’Dodo Bony Clovis, Amon Michel Wilfried, Atta Taky Hortense Diallo
European Scientific Journal, ESJ, Volume 17, pp 63-63; https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2021.v17n3p63

Abstract:
Tomato is a nutritious fruit vegetable that is very popular in Côte d’Ivoire. Despite its many benefits, its production is still low in our country. This low production is due to high parasite pressure, the influence of abiotic factors and rudimentary agricultural practices. In our work, the aim was to improve tomato production. To reach this aim, an experiment was carried out on the cultivation of tomatoes above ground. To this end, Four wood sawdust European Scientific Journal, ESJ ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431 January 2021 edition Vol.17, No.3 www.eujournal.org 65 treatments were tested on tomato crop (variety F1 cobra 26) in the experimental field school field of University Jean Lorougnon Guede of Daloa. These are control sawdust, sawdust mixed with pesticides CALLOMIL super 66 WP, MANCOZAN 80 WP, VYTAL 3G, PYRICAL 5G, heated sawdust and heated sawdust added pesticide. Two weeks after transplanting 84 ml of NPK 15-9-20 per sachets were used for watering plants of each treatment. The performance of these treatments was assessed through disease incidence, mortality rate, and rate of fruit showing symptoms. Incidence of the disease is low (5.88%) in heated sawdust added pesticides sub-block compared to other treatments. The highest mortality is that of the control (56.52%) followed by heated sawdust (34.78%), then that treated with pesticides (13.05%) and finally the lowest (4.34%) with heated sawdust with added pesticides. Control showed the highest rate of infected fruit (72%), followed by heated sawdust with symptom rate of (47.61%). Sawdust treated with pesticides and heated substrate plus pesticides had low fruit rates with symptoms of 4.99 and 1.96% respectively. Heated sawdust added pesticides is the best of the four treatments for plants protection against pathogens. La Tomate est un légume-fruit riche en éléments nutritifs et très prisée en Côte d’Ivoire. Malgré ses nombreux bienfaits, sa production reste encore faible dans notre pays. Cette faible production est entre autre due à la forte pression parasitaire, à l'influence des facteurs abiotiques et aux pratiques agricoles rudimentaires. Dans nos travaux, l’objectif recherché était d’améliorer la production de la tomate. Pour atteindre cet objectif, une expérience portant sur la culture de la tomate en hors sol a été effectuée. A cet effet, quatre traitements de la sciure de bois ont été testés sur une culture de tomate (variété F1 cobra 26) dans le domaine expérimentale champ école de l’Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé de Daloa. Il s’agit de la sciure de bois simple constituant le témoin, de la sciure de bois mélangée avec les pesticides CALLOMIL super 66 WP, MANCOZAN 80 WP, VYTAL 3G, PYRICAL 5G, de la sciure de bois chauffée et de la sciure de bois chauffée plus ajout de European Scientific Journal, ESJ ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431 January 2021 edition Vol.17, No.3 www.eujournal.org 64 pesticides. Deux semaines après repiquage 84 ml de NPK 15-9-20 par sachets ont été utilisés pour l’arrosage des plants de chaque traitement. Les performances de ces traitements ont été appréciées à travers l’incidence de la maladie, le taux de mortalité des plants et le taux de fruit présentant des symptômes. L’incidence de la maladie est faible (5,88 %) dans le sous bloc sciure de bois chauffé additionnée de pesticides comparativement aux autres traitements. La mortalité la plus élevée est celle du témoin (56,52 %) suivie de la sciure de bois chauffé (34,78 %), ensuite celle traité avec des pesticides (13,05%) et enfin le taux le plus bas (4,34 %) avec la sciure de bois chauffée additionnée de pesticides. Le témoin a présenté le taux de fruit infecté le plus élevé (72 %), suivie de la sciure chauffée avec un taux de symptômes de (47,61 %). La sciure traitée avec des pesticides et substrat chauffé plus pesticides ont eu de faible taux de fruit présentant des symptômes de 4,99 et 1,96 % respectivement. La sciure de bois chauffé plus ajout des pesticides est la meilleure des quatre traitements pour la protection des plants contre les agents pathogènes.
, C. Paris, I. Thaon, E. Penven, P. Wild
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement, Volume 82, pp 28-40; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2020.06.001

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Varvara Dimopoulou Agri, Glenn R. Gibson, Gregor Reid,
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00186

Abstract:
Despite strategies based on social distancing, hygiene, and screening, COVID-19 is progressing rapidly throughout the world, with healthcare systems at risk of being overwhelmed. While identification of effective drug therapies is ongoing, vaccines will not be available in the near future. Therefore, additional preventive strategies are urgently needed. COVID-19 presents with a spectrum of disease severity, ranging from mild and non-specific flu-like symptoms, to pneumonia, and life-threatening complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. While transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets, the gut may also contribute toward the pathogenesis of COVID-19 (1). SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the gastrointestinal tract and stool samples from patients (2–4), and in sewage systems (5). Coronaviruses, including SARS-Cov-2 can invade enterocytes, thereby acting as a reservoir for the virus (4). Indeed, large clinical studies from China indicate that gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19, and are associated with disease severity (3, 4). Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (6). Clinical evidence shows that certain probiotic strains help to prevent bacterial and viral infections, including gastroenteritis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The reason for adding probiotic strains to the overall prevention and care strategy is founded in science and clinical studies, albeit hitherto none directly on the etiological agent of this pandemic. Probiotics can prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and infections in the gastrointestinal tract, but also infections at other sites, including sepsis, and RTIs (7–13). Meta-analyses are the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. In one analysis of more than 8,000 preterm infants included in randomized control trials (RCTs), patients receiving enteral supplementation with probiotics showed a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis, nosocomial sepsis, and all-cause mortality (14). A well-conducted RCT including >4,000 newborns in India found a reduction in sepsis and lower RTIs in infants treated with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum combined with prebiotics (which are growth substrates specific for beneficial microorganisms) (15). Viruses are etiologic agents of over 90% of upper RTIs. The positive impact of probiotics on prevention of upper RTIs is documented in a number of studies. A meta-analysis of 12 RCTs including 3,720 adults and children reported a 2-fold lower risk of developing upper RTI in subjects taking probiotics, and a small but significant reduction in disease severity in those infected. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study of 479 adults showed that Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, and Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 with vitamins and minerals lowered not only the duration of common cold episodes but also days with fever (16). The impact of probiotics on prevention of upper RTIs caused by specific viruses has also been documented. An RCT including 94 preterm infants showed that galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose prebiotic mixture (1:1), or probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG given between 3 and 60 days of life lowered the incidence of clinically defined virus-associated RTI by 2- to 3-fold compared to placebo (17). The incidence of rhinovirus-associated episodes, which comprised 80% of all RTIs in this study, was also strongly reduced with probiotics or prebiotics. The incidence of influenza RTI was reduced following consumption of Lactobacillus brevis in an open label study of 1,783 school children (18). Pertinent to the pandemic affecting adults more than children, these positive findings were confirmed in an RCT that included 27 elderly subjects receiving Bifidobacterium longum or placebo (19). Furthermore, lactic acid bacteria, from which many probiotics are selected, are part of the upper respiratory tract microbiota in healthy people, and some strains are being considered for prevention of recurrent otitis media (20, 21). This makes their use for contributing to slow down progression of the coronavirus pandemic worthy of consideration. Probiotics have also been used to prevent bacterial lower RTIs in critically ill adults. Meta-analyses of RCTs including close to 2,000 patients found that probiotic strains reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (22, 23). But low quality of evidence and conflicting results among different studies calls for additional well-conducted RCTs. It should be noted that not all probiotics, even those with gastrointestinal benefits, necessarily contribute in every way to reducing the risk of respiratory infection. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis may contribute to intestinal benefits, but do not reduce the number of viruses in the nasopharynx (24). Examples of products that could be considered, depending on availability in a given country, are provided in Table 1. Table 1. The following are examples (not exclusive) of probiotic products, or web sites listing products, with documentation in human studies that may have relevance to reducing the burden of the coronavirus pandemic. Mechanisms that might explain clinical success of probiotics include enhancement of the intestinal epithelial barrier, competition with pathogens for nutrients and adhesion to the intestinal epithelium, production of anti-microbial substances and modulation of the host immune system (28). An RCT of 55 infants showed that enteral supplementation with a combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus reduced the incidence of diarrhea and shedding of rotaviruses (29), an effect that has been confirmed in subsequent studies (30). This would indicate interference with viral entry into cells and/or inhibition of viral replication in the intestine. While this mechanism may have a role in reducing dissemination of coronavirus via the gut, the probiotic strains were not administered to the respiratory tract. So, direct inhibition may appear impossible at this site. Having said that, lungs have their own microbiota and a gut-lung connection has been described whereby host-microbe, microbe-microbe and immune interactions can influence the course of respiratory diseases (31). RTIs such as influenza are associated with an imbalance in the microbial communities of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (32, 33). This dysbiosis may alter subsequent immune function and predispose to secondary bacterial infection. As reports from China indicate that COVID-19 might be associated with intestinal dysbiosis causing inflammation and poorer response to pathogens (34, 35), the case exists for probiotic strains that restore gut homeostasis (36). It is feasible that orally administered probiotic strains could further influence this gut-lung axis, as some can migrate from the gut to distant sites, such as the breast to treat mastitis (37). The gut microbiome has a critical impact on systemic immune responses, and immune responses at distant mucosal sites, including the lungs (38, 39). Administration of certain bifidobacteria or lactobacilli has beneficial impact on influenza virus clearance from the respiratory tract (39, 40). Probiotic strains improve levels of type I interferons, increase the number and activity of antigen presenting cells, NK cells, T cells, as well as the levels of systemic and mucosal specific antibodies in the lungs (16, 19, 39). There is also evidence that probiotic strains modify the dynamic balance between proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines that allow viral clearance while minimizing immune response-mediated damage to the lungs. This might be particularly relevant to prevent ARDS, a major complication of COVID-19. An RCT with Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 showed suppression of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α) in middle-aged adults, and enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) in young adults, along with reduced plasma peroxidation and oxidative stress levels (25). Given the cytokine storm that appears to occur in many COVID-19 patients, this type of modulation may prove to be very important. The manner in which orally administered probiotic strains contributes to this appears to involve the immune response emanating from the intestine, a focal point of the body's defenses. Therefore, probiotic strains documented to enhance the integrity of tight junctions, for example through increasing butyrate, a fuel for colonocytes could theoretically reduce SARS-Cov-2 invasion. Evidence for antiviral activity of probiotic strains against common respiratory viruses, including influenza, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus comes from clinical and experimental studies (17–19, 41). While none of these effects or mechanisms have been tested on the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, this should not negate considering this approach, especially when effects of probiotics against other coronavirus strains have been reported (42–45). Furthermore, patients are dying from secondary bacterial infections. A recent study in mice has shown that oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus CMCC878, started 24 h after pulmonary inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus reduced bacterial load in the lungs, and decreased lung damage and systemic inflammation (46). Probiotics are generally safe, even in the most vulnerable populations and in intensive care settings (14, 47). Cases of probiotic-associated bacteremia and fungaemia have occurred on extremely rare occasions, mainly in premature and immunocompromised patients treated with preparations lacking adequate quality control (48, 49). Rather than consider intensive care patients too ill to receive probiotic and prebiotic therapy, RCTs of probiotics for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia provide a reason to consider them (22, 23, 26). Moreover, in an RCT of 65 critically ill, mechanically ventilated, multiple trauma patients, the synbiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus 5-33:3, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 32-77:1, L. paracasei ssp. paracasei 19, L. plantarum 2,362 plus inulin, oat bran, pectin, and resistant starch resulted in reduced rate of infections, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, days of stay in the intensive care unit, days under mechanical ventilation, and mortality (27). In summary, orally administered probiotic strains can reduce the incidence and severity of viral RTIs. At a time when doctors are using drugs with little anti- COVID-19 data, probiotic strains documented for anti-viral and respiratory activities (not low-quality undocumented imitations) should become part of the armamentarium to reduce the burden and severity of this pandemic. Government funding is being used to test numerous drugs but just as important, they should fund probiotic trials. In addition, use of recognized prebiotics (e.g., fructans, galactans) to enhance propagation of probiotic strains and indigenous beneficial microbes should be recommended as part of the overall strategy to flatten the curve (11, 50). EG, DB, and VD contributed conception of the manuscript. EG and VD wrote the first draft. DB, GG, and GR wrote sections of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. 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PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: COVID 19, probiotics, prebiotics, SARS-CoV-2, pandemics, coronavirus, respiratory infection Citation: Baud D, Dimopoulou Agri V, Gibson GR, Reid G and Giannoni E (2020) Using Probiotics to Flatten the Curve of Coronavirus Disease COVID-2019 Pandemic. Front. Public Health 8:186. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00186 Received: 09 April 2020; Accepted: 24 April 2020; Published: 08 May 2020. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2020 Baud, Dimopoulou Agri, Gibson, Reid and Giannoni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Eric Giannoni, [email protected]
Mouloud Mimoun
Published: 1 April 2020
Abstract:
Nombre d’ouvrages consacrés à l’icône Zinédine Zidane ont chanté les louanges du footballeur à la technique hors pair et à la carrière unique, qu’il s’agisse du terrain hier ou du banc de touche du Real Madrid aujourd’hui. Mais aucun n’a jamais été aussi complet et pertinent que ce Zidane paru chez Flammarion récemment, sous la plume de Frédéric Hermel, correspondant du journal L’Équipe à Madrid et journaliste également sur Radio Monte Carlo. Et ce grâce à une relation privilégiée qui s’est é...
Vincent Gélinas-Lemaire
Published: 1 January 2020
Études françaises, Volume 56, pp 77-90; https://doi.org/10.7202/1069802ar

Abstract:
Le premier roman de Stéphane Vanderhaeghe, Charøgnards (2015), se présente comme un journal d’apocalypse dans lequel se dissolvent les composantes fondamentales du récit, de l’identité des personnages, de leur environnement, de leur quotidien, du temps, de la communication, et jusqu’à l’encre sur la page. C’est aussi le langage qui se désagrège, incarnant la ruine comme processus actif et inéluctable plutôt que dans une forme figée hors du temps. Quant à l’espace, pourtant peu représenté, son organisation simple mais fixe apporte une dose de stabilité au récit, attachant l’apocalypse intime du narrateur à une aire contenue et connue, à l’opposé de la portée globale qui caractérise nombre de scénarios contemporains de fin du monde. Notre analyse est traversée d’extraits d’une entrevue menée avec l’auteur, qui nous aident à éclairer sa posture face à l’histoire littéraire de notre motif et à sa capacité à traduire les angoisses du présent dans de nouvelles formes littéraires. Nous tissons également des liens entre Charøgnards et À tous les airs (2017), le second roman publié par Vanderhaeghe, ainsi qu’avec diverses expérimentations formelles ayant inspiré l’auteur, depuis le nouveau roman jusqu’à la littérature américaine postmoderniste.
Rina Tri Handayani, Aris Widiyanto, Joko Tri Atmojo, Catur Setyorini
Journal of Maternal and Child Health, Volume 5, pp 147-153; https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2020.05.02.04

Abstract:
Background: Maternal mental disorders during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for infants. Re­cent studies indi­cate the possible mechanism of maternal mental health disorders asso­ciated with fetal develop­ment through prog­ram­­ming effect. This study aimed to sys­tema­t­ically review the effect of ante­natal mental health disorders on fetal growth. Subjects and Method: This was a sys­tem­atic review. The articles were selected from Psyc­INFO, Medline, Web of Science, Em­­­base, and PubMed journal databases pu­blis­hed from July to Septem­ber 2018. The keywords for this review included maternal mental health AND fetal growth, post­partum de­p­ress­­ion AND fetal growth, maternal mental health AND fetal growth AND review. As many as 11 articles were selected for this stu­dy from 575 articles. Results: Maternal mental health during preg­nancy was associated with fetal head cir­cum­­ference growth through 2 mechanism: (1) In­creased maternal stress response modifies neu­ro­en­docrine function, which included changes in cortisol regulation, adreno­corti­co­tropic, adrena­line and nor­adrenaline hor­mo­nes levels; and (2) Decreased 11β-hydroxy­steroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2) enzyme regulation in placenta. It decreased11β-HSD2 level, increa­s­ed fetal gluco­corticoids circu­la­tion, and affect­ed on fetal head growth restriction. Conclusion: Maternal mental health during pregnancy is associated with fetal head circ­um­­fe­rence growth restriction. Keywords: maternal mental health, fetal head circumference, growth, systematic re­view Correspondence: Rina Tri Handayani. School of Health Scien­ces Mamba'ul 'Ulum, Surakarta, Jl. Ring Road Utara, Tawangsari, Mojosongo, Jebres, Sura­­ka­r­ta, Cen­tral Java. Email: trihandayan­ir­ina­@gmail­.­com: 085642224141 Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2020), 5(2): 147-153 https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2020.05.02.04
Martine Fernandes Wagner
Published: 1 January 2020
The French Review, Volume 94, pp 235-236; https://doi.org/10.1353/tfr.2020.0293

Abstract:
L'auteure cherche à définir une expression transculturelle féminine à travers l'analyse comparative de sept romans postcoloniaux qui mettent en scène des relations mèrefille complexes dans des espaces physiques ou métaphoriques en Guadeloupe, en Algérie ou au Canada: Un plat de porc aux bananes vertes (1967), Pluie et vent sur Télumée Miracle (1972) de Simone Schwarz-Bart, L'espérance-macadam (1995) de Gisèle Pineau, La femme sans sépulture (2002) d'Assia Djebar, Des rêves et des assassins (1995) de Malika Mokeddem, L'ingratitude (1995) de Ying Chen et Le bonheur a la queue glissante (1998) d'Abla Farhoud. Dans sa discussion théorique, Connolly montre avec justesse l'apport des critiques telles que Maryse Condé, Lydie Moudileno ou Bonnie Thomas aux théories de la créolisation de Glissant, de la créolité de Bernabé et de la transculturalité de Wolfgang Welsh sur la question du genre. L'auteure définit ainsi une transculturalité féminine qui se manifeste dans des espaces littéraires "such as family kitchens, funeral homes, and busy cities. […]. This 'feminine' transculturality underscores the circuitous, often arduous manners in which women seek and find agency in culturally diverse contexts" (121). Voulant démontrer la spécificité de ces espaces postcoloniaux créateurs d'agence et de voix féminines, Connolly insiste, d'une [End Page 235] manière trop généralisante, sur la différence de la représentation de la maternité dans la littérature "française" (considérée comme non postcoloniale) uniquement à travers des écrivaines bourgeoises ou aristocratiques (Beauvoir, Colette, Duras et Madame de Sévigné): "motherhood in a postcolonial context carries burdens not often expressed in French literature" (31), ou encore "most Francophone authors do not portray traditional nuclear families, reflecting the phenomenon of single parenthood that so often reigns in some postcolonial societies" (23). La représentation de la maternité se distingue donc ici par les traumatismes du colonialisme ou de l'exil, les hiérarchies de cultures et les familles monoparentales. Le troisième chapitre décrit ces espaces naturels ou urbains, tel que le jardin pour la grand-mère chez Schwarz-Bart, qui devient un espace privilégié identitaire, ou le cyclone chez Pineau qui engendre, malgré son pouvoir destructeur, l'espoir et la reconstruction. Au contraire, dans Un plat de porc, Le bonheur a la queue glissante et L'ingratitude, ce sont les paysages urbains qui permettent le refuge dans l'écriture du journal intime ou le monologue intérieur. Enfin, dans le dernier chapitre, l'auteure explore différentes possibilités créatrices de l'espace du deuil. Le roman de Djebar met en scène un deuil public à travers le récit sur Zoulikha, qui s'est engagée dans la guerre d'Algérie et qui imagine une liberté possible pour sa fille. Dans le roman de Chen, le récit du suicide de la protagoniste principale pour échapper à sa mère autoritaire renoue la communication intergénérationnelle post mortem. Enfin, chez Mokeddem, la quête achevée de la mère inconnue, morte à Montpellier, permet à la narratrice d'imaginer son départ dans un pays tiers, hors de la France et l'Algérie. On conseillera l'ouvrage pour ses analyses détaillées de l'espace dans la continuité des travaux de Simon Harel.
Published: 27 May 2019
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01018

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicTissue Resident Memory T Cells Resident memory T cells (TRM) were identified about 10 years ago following the discovery of tissue-resident T cells that do not recirculate. The role of this population of T cells in control of viral infections was rapidly demonstrated. This population is considered to represent a new T-lymphocyte lineage, in that it lacks molecules enabling egress from the tissue and migration to lymph nodes (Klf2, S1Pr1, CCR7, CD62L, etc.) and expresses specific markers of residency (CD103, CD49a, CD69). However, not all TRM cells express these surface markers and their residency feature remains the main characteristic. TRM cells have a distinct differentiation profile dependent on certain cytokines (TGF-β, IL-15, Type I IFN, IL-12) and specific transcription factors (Runx3, Hobit, Blimp-1, Notch, etc.) [Behr et al., (1)]. More than 130 articles were published in 2018 on this population, covering all areas of pathology (infection, allergy, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, etc.). The moment thus seemed appropriate for publishing a special issue on this T-cell subset so as to elucidate our current state of knowledge, as well as exploring less frequently addressed issues, such as the specific metabolism of TRM cells (Pan and Kupper), subpopulations of CD4+ TRM (Oja et al., Wilk and Mills) and resident lymphocyte populations different from conventional T cells, such as innate lymphocytes or innate-like cells (Chou and Li). The major niches for TRM maintenance and persistence, which is an important issue for this population, are also discussed (Takamura). It is interesting to note that, while this T-cell subset was initially studied in the context of infectious diseases, its role in oncology has recently been demonstrated (2–5). Nevertheless, in the present special issue, the number of articles and reviews dedicated to TRM cells in infection (Wilk and Mills, Morabitoet et al., Muruganandah et al.) is fewer than those dealing with their role in cancer diseases (Oja et al., Blanc et al., Corgnac et al., Dhodapkar, Dumauthioz et al., Smazynski and Webb). This is not surprising; indeed, cancer immunotherapy targets the tumor microenvironment in which TRM cells are located, presumably due to their expression of CD103 integrin, allowing an interaction with tumor epithelial cells expressing E-cadherin (6–11). The search for cellular targets mediating the therapeutic effects of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies is the subject of intense worldwide investigation. This is a medical challenge, and goes hand in hand with the identification of biomarkers predictive of a response to these immunotherapies so as to more effectively select patients likely to respond. The role of TRM has been rapidly addressed; indeed, they represent cells that express high levels of inhibitory receptors (PD-1, Tim-3, etc.) (2, 12), and it has been shown that these lymphocytes proliferate after treatment with anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 (13). Despite expression of high levels of checkpoint receptors, these cells have a cytotoxic capacity, especially after blocking of the PD-1-PD-L1 axis, indicating that they can be reactivated (2, 14). Expression by TRM cells of high levels of granzyme B and TNF-α, as well as the presence of preformed RNA coding for IFNγ, may explain the particular reactivity of these lymphocytes (Behr et al.). A strongly documented hypothesis concerning the mechanism of action of anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 relies on the presence of pre-existing anti-tumor T cells (15, 16). Interestingly, when TRM (CD103+CD8+ T cells) were separated from the other T cells isolated from the tumor microenvironment, these lymphocytes were enriched in tumor-specific cells (2, 12). In different preclinical tumor models, the presence of these T lymphocytes enables maintaining an equilibrium between the host and tumor, and protects against cancer progression (17). In line with these previous results, mice deficient in TRM cells display accelerated tumor growth (17). In humans, tumor infiltration with this T-cell subset is associated with a favorable prognosis in both univariate and multivariate (2, 12, 14, 18) analyses. TRM cells can be characterized by different techniques (transcriptomic, single cell RNAseq, cytof, etc.) requiring high quality when performing cell isolation. In the present issue, Rissiek et al. report that blocking ARTC2.2 by preventing P2X7 ribosylation improves cell vitality during their ex vivo isolation. Various reviews in this issue are also devoted to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in TRM differentiation in vivo and new strategies for inducing them, especially after vaccination (Morabito et al., Muruganandah et al.). TRM cells can be generated from naive T lymphocytes, and a TRM precursor phenotype (KLRG1low) has been reported (19). Nevertheless, central memory T (TCM) cells and effector T (TEFF) cells can also differentiate into TRM cells in peripheral tissue, suggesting a certain plasticity of the pool of memory T lymphocytes (Enamorado et al.). This mode of generation may explain why a common T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire has been pointed out between TCM cells and TRM cells (20). Differentiation of TRM cells can be inhibited using an anti-TGF-β or an inhibitor of the mTor pathway during T-cell priming (12, 21). Specific parameters might influence generation of TRM, such as the high affinity of TCR for the HLA-Class I-peptide complex or a strong inflammatory stimulus (22, 23). In some tissues, but not in others, such as the lung, it has been shown that an inflammatory stimulus without the presence of the antigen may be sufficient to induce differentiation of TRM (5). Finally, in mice, Batf3-dependent type I dendritic cells (DC), corresponding to DNGR-1-expressing DC, appear to be required for priming of TRM (24). In contrast, in humans, CD1c+ DC and, to a lesser extent, CD141+ DC, play a crucial role in differentiation of TRM cells (25). The need for these local DCs for priming T lymphocytes may explain why the mucosal route of immunization is most effective in priming TRM (26, 27). Vectors targeting certain DC subtypes (4, 28) and some mucosal adjuvants (IL-1β, αGalCer, zymosan. etc.) also boost generation of TRM cells (29–31). The present issue provides the most up-to-date information on TRM cells, but the field is very rapidly evolving. A recent article from Neurath MG's group shows that CD4 TRM cells also play a pathogenic role in models of intestinal inflammation, thus opening up a new field of investigation and indicating a direct role for these lymphocytes in human pathologies (32). 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(2019) 20:288–300. doi: 10.1038/s41590-018-0298-5 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: TRM cells, antitumor immune response, infectious diseases, T-cell immunity, CD103 integrin, TRM, resident memory T cells Citation: Mami-Chouaib F and Tartour E (2019) Editorial: Tissue Resident Memory T Cells. Front. Immunol. 10:1018. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01018 Received: 01 April 2019; Accepted: 23 April 2019; Published: 27 May 2019. Edited and reviewed by: Scott N. Mueller, The University of Melbourne, Australia Copyright © 2019 Mami-Chouaib and Tartour. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Fathia Mami-Chouaib, [email protected]; Eric Tartour, [email protected]
Published: 29 March 2019
Annals of Medicine, Volume 51, pp 126-126; https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2018.1562734

Abstract:
Introduction: Cervical column is one of the elements of the craniofacial system, which contains three major structures: occipito-atlanto-axial joint, temporomandibular joint and hyoid bone. These structures communicate with vertebral column across muscles and ligaments. According to several studies, cranio-cervical morphology depends on many factors, including age [1 Hellsing E, McWilliam J, Reigo T, et al. The relationship between craniofacial morphology, head posture and spinal curvature in 8, 11 and 15-year-old children. European Journal of Orthodontics. 1987;9:254–264. doi:10.1093/ejo/9.1.254[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]], malocclusion, and gender [2 Arslan S, Dildes N, Kama J. Cephalometric investigation of first cervical vertebrae morphology and hyoid position in young with different sagittal skeletal patterns. The Scientific World Journal. 2014;159784. [Google Scholar]]. Changes in cervical column morphology may be present in individuals with normal craniofacial morphology [3 Arntsen T, Sonnesen L. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2011;140(1):e1–e7.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]]. Materials and methods: This study evaluated 1162 profile radiographs of individuals that attended the orthodontist at the Clínica Dentária Egas Moniz, between November and December 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: individuals without prior orthodontic treatment, age between 8 and 18 years-old; profile radiographs with C1-C4 perceptible, overbite less than 3 mm (Group 1) and overbite between 3–5 mm (Group 2), selecting 335 individuals. After that, we proceeded to the cephalometric analysis, with Solow and Tallgren analysis [4 Solow B, Tallgren A. Head posture and craniofacial morphology. Am J Phys Anthrop. 1976;44:417–436.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]]. A request was submitted to the Ethics Committee of Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz and the research was approved with procedure nº 593. Results: In the correlation between age and postural variables, in open bite individuals, there was a significant correlation between age and the variables A-N-Pog, Overbite, Mx-VER, OPT-HOR, and CVT-HOR. When evaluated the influence of overbite on gender, it was verified that female was significative differences in the variables Mx-Md, SN-VER, Mx-VER, SN-OPT, Mx-OPT, SN-CVT, Mx-CVT, OPT-HOR. When evaluated the influence of gender on overbite, it was verified that group 1 had significant differences between male and female in the variables SN-Mx, SN-VER, SN-OPT, Mx-OPT, SN-CVT, Mx-CVT, OPT-HOR, CVT-HOR. Discussion and conclusions: Analyzing the results, as age increase, mandible adopts a more posterior position and promotes a class II pattern, mandible rotation and more cervical vertebral inclination, leading to head extension and cervical lordosis less pronounced. These results suggest that when age increases C2 and C4 tend to be more inclined, not affecting the other values. Thus, cervical vertebral inclination may be consequence of growth and development of individuals, which adopts a more inclined position, and this accentuates cervical inclination may be due to the time that the individual presents the pathology. When evaluating the individuals without open bite, we verify that female present more inclination of C4, and C2 presents similar values in both genders. In this reasoning, C4 inclination may be due to lack of muscular tissue in the neck, and the C2 inclination maintained may be due to atlanto-occipital joint which has more broad movements and functions, and changes provoked by external factors affect C2. If we analyze open bite group, female persists with C4 and C2 more inclined, suggesting that overbite influence C2 too. Thus, in individuals of feminine gender, the presence of open bite causes more inclination of C2 and female present tendentially more C4 inclination, but when an open bite is present, it affects more C2 than C4.
Véronique Stoll, Aleth Tisseau Des Escotais
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Volume 69, pp 30-47; https://doi.org/10.1484/j.arihs.5.122108

Abstract:
L’Observatoire de Paris conserve des collections très précieuses pour l’histoire de l’astronomie. Les registres ou journaux contenant les dossiers des astronomes ont été confiés à la Bibliothèque lors de sa création en 1785. L’ajout, en 1795, des manuscrits et imprimés d’astronomie de Joseph-Nicolas Delisle a permis d’augmenter considérablement les possessions de la Bibliothèque, acquérant ainsi des registres et de la correspondance de toute l’Europe. En 1878, l’amiral Mouchez, directeur de l’Observatoire de Paris, crée un musée d’astronomie et rassemble des peintures et des instruments. C’est pourquoi, aujourd’hui, la Bibliothèque de l’Observatoire de Paris conserve de nombreux manuscrits, livres, articles et un autoportrait de Philippe de La Hire. La Bibliothèque s’est engagée à mettre en valeur ses collections d’histoire de l’astronomie en les cataloguant sur des bases de données nationales et internationales, en les numérisant et en les diffusant en ligne, et en les montrant dans des expositions internes, hors les murs et virtuelles. Paris Observatory keeps very valuable collections for the history of astronomy. The registers or journals containing the astronomer’s records were entrusted to the Library when it was created in 1785. The addition, in 1795, of Joseph-Nicolas Delisle’s astronomy manuscripts and prints allowed the Library’s possessions to be considerably increased, thus acquiring registers and correspondence from all over Europe. In 1878, Admiral Mouchez, Paris Observatory Director, set up an astronomy museum and gathered paintings and instruments. That is why, today, Paris Observatory Library keeps many manuscripts, books, articles and a self-portrait by Philippe de La Hire. The Library is committed to highlight its collections of history of astronomy by cataloguing them on national and international databases, by digitizing and broadcasting them online, and by showing them in intern, outside and virtual exhibits.
Ershuai Liu, Sanjeev Mukerjee, Qingying Jia
Abstract:
As one of the key reactions of electrocatalysis, hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) has been extensively investigated to understand its sluggish kinetics in alkaline. Elucidation of the mechanism of HOR in alkaline can not only deepen our understandings of alkaline electrochemistry, but also help to rationalize the design of highly active catalysts for alkaline fuel cells. Recent research of bimetallic catalysts for the HOR shed some light on the HOR mechanism in alkaline1. It was shown that alloying Pt with oxophilic metals (Ni, Ru, Ir) or depositing those metals on Pt surface can largely accelerate the HOR kinetics of Pt2. However, the beneficial roles of the second metals are under extensive debate. Herein, we investigate the HOR kinetics of Pt-M bimetallic catalysts by using electrochemical characterization and in situx-ray absorption spectroscopy. We propose that the oxidation state of the second surface metal is the governing factor for the hydroxide transportation between the surface and the bulk solution in alkaline, thereby controlling the HOR kinetics of Pt-M bimetallic catalysts. Liu E, Li J, Jiao L, Doan HT, Liu Z, Zhao Z, Huang Y, Abraham KM, Mukerjee S, Jia Q. Unifying the Hydrogen Evolution and Oxidation Reactions Kinetics in Base by Identifying the Catalytic Roles of Hydroxyl-Water-Cation. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2019 Feb 20. Strmcnik D, Uchimura M, Wang C, Subbaraman R, Danilovic N, Van Der Vliet D, Paulikas AP, Stamenkovic VR, Markovic NM. Improving the hydrogen oxidation reaction rate by promotion of hydroxyl adsorption. Nature chemistry. 2013 Apr;5(4):300.
Daniel Jochen Weber, Mehtap Oezaslan
Abstract:
Hydrogen oxidation/evolution reactions (HOR/HER) are the main key for the hydrogen economy in the future. The control of an efficient hydrogen generation from water and of its reverse reaction, particularly in fuel cells, is still insufficient. For instance, very low Pt loadings are required for the HOR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells,1 whereas the HOR kinetics change tremendously in alkaline media and become at least two order of magnitudes slower.2 To design catalyst materials with improved HOR/HER performance in alkaline conditions, a deeper understanding about the reaction mechanism and kinetics is needed. This includes to uncover the significant role of cations during the HOR in alkaline media.3 Firstly, we have studied the effect of monovalent cations on the HOR kinetics on polycrystalline and nanosized platinum in different alkaline solutions (MOH, M = K+, Na+, Li+). Depending on the cations, we observed a significant change of the HOR activity and activation energy for the Pt. More precisely, the HOR activity of Pt increases in the order of K+ < Na+ < Li+, respectively, while the activation energy simultaneously decreases in the same order. We suggest that the catalytic properties of the Pt are strongly influenced by non-covalent interactions of the hydrated cations with the adsorbed hydrogen by the hydrogen bond formation. In the second part, various Pt-Co alloys were investigated for the HOR/HER in alkaline media using rotating disc electrode set up. Our results show that the HOR/HER performance can be tuned by variation of atomic Pt & Co arrangements like core-shell, segregation and alloy nanoparticles. We developed a multi-dimensional matrix to clarify the relationship between structural parameters and catalytic HOR activities for the Pt-Co nanoparticles. The combination of both works allows to provide a deeper understanding about the mechanism and kinetics of the HOR/HER for Pt and Pt alloys in alkaline media. References 1. H. A. Gasteiger, S. S. Kocha, B. Sompalli and F. T. Wagner, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 56(1-2), 9–35 (2005). 2. J. Durst, A. Siebel, C. Simon, F. Hasché, J. Herranz and H. A. Gasteiger, Energy Environ. Sci., 7(7), 2255–2260 (2014). 3. D. J. Weber, M. Janssen and M. Oezaslan, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 166(2), F66-F73 (2019).
Julien Nègre
Published: 1 January 2019
L’arpenteur vagabond pp 109-195; https://doi.org/10.4000/books.enseditions.11677

Abstract:
Jusqu’à la publication des textes de Thoreau sur les graines et les fruits sauvages, et hormis le cas particulier des volumes du Journal et des recueils d’essais, les lecteurs de Thoreau n’ont longtemps connu que quatre « ouvrages » de Thoreau : A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Walden, The Maine Woods et Cape Cod. Si seuls les deux premiers ont été publiés du vivant de Thoreau sous leur forme complète, les textes sur le Maine et la péninsule du Cap Cod ont bien été composés et préparés en détail par Thoreau avant sa mort, ce qui explique leur publication rapide dans les mois qui suivirent son décès. Les trois volumes dont il va être question dans ce chapitre constituent un ensemble cohérent non seulement à cause de ce format particulier (ce sont des ouvrages à part entière et non des recueils d’essais) mais aussi parce que Thoreau y narre dans chaque cas une excursion hors du village de Concord au cours de laquelle il s’intéresse à une spatialité particulière : le lac de ...
Haoran Yu, Elena S. Davydova, Uri Ash, Hamish Andrew Miller, Leonard J. Bonville, Dario R. Dekel, Radenka Maric
Abstract:
The development of Pt-free catalyst for anion exchange membrane fuel cells is limited by the sluggish hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at the anode. Previously, the use of CeO2 as a catalyst promoter facilitated drastic ennoblement of Pd for the HOR kinetics in base media. the use of CeO2 in Pd-based electrocatalysts on the anode of H2-AEMFC has led to a 5-fold improvement of power density compared to the undoped Pd/C (1). A maximum power density of 1 W cm-2 was recently demonstrated using Pd-CeO2/C catalyst, with 85% reduction of anode catalyst loading (2). The catalytic promotion of the HOR kinetics of the Pd-CeO2/C composite was ascribed to the OH- donor effect of CeO2 (1). Furthermore, CeO2 could stabilize the surface PdO species (3), which has been shown to promote the HOR kinetics on Pd (4). Although the positive catalytic effect of ceria on the electrocatalytic activity of the metal-ceria composite has clear experimental evidence, the knowledge about the optimal Pd-ceria interface is still lacking. In the present work, Pd-CeO2/C composite electrocatalysts are synthesized using three different synthetic approaches based on the flame-based reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) as a flexible technique enabling the regulation of the particle sizes and providing more instruments to optimize the Pd-CeO2 interface. The correlation between the Pd-CeO2 interaction and the HOR activity is established through comparisons of three types of Pd-CeO2/C synthesized catalysts using electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The distribution of Pd, Ce and carbon species in all the three types of catalysts is illustrated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and elemental mapping (Figure 1). Comparing to previous works on Pd-CeO2/C catalysts (1, 5), the RSDT process improves the mixing and interface between Pd and Ce with all three types of catalysts. Particularly, the Type 1 catalyst shows the most homogeneous contact between Pd and Ce. The Pd-CeO2 chemical interaction results in partial charge transfer from metallic Pd atoms to CeO2 particles and thus, higher concentration of Pd (II) suggests stronger interaction of Pd and CeO2 (1). Based on XPS results, the Type 1 catalyst shows the highest Pd (II)/Pd (0) of 82/18 compared to the Type 2 (59/41) and Type 3 (47/53), which is in line with STEM observations (Figure 1). The HOR activity for RSDT-derived catalysts follows the trend of Type 1 > Type 2 > Type 3. This trend corroborates well with the degree of Pd oxidation state (Pd (II)/Pd (0) ratio) and Pd-CeO2 interaction. The specific activity of Type 1 catalyst surpasses the reported activity achieved by wet-chemistry based method. The RSDT technique has shown its feasibility for the development of Pd-CeO2/C composite HOR catalysts. Further implementation of the RSDT process for the optimization of Pd-CeO2/C catalyst design should concentrate on obtaining homogeneous composites with the lowest particle sizes, intimate contact between ceria and Pd, and the optimal Pd-to-Ce ratio. Application of these optimized HOR catalysts in AEMFC testing is the subject of ongoing work in our laboratories. Figure 1. HAADF images and elemental mapping of three types of Pd-CeO2/C catalysts using XEDS. The elemental maps correspond to the square region in the HAADF images. Figure 2. Mass-normalized exchange current densities for three types of RSDT-derived Pd-CeO2/C catalysts compared with the state-of-the-art Pd-CeO2/C electrocatalyst. (1) References H. A. Miller, A. Lavacchi, F. Vizza, M. Marelli, F. Di Benedetto, F. D'Acapito, Y. Paska, M. Page and D. R. Dekel, Angew.Chem.Int.Ed., 55, 20 (2016). T. J. Omasta, X. Peng, H. A. Miller, F. Vizza, L. Wang, J. R. Varcoe, D. R. Dekel and W. E. Mustain, Journal of The Electrochemical Society., 165, 15 (2018). S. Gil, M. Garcia-Vargas, F. L. Liotta, G. Pantaleo, M. Ousmane, L. Retailleau and A. Giroir-Fendler, Catalysts., 5, 2 (2015). P. L. Cabot, E. Guezala, J. C. Calpe, M. T. García and J. Casado, Journal of The Electrochemical Society., 147, 1 (2000). H. A. Miller, F. Vizza, M. Marelli, A. Zadick, L. Dubau, M. Chatenet, S. Geiger, S. Cherevko, H. Doan, R. K. Pavlicek, S. Mukerjee and D. R. Dekel, Nano Energy., 33 (2017). Figure 1
Pongsarun Satjaritanun, Sirivatch Shimpalee, John W. Weidner, Iryna V. Zenyuk, Shinichi Hirano
Abstract:
The purpose of this work is to use direct modeling based Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) [1-4] to understand the multi-scalar/multi-physics transports of various porous layers in a polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The studies include the understanding of water evolution, water saturation, breakthrough pressure, heat transfer, species transport, and electrochemical kinetics inside porous layers under different conditions and situations that could occur in fuel cells. Condensed water in the flow field and porous layers reduces oxygen transport to the oxygen reduction reaction region. Current platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts tend to experience transport resistance, which results in kinetic limitations within the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR). Due to these limitations, the enhancement of mass transport is critical to improving fuel cell performance and durability, and therefore the development of a PGM-free catalyst is vital in understanding multi-scalar transport. This will enrich the development of novel structures that address local oxygen transport resistance in the PGM-free catalyst layer, and will outline the urgent need to further investigate multi-physical phenomena and the electrochemical nature of a fuel cell. The model geometries of porous layers [gas diffusion layer (GDL), micro porous layer (MPL), and catalyst layer (CL)] provided in this study were obtained by a 3D, reconstructed microstructure from both micro and nano X-ray computed tomography (CT) as shown in Figure 1. Current research outcomes reveal that the liquid water saturation profiles inside the GDL, breakthrough pressures, heat, and mass transport are dependent on GDL type, operating conditions, cell assembly specifications, and flow field geometry [3]. This work also shows the enhancement of my approach that include the kinetics model in the catalyst layer, which will involve coupling electrochemical kinetics with LBM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as shown in Figure 2. This kinetic model simulates the chemical reaction in the cathode side in order to investigate the electrical potentials, electrical current, electron transfer, and exchange current in the catalyst layers. It shows the potential capability of a CFD-based investigation of multi-physical transport to find solutions of design and operational conditions in the PEFC. The output of this work will be used for the optimization of catalyst layer thickness, with durability and water management improvement, for novel porous materials, particularly in the catalyst layer. Moreover, the predictions from CFD simulations can help to optimize the design of porous layer structures and other components, such as flow fields, thereby improving the PEFC's overall performance, cost of production, and development time. References: 1. U. Frisch, B. Hasslacher, Y. Pomeau, Physical review letters, 56 (14), (1986) 1505-1508. 2. R. McNamara, G. Zanetti, Physical Review Letters, 61, (1988) 2332-2335. 3. P. Satjaritanun, S. Hirano, A. D. Shum, I. V. Zenyuk, A. Z. Weber, J. W. Weidner, and S. Shimpalee, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165 (13), (2018) F1115-F1126. 4. P. Satjaritanun, J.W. Weidner, S. Hirano, Z. Lu, Y. Khunatorn, S. Ogawa, S.E. Litster, A.D. Shum, I.V. Zenyuk, S. Shimpalee, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 164 (11), (2017) E3359-E3371. Figure 1
Annika Elisabet Carlson, Henrik Grimler, Henrik Ekström, Carina Lagergren, Göran Lindbergh, Rakel Wreland Lindström
Abstract:
Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC) are promising mainly due to the possibility to use none-PGM catalysts in the alkaline media [1]. However, before elaborating with alternative catalysts a better understanding is needed on which electrode is limiting and what the limitations are for the reference Pt/C catalyst. In fact, the rate constants for the ORR and HOR are not determined in the in the fuel cell [2]. On top of this the influence of water on the kinetics and water transport in and between the electrodes is debated [3]. In this study we have measured the influence of partial pressure in both a symmetrical H2/H2cell a H2/O2cell. Experimental I-V and impedance data has been modelled by two separate physic-based models. The experimental results show that the hydrogen reaction has two separate time-constants in the impedance spectra for the symmetrical cell, indicating a two-step reaction at the anode (see Figure below). From the O2/H2cell the ORR is found to be the limiting reaction at low currents densities, while the HOR has a greater impact at high currents densities. From the model, a limiting current is observed at the anode. The level of humidity is likely not determining the direct catalytic reaction kinetics but may affect indirectly through its impact on ionomer conductivity and swelling. Fig. Nyqvist plots of H2/H2symmetrical cell at OCP at different H2mixtures in Ar at 50°C, 95% RH, 125 ml/min. MEA: 0.4 mg/cm2Pt/C, AS4 ionomer and A201 Tokuyama membrane [4]. [1] D. R. Dekel. Journal of Power Sources, 375:158–169, 2018. [2] E. S. Davydova, S. Mukerjee, F. Jaouen, D. R. Dekel, ACS Catal. 8 , 665-6690, 2018. [3] B. Eriksson, H. Grimler, A. Carlson, H. Ekström, R. Wreland Lindström, G. Lindbergh, C. Lagergren, Int. J. Hydrognen Energy 44, 4930-4939, 2019. [4] A. CarlsonShapturenka, B. Eriksson, G. Lindbergh, C. Lagergren, R. Wreland Lindström, Electrochimica Acta 277 (2018) 151-160
Zhaoqi Ji, Maria Perez-Page, Romeo Gonzalez Rodriguez, Shaun McKeefry, Stuart Holmes
Abstract:
With the increasing contamination and depletion problems of fossil fuel, an alternative technology, the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), has been considered as the most promising power source of the future in the field of the portable electrics and vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be the excellent choice because of its zero-carbon emission and high power density among variable fuel cells. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles are the most widely used catalyst in the hydrogen fuel cell as it has high activity and selectivity for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the utilization of precious platinum catalyst also has many shortcomings such as Pt agglomeration, which decrease the life time of the PEMFC, and the high cost of this material. Decreasing the loading of Pt on electrodes, cathode and anode, is one of the most important challenges for this field. Catalyst support materials with high surface area, high electrical conductivity and good catalyst interaction may decrease the amount of catalyst needed and improve the catalytic efficiency. With this aim, many carbon materials such as carbon black, Vulcan XC-72, mesoporous carbon and carbon nanotubes have been investigated as a catalyst support in the hydrogen fuel cell [1, 2]. Graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) structure of honeycomb lattice material, exhibits excellent electrical conductivity (104.36 Scm-1), large specific surface area (~2630 m2g-1), good thermal and mechanical stability, has recently attracted great attention as a catalyst support [3]. Several publications have successfully developed Pt catalyst supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to improve the PEMFCs performance. This process of synthesizing Pt-graphene based catalyst mostly starts from graphene oxide (GO) produced by Hummers method, which leads to environmental and safety issues (use KMnO4, strong oxidizing agents and concentrated H2SO4), takes a long time and costly [4]. This work presents an alternative to Hummer's method to produce GO and rGO by the Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite. A simple two electrodes configuration, counter electrode in different electrolyte solutions (NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4) has been carried out to produce high quality exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO) in a fast, efficient and environmental friendly way, producing also high yield in comparison with the traditional Hummer's method. Additionally, the functional groups of nitrogen and sulphur coming from the electrolyte solution are able to be introduced into EGO, which influence the local electronic structure as well as improve polarization of the graphene network [5, 6]. Therefore, this study presents an environmentally friendly and a cost-effective approach to prepare. Pt nanoparticles supported on EGO, which were synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method to compare with the traditional Pt supported on carbon black (Pt-CB) and rGO produced by Hummers' method (Pt-GO) to improve the efficiency and the long time performance of a PEMFCs. Successful preliminary results can be observed in Fig 1, which shows that Pt-EGO can improve the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) over Pt-CB and Pt-GO. Meanwhile, Pt-EGO can influence the durability of the catalyst with chrono amperometry measurement. This study will discuss the characterisation of developed catalysts and their efficacy in a working fuel cell system. References [1] Jing Liu, Xiaoxia Wu, Liping Yang, Fu Wang, Jiao Yin. Unprotected Pt nanoclusters anchored on ordered mesoporous carbonas an efficient and stable catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Electrochimica Acta. 2019. 297, 539-544. [2] Kentaro Ichihashi, Satoshi Muratsugu, Shota Miyamoto, Kana Sakamoto, Nozomu Ishigurob, Mizuki Tada. Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction performance of size-controlled Pt nanoparticles on polypyrrole-functionalized carbon nanotubes. Dalton Transactions. 2019. [3] María Pérez Page, Madhumita Sahoo, Stuart M. Holmes. Single Layer 2D Crystals for electrochemical applications of ion exchange membranes and hydrogen evolution catalysts. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2019. 1801838. [4] Erwan Bertin, Adrian Münzer, Sven Reichenberger, Rene Streubel, Thomas Vinnay, Hartmut Wiggers, Christof Schulz, Stephan Barcikowski, Galina Marzun. Durability study of platinum nanoparticles supported on gas-phasesynthesized graphene in oxygen reduction reaction conditions. Applied Surface Science. 2019. 467-468, 1181-1186. [5] Two-Step Electrochemical Intercalation and Oxidation of Graphite for the Mass Production of Graphene Oxide. Jianyun Cao, Pei He, Mahdi A. Mohammed, Xin Zhao, Robert J. Young, Brian Derby, Ian A. Kinloch, Robert A. W. Dryfe. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2017. 139, 17446-17456. [6] R. Imran Jafri, N. Rajalakshmi, S. Ramaprabhu. Nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets as catalyst support for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Journal of Material Chemistry. 2010. 20, 7114-7117. Figure 1
, David Shiers, Fiona Gaughran
Published: 6 December 2018
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00668

Abstract:
People living with a diagnosis of psychosis have depleted social networks (1); a picture which is already evident at the first episode stage (2). The development of any psychotic illness (e.g., schizophrenia) will significantly and adversely impact multiple areas of a person's life and functioning, and leave many in socially marginalized positions, excluded from peer groups, and educational and employment opportunities (3, 4). The vast majority of people living with psychosis reside in community based settings and receive the bulk of their care and support from informal carers, who are typically close relatives (e.g., parents, partners, children, siblings). Informal carers have long been recognized for the vital role they play in supporting patients with psychosis to recover, and their role in improving a broad range of outcomes (5). Such outcomes include reducing rates of relapse and need for inpatient care (6), and improving engagement in and outcomes from prescribed treatments (7, 8). For many, the time spent in caregiving duties can often exceed those recorded for a full-time job (9). Family carers are often the first to observe signs of deterioration in their relative's psychiatric health (10) and play an instrumental role in mobilizing appropriate service responses and treatments (11). Interestingly, recent developments in the literature have also highlighted that life expectancy in patients is significantly elevated in those with carer support compared to those without (12, 13). Reininghaus and colleagues, for example, completed a 10 years follow up of first episode psychosis cases in England. Their results suggested that patients with families were 90% more likely to be alive at follow up (i.e., less likely to have experienced a death attributable to unnatural cause e.g., suicide), compared to peers without no documented family support (12). Ran et al. (13) who assessed families living in China observed that over a 14 years follow up period, it was patients with family support who had improved survival rates at 70.9% compared to rates of 47.5% for those without support. There is an extensive body of literature documenting elevated rates of physical health comorbidity in people with psychosis and other severe mental illnesses (SMI) (14–16), and their significantly reduced life expectancy rates compared to the general population (17–19). This gap is reported to be increasing (20) with some studies reporting a range between 10 and 30 years (14). Though rates of deliberate self-harm and suicide are elevated in SMI (21); for the majority of people, the excess mortality rates are attributable to avoidable and treatable conditions that have modifiable lifestyle risk factors (e.g., sedentariness, tobacco use) (22–24), and inequality in access to healthcare and treatment (25). However, despite the role played by family carers in helping to optimize recovery outcomes for patients, carer experiences of patient physical health comorbidity in psychosis and other SMI have been largely overlooked by researchers and clinicians alike. To date, there have been only a handful of studies that have purposively sought the perspective of carers on matters related to patient physical health (26–29). Findings from our group (26), which were based on a combination of individual and group interviews with carers of adults with long-term psychosis, highlighted carers' exposure to a broad range of physical health conditions in patients. These included cancer and sexual health problems, alongside more frequently reported conditions of poor diet/high body mass index, diabetes, smoking and respiratory related concerns, and poor oral health. Five key themes capturing carers' experience of physical problems in patient groups were extracted from interviews. The themes focused on carers' perception and subjective experience of gaps in service provision for relatives with psychosis and concomitant physical health conditions, and the carer's role in meeting unmet service needs, including going to fitness classes with their relative. The identified themes also centered on the difficult conversations carers often found themselves having with their relative on physical health matters such as smoking cessation, dietary choices/weight management, seeing a general practitioner, how such conversations affected the quality of their caregiving relationship, and the consideration and forethought that preceded decisions to facilitate discussions. The impact of patient physical health on carers' own health and well-being were also noted as an important theme (26). Similar work from Happell and colleagues in Australia (27), as part of their qualitative investigations with a broad range of mental health carers, also highlighted the impact of patient physical health on carer health status. Their findings also identified a theme that reflected carers' beliefs about the fusion of mental and physical health problems. For example, it included concerns of how medication side-effects led to physical health problems (e.g., weight gain) which, in turn, impacted their mental health and ability to engage in strategies to improve their physical health. Lawn et al. (28) interviewed 12 family carers on their experiences of patient smoking behaviors. The results illustrated carers' struggles and perceived responsibilities for managing patient physical health, their own accommodation and facilitation of patient smoking, and the dissonance they experienced over their accommodation behaviors and their understanding of the negative health implications of smoking. Though there will be overlapping features with other SMI conditions (e.g., BPAD), and with physical health problems that occur independent of co morbid severe mental health problems, the unique presentation of psychosis in an individual which, for many, can include the experience of paranoia, suspiciousness, hallucinations, and affective and cognitive disturbance, will impact their ability to communicate clearly and effectively with others. For example, hallucinatory experiences and paranoia can render it difficult for patients to first identify problems, articulate concerns or changes in their physical health and/or attribute changes in their functioning to possible physical health factors. Likewise, their style and patterns of communication (e.g., thought disorder) might increase the likelihood that others might misunderstand their communications. Patient symptomatology can also interfere with a carer's efforts and confidence to approach physical health issues in relatives through underlying concern and experience that their communications, behaviors, and intentions might be misunderstood and/or cause upset. Carers can find themselves feeling individually responsible for policing or modifying patient unhealthy behaviors and also accommodating behaviors to maintain calm and equilibrium (28). Given the complexity of patient symptoms, some carers might consider that in the “grand scheme” of things, trying to address the physical health issues faced by their relative are secondary to meeting the immediate challenges presented by their mental health problems [e.g., (9, 30)]. For example, if their relative is socially isolated with minimal activities and feelings of joy during the day, then encouraging their relative to refrain from consuming a favorite, yet calorific/low nutritional value, food item or smoking a cigarette can seem difficult to implement as it might mean their relative is left with no positive experiences during the day. It is these additional layers of complexity within the caregiver role and caregiving relationship that have been overlooked within the literature and, consequently, carers have been left to navigate this difficult terrain themselves without support and evidence driven guidance. In comparison to the general population, poorer health status, including sleep disturbance, are also elevated in carers of patients with SMI (31–34), and patient physical and mental health problems have been linked to carer's poorer physical health (9, 26–28). Perlick et al. (32) reviewed the health status of 264 carers of people living with bipolar and psychosis spectrum disorders. The results highlighted that, in the preceding 5 years, approximately two thirds of carer participants reported experiencing health conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, and one third experienced at least two serious physical health conditions. The need for clinicians and researchers to extend discussions and service initiatives on patient physical health to incorporate carer needs are indicated. More recently, Poon et al. (33) assessed the mental and physical health status of 42 carers of patients with first-episode psychosis in Australia. Approximately one quarter of carers had high risk for Type 2 diabetes, one third had hypertension and just under 80% were overweight. In the United Kingdom, current treatment guidance recommends regular physical health monitoring in people with SMI (35, 36). However, monitoring rates can be variable (37) and the role played by carers in supporting these guidelines is unknown. Strategies to improve patient physical health have failed to acknowledge an ever expanding role carers adopt in supporting relatives, directly and indirectly, with their physical health (e.g., remembering appointments, escorting relatives to appointments, rebooking missed appointments, paying for gym membership). In light of emerging evidence, we argue that discussions on optimizing patient physical health and ensuring parity of esteem in physical and mental health provision must consider the role of carers, the impact of patient health on carer health and well-being and the caregiving relationship, and to consider what roles, (if any), carers might want in supporting improved physical health outcomes in patients. The available literature suggests that mental health carers can all too often feel marginalized by service providers (38, 39) despite their reported need to be more involved and treated as partners in patient care, where their unique roles and expertise are recognized (40, 41). Though there are no specific guidelines on how best to support carers to address and cope with the impact of physical health comorbidity in SMI, the literature does offer some helpful indications. We already know that carers report a lack of information about physical health issues in psychosis and welcome opportunities to improve their understanding (26). It is conceivable, therefore, that carers might benefit from: a. recognition of their caring role, knowledge and expertise about the patient, and their particular needs for information and support regarding physical health comorbidity, b. psychoeducation interventions, from first onset, about what constitutes good physical health and identifying factors that help to encourage good health, c. specific guidance on facilitating positive styles of communication on sensitive health issues (e.g., weight), d. guidance on strategies (i.e., small, feasible) that could be used to promote improved patient health status. The strategies should be tailored toward the needs of a caregiving relationship and consider how psychosis can affect patient perceptions of events, people, and communication, e. greater awareness of the research underpinning the global focus on decreasing physical health morbidity in SMI. This should be delivered with a balanced message of hopefulness and the potential for positive change and improvement avoiding the negative impacts of research and health messages focused exclusively on excess mortality and poorer outcomes. Finally, there is an established evidence base detailing the broader impact of patient mental health problems on carer functioning such as burden (34, 42). However, a more nuanced understanding of how patient physical health problems interact with and impact carer health would seem a fruitful direction to follow [e.g., (31–34)]. Strategies to ensure carers have opportunities to reflect on the subjective impact of patient multi-morbidity on their own well-being and to access support in identifying adaptive coping and health management strategies (e.g. consulting with their own primary care physician, stress management, lifestyle interventions to maintain their own physical health) could be beneficial (43). These recommendations remain consistent with treatment and best practice guidance for providing carer focused interventions in SMI (35). Informal carers are providing the bulk of care for people living with psychosis and many will reside in the same household and are therefore important figures in a patient's social network. Patient outcomes, including life expectancy, are enhanced where there is carer support and involvement, and overall care costs are reduced. There are sound clinical and economic arguments for the informal carer (family) perspective to be sought on discussions and strategies to develop and implement lifestyle interventions for improved patient physical health in SMI. These arguments remain strong given that carers are uniquely placed in the patient's immediate environment to impact change in patient environment and lifestyles. Carers want holistic and integrated approaches to patient care that are robust enough to take account of complex comorbid clinical presentations, and for this to occur irrespective of whether patients access mental or physical health services. Patient well-being, including optimal levels of physical health as part of that, are outcomes of interest and importance for carers. We have reached a stage where a more detailed understanding of carer needs, specifically as they relate to physical comorbidities in patients and their contributions to improving outcomes, are required. JO prepared the first draft of the manuscript. DS and FG contributed to manuscript revision and approved the submitted version. JO has received teaching funding from Otsuka Lundbeck Alliance. FG has received support or honoraria for CME, advisory work and lectures from Lundbeck, Otsuka and Sunovion, and has a family member with professional links to Lilly and GSK, including shares. FG is in part funded by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care Funding scheme, by the Maudsley Charity and by the Stanley Medical Research Institute. DS is expert advisor to the NICE centre for guidelines and a member of the current NICE guideline development group for Rehabilitation in adults with complex psychosis and related severe mental health conditions; Board member of the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH); views are the authors and not those of NICE or NCCMH. All authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. This paper represents independent research partly funded by the National Institute for Health research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. 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The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Juliana Onwumere, [email protected]
Junhyung Kim, Woohyun Kim, Jae-Uk An, Jun Gyo Suh, Je Kyung Seong, Bo-Young Jeon, Seongbeom Cho
Published: 31 July 2018
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00838

Abstract:
The Helicobacter bacterial genus comprises of spiral-shaped gram-negative bacteria with flagella that colonize the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of humans and various mammals (Solnick and Schauer, 2001). In particular, Helicobacter pylori was classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1994, and has been shown to occur with a high prevalence in humans, although this varies between geographical regions, ethnic groups, and various populations (Kusters et al., 2006; Goh et al., 2011). To date, more than 37 Helicobacter species have been identified in addition to H. pylori (Péré-Védrenne et al., 2017). Furthermore, non-H. pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) have been shown to infect both humans and animals, and NHPH infections are associated with intestinal carcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma (Swennes et al., 2016). Despite the demonstrated association between NHPH and disease, most studies to date have investigated H. pylori in humans; thus, it is necessary to characterize NHPH and elucidate its role in the GI tract of wild rodents which are potential Helicobacter carriers (Taylor et al., 2007; Mladenova-Hristova et al., 2017). Helicobacter apodemus, a spiral curved rod bacterium with a single flagella, was first identified in the GI tract of the Korean striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea, and shown to exhibit urease, oxidase, and catalase activity (Jeon et al., 2015). Since then, rodents colonized with H. apodemus have been found all over the world, including within the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China, Cambridge in the United States, and animal facilities in Sweden (Goto et al., 2004; Johansson et al., 2006; Miller et al., 2014). A previous study suggested that H. apodemus has the potential to cause rectal prolapse and colorectal cancer in rodents (Miller et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2017), while another suggested that it may act as a rodent pathobiont, normally activating regulatory T-cells to maintain immune tolerance, but activating effector T-cells to contribute to inflammation and disease pathogenesis (Chai et al., 2017). Rodent H. apodemus colonization has been shown to be significantly decreased after treatment with azithromycin (compared to other antibiotics such as amoxicillin, or cefaclor), and similarly, after administration of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, and vitamin K2 (Khan et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2017). Nevertheless, continued research is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which H. apodemus alternately causes GI tract inflammation and GI tolerance in rodents, depending upon host health. The current study was therefore conducted to identify the genomic characteristics and specificity of H. apodemus, and to reveal its potential role in the rodent GI tract. Specifically, the genome of H. apodemus str. SCJK1 isolated from Apodemus agrarius was completely sequenced, and subjected to a comparative genomic analysis with 17 genome sequences of other Helicobacter species. It is hoped that the data in this study will serve as the basis for further studies of H. apodemus-related bacterium, and furthermore, enable future in-depth biomedical research regarding the immunological and pathological role of H. apodemus in the rodent GI tract. In May 2015, fresh fecal samples from wild A. agrarius were collected, and transported to the laboratory at 4°C. The fecal samples were homogenized in PBS, spread onto modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) with a selective supplement (Oxoid), and micro-aerobically incubated at 42°C for 6 days. After incubation, suspected colonies were transferred to blood agar, and micro-aerobically incubated at 42°C for 2 days. Genomic DNA was extracted from each colony confirmed to be H. apodemus (via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Miller et al., 2014), and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses) using MGTM Genomic DNA Purification kit (Macrogen, Korea). The quality of the extracted genomic DNA was evaluated using a 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The whole-genome sequencing of H. apodemus str. SCJK1 was carried out using a PacBio RS α sequencer (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). A 20 kb DNA library was prepared using a SMRTbellTM template Prep Kit, and sequenced using a P6-C4 chemistry reagent kit (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The obtained sub-reads were assembled de novo using Hierarchical Genome Assembly Process v. 3.0 and SMRT Analysis v. 2.3 (default options) software (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA) (Chin et al., 2013). The reads were polished using Quiver v. 1.0 software (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA) to ensure a higher level of accuracy and lower error rate (Chin et al., 2013). Genes were annotated according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/), and “Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG)” categories were assigned using the NCBI COGs database (2014 version, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/COG/). A summary of the generated sequencing data is included in Supplementary Table 1. Sequences for Helicobacter-related virulence genes presented in the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB, www.mgc.ac.cn/VFs/) were used to predict the H. apodemus str. SCJK1 virulence factor. A total of 17 genome sequences of other Helicobacter spp. were obtained from the NCBI database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/), and used to conduct a comparative genomic analysis, including JRPC_s (GCA_ 000765745.1), H. himalayensis (GCA_ 001602095.1), H. mustelae (GCA_ 000091985.1), H. cinaedi (GCA_ 000349975.1), H. bilis (GCA_ 001999985.1), H. cetorum (GCA_ 000259275.1), H. acinonychis (GCA_000009305.1), H. felis (GCA_000200595.1), H. hepaticus (GCA_000007905.1), H. pullorum (GCA_001298055.1), H. typhlonius (GCA_001460635.1), H. rodentium (GCA_ 000687535.1), H. Canadensis (GCA_000162575.1), JRPB_s (GCA_000765695.1), H. trogontum (GCA_000765905.1), and two H. pylori (GCA_001653455.1 and GCA_000013245.1) (Supplementary Table 2). The orthologous Average Nucleotide Identity (OrthoANI) algorithm was used to measure the genetic relatedness between H. apodemus str. SCJK1 and the other Helicobacter spp., and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram was constructed based on the OrthoANI value (Lee et al., 2016). Pan-genome Orthologous Groups (POGs) were determined using the BIOiPLUG Comparative Genomics Database (https://www.bioiplug.com/), and a heat map and UPGMA dendrogram were constructed based on these data (i.e., the presence/absence of a POG). To ensure a pure culture, a single H. apodemus colony was transferred three times. Furthermore, contamination was excluded by comparing three 16S rRNA gene fragments found in the H. apodemus str. SCJK1 genome using EzBioCloud DB software (https://www.bioiplug.com/). Animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Yonsei University Wonju Campus (YWC-151203-1). The complete genome of H. apodemus str. SCJK1 was shown to be composed of two circular contigs (one chromosome 2,034,706 bp in length, and one plasmid 33,248 bp in length) (Figure 1A), and to have an average GC content of 33.14% (chromosome, 33.2%; plasmid, 29.4%). Both size and GC content were found to be similar to those of the other analyzed Helicobacter spp., which were 1,886,022 ± 318,568 bp, and 37.3 ± 3.2%, respectively (mean ± standard deviation; Supplementary Table 2). Furthermore, the H. apodemus str. SCJK1 genome was identified to harbor a total of 1,850 coding, and 103 pseudo genes, as well as 38 transfer (tRNA), 9 ribosomal (rRNA; including three each of 5s, 16s, and 23s rRNA), and 3 non-coding (ncRNA) RNA sequences (Table 1). The various genes identified on the H. apodemus chromosome were assigned to COG categories, and thus predominantly classified as J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis, 8.27%), M (cell-wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, 7.66%), R (general function prediction only, 7.00%), E (amino-acid transport and metabolism, 6.85%), C (energy production and conversion, 5.93%), and L (replication, recombination, and repair, 5.27%)-type genes. Moreover, the H. apodemus plasmid was annotated as predominantly carrying U (intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport, 31.25%), L (18.75%), and X (mobilome: prophages, transposons, 12.5%)-type genes. Figure 1. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter apodemus str. SCJK1 with respect to 17 other Helicobacter spp. (A) Circular map of the H. apodemus str. SCJK1 genome, and Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) categories within the genome, assigned using the NCBI COGs database. (B) Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the analyzed Helicobacter spp. based on the orthologous Average Nucleotide Identity (Ortho ANI) value. (C) Heat map and UPGMA dendrogram of the analyzed Helicobacter spp. based on the presence or absence of Pan-genome Orthologous Groups (POG). (D) Venn diagram of six-clustered Helicobacter spp. based on POG analysis. *H. apodemus str. SCJK1 genome used in the current study. Table 1. Genomic features of Helicobacter apodemus str. SCJK1. In Helicobacter spp., a total of 91 virulence genes were identified, and classified into seven categories, and 17 subcategories. Specifically, these comprised of acid resistance (urease), adherence (adherence-associated lipoprotein (alp) A, alpB, blood group antigen binding adhesins, H. pylori adhesin (hpa) A, hopZ, horB, peb1, and sialic acid binding adhesins), immune evasion (lipopolysaccharide Lewis antigens), immune-modulator (neutrophil-activating protein and outer inflammatory protein), motility (flagella), secretion system (cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI)-type IV secretion system), and toxin (cytolethal distending toxin, vacuolating cytotoxin) genes (Supplementary Table 3). H. apodemus str. SCJK1 was found to harbor 47 of these 91 virulence genes, including all of the urease-related “acid resistance” genes, 30 of the 38 flagella-related “motility” genes, and three of the “toxin” genes. Of the 10 possible “adherence” genes, H. apodemus str. SCJK1 carried only peb1 (PEB1-related gene). In addition, the strain harbored only one (futA) of the three “immune evasion” genes, and one (napA) of the two “immune modulator” genes. The H. apodemus str. SCJK1 plasmid was shown to include the CagX, V, E, and C (virB 9, 8, 4, and 2, respectively) “secretion system” genes, known to be associated with the cag-PAI type IV secretion system. Three Helicobacter strains, H. acinonychis str. Sheeba, H. hepaticus ATCC 51449, and H. pylori HPAG1, were used to infer virulence factors in the H. apodemus str. SCJK1 genome (Supplementary Table 3). Of the identified virulence genes, peb1 (“adherence” category), and cdtA and B (“toxin” category, and “cytolethal distending toxin” subcategory) were shown to be present in the H. apodemus and H. hepaticus, but not in the H. pylori genome (Tomb et al., 1997). Furthermore, peb1 has been previously reported to be expressed on the surface of all Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli bacteria, and to thereby mediate intestinal colonization, indicating that it is a prominent target for the immune system (Pei and Blaser, 1993). Consistent with these observations, peb 1 of H. hepaticus was expected to be involved in colonization of the intestine, and according to the results of this study, it may also be involved in intestinal colonization of H. apodemus (Suerbaum et al., 2003). In addition, the cytolethal distending toxin gene, consisting of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, has been shown to be expressed by GI pathogens including Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Helicobacter spp., and associated with irreversible G2/M cell-cycle arrest, which results in the gradual expansion of the nucleoli, and corresponding loss of the cytoplasm (Young et al., 2000; Taylor et al., 2003). Accordingly, H. hepaticus, which is known to carry the cdt gene, has been shown to be associated with chronic GI tract inflammation, and the onset of irritable bowel disease (IBD) in rodents (Whary and Fox, 2004; Young et al., 2004; Ge et al., 2007). The present study showed that H. apodemus also harbors the cdtA and cdtB genes; thus, further study should be conducted to investigate whether H. apodemus exerts similar impact on the rodent GI tract. In addition, both H. pylori and H. apodemus carry genes known to be associated with the cag-PAI type IV secretion system, responsible for horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells (Rohde et al., 2003). H. pylori has been previously reported to mediate the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphoma, by injecting cagA (which is a bacterial gene that promotes cell proliferation and differentiation) into gastric epithelial cells using the cag-PAI type IV secretion system (Odenbreit et al., 2000; Cascales and Christie, 2003). However, the H. apodemus genome did not include cag A; thus, the role of the cag-PAI type IV secretion system in the H. apodemus genome should be studied further. The genome of H. apodemus str. SCJK1 was compared with those of 17 other Helicobacter spp. In the constructed UPGMA dendrogram (based on orthoANI values), H. apodemus was shown to be not only closely related, but of the same species (orthoANI value 97.35) as JRPC_s, which was isolated from rats in the United States in 2003 (Lee et al., 2016). These results indicate that H. apodemus exists not only in A. agrarius, but also in other rodents, and also, demonstrate the low genetic difference between the isolates collected from the two different host types. Furthermore, H. apodemus was clustered with H. pullorum (isolated from fresh chicken meat in Portugal, 2012), H. canadensis (no isolation information), H. rodentium (isolated from a C57bl/6x129 mouse, 1995), and JRPB_s (isolated from a mouse in the United States, 2011), according to the calculated orthoANI values of 73.46, 73.52, 72.92, and 72.65, respectively (Figure 1B). The calculated relatedness between these species was consistent with the findings of previous studies, in which primers used in an H. rodentium-specific PCR assay cross-reacted with both H. apodemus and H. rodentium (Shen et al., 1997; Miller et al., 2014). However, the results of the present study were not consistent with the data presented in phylogenetic tree (based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons) in which H. apodemus was clustered with H. mesocricetorum, H. ganmani, and H. rodentium, but not with H. pullorum or H. canadensis (Jeon et al., 2015). In the heat map and UPGMA dendrogram (based on POG analysis), H. apodemus str. SCJK1 was clustered with JRPC_s, H. pullorum, H. canadensis, H. rodentium, and JRPB_s, consistent with orthoANI value-based results (Figure 1C). The consistency in results from orthoANI values-based and POG-based analysis indicated that H. apodemus was genetically similar to the above Helicobacter species (H. pullorum, H. canadensis, H. rodentium, and JRPB_s). In addition, the six strains shared 1,197 POGs, of which 143 were identified only in the strains analyzed in the present study (Figure 1D). H. apodemus strains (i.e., those isolated in the current study, and JRPC_s) shared 1,647 POGs, which were expected to have specific characteristics of H. apodemus. Studies using whole-genome sequencing technology have made important advances in rodent GI microbial research; however, the present study is the first to analyze the complete genome sequence of H. apodemus from wild A. agrarius, which acts as a pathobiont in wild rodents. It is hoped that the results of this analysis, together with those of the conducted comparative genomic analysis, will serve as the basis for further biomedical studies investigating the immunological and inflammatory effects of H. apodemus on the rodent GI tract. The genome sequence of Helicobacter apodemus str. SCJK1 was deposited in the GeneBank under accession number CP021886-CP021887. SC conceived and designed the study. J-UA and WK analyzed the genome sequencing data. JGS, JKS, and B-YJ performed sampling, and prepared the manuscript. 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Rev. 14, 59–97. doi: 10.1128/CMR.14.1.59-97.2001 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Suerbaum, S., Josenhans, C., Sterzenbach, T., Drescher, B., Brandt, P., Bell, M., et al. (2003). The complete genome sequence of the carcinogenic bacterium Helicobacter hepaticus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7901–7906. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1332093100 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Swennes, A. G., Parry, N. M., Feng, Y., Sawyer, E., Lohr, B., Twedt, D. C., et al. (2016). Enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in cats with non-haematopoietic intestinal carcinoma: a survey of 55 cases. J. Med. Microbiol. 65, 814–820. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000274 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Taylor, N. S., Ge, Z., Shen, Z., Dewhirst, F. E., and Fox, J. G. (2003). Cytolethal distending toxin: a potential virulence factor for Helicobacter cinaedi. J. Infect. Dis. 188, 1892–1897. doi: 10.1086/379837 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Taylor, N. S., Xu, S., Nambiar, P., Dewhirst, F. E., and Fox, J. G. (2007). Enterohepatic Helicobacter species are prevalent in mice from commercial and academic institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45, 2166–2172. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00137-07 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Tomb, J.-F., White, O., Kerlavage, A. R., Clayton, R. A., Sutton, G. G., Fleischmann, R. D., et al. (1997). Corrections: the complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 389:412. doi: 10.1038/38792 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Whary, M. T., and Fox, J. G. (2004). Natural and experimental Helicobacter infections. Comp. Med. 54, 128–158. PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar Young, V. B., Knox, K. A., Pratt, J. S., Cortez, J. S., Mansfield, L. S., Rogers, A. B., et al. (2004). In vitro and in vivo characterization of Helicobacter hepaticus cytolethal distending toxin mutants. Infect. Immun. 72, 2521–2527. doi: 10.1128/IAI.72.5.2521-2527.2004 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Young, V. B., Knox, K. A., and Schauer, D. B. (2000). Cytolethal distending toxin sequence and activity in the enterohepatic pathogen Helicobacter hepaticus. Infect. Immun. 68, 184–191. doi: 10.1128/IAI.68.1.184-191.2000 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Zhang, Y., Ma, C., Zhao, J., Xu, H., Hou, Q., and Zhang, H. (2017). Lactobacillus casei Zhang and vitamin K2 prevent intestinal tumorigenesis in mice via adiponectin-elevated different signaling pathways. Oncotarget 8:24719. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15791 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: Helicobacter apodemus, korean striped field mouse, wild rodents, whole genome sequencing, comparative genomic analysis Citation: Kim J, Kim W, An J-U, Suh JG, Seong JK, Jeon B-Y and Cho S (2018) Complete Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Helicobacter Apodemus Isolated From the Wild Korean Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) for Potential Pathogenicity. Front. Pharmacol. 9:838. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00838 Received: 18 May 2018; Accepted: 11 July 2018; Published: 31 July 2018. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2018 Kim, Kim, An, Suh, Seong, Jeon and Cho. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Seongbeom Cho, [email protected]
Nadarajen Veerapen
ACM SIGEVOlution, Volume 10, pp 6-7; https://doi.org/10.1145/3231555.3231557

Abstract:
Attendees of Artificial Evolution (EA 2017), held in Paris, France, were treated to a cocktail reception and vernissage, or private viewing, of the "Art&Science in Evolutionary Computation" art exhibition at Galerie Louchard in Paris. The exhibition ran from 24 October to 12 November 2017. The selected artworks were created through a number of evolutionary methods: ant-based clustering, predator-prey model, evolutionary algorithms and fly algorithm. The corresponding papers are published in volume 1 of the newly-launched Art and Science journal (ISTE OpenScience). EA 2017 attendees had the opportunity to engage with the artists and mingle over a wide array of delightful hors-d'oeuvres.
Comment
Theodore Allnutt, Chrystine Yan, Tamsyn M. Crowley,
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00865

Abstract:
A commentary onGenome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP152 Strain Isolated from Penaeus indicus in Malaysia by Letchumanan, V., Ser, H.-L., Tan, W.-S., Ab Mutalib, N.-S., Goh, B.-H., Chan, K.-G., et al. (2016). Front. Microbiol. 7:1410. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01410Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine gram negative bacterium that has been gaining significant attention in the shrimp aquaculture industry given its direct association with early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps (Soto-Rodriguez et al., 2015). Despite its significant threat to the industry, the genomic representation of shrimp-associated V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Malaysia or South East Asia in general is relatively low (Kondo et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2014; Foo et al., 2017). Letchumanan and colleagues recently reported the draft genome of V. parahaemolyticus VP152 isolated from a banana prawn in Malaysia (Letchumanan et al., 2016b). Strain VP152 was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq and its whole genome sequence was deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number and Bioproject ID of LCUL01000000 and PRJNA281142, respectively. The G+C content for strain VP152 was reported to be 53.4% which is substantially higher than the average G+C content of V. parahaemolyticus (~45%) (Kondo et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2014; Foo et al., 2017). A similarity search of house-keeping genes coded in the genome of strain VP152 showed best hits to members of the genus Citrobacter (data not shown). A subsequent phylogenomic analysis using PhyloPhlAN (Segata et al., 2013) clustered strain VP152 with members of the genus Citrobacter with strong SH-like local branch support (Figure 1A). In addition, similar to several Citrobacter strains, when searched against the complete genome of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802T, strain VP152 exhibited only modest genomic region with significant nucleotide homology to the V. parahaemolyticus reference genome (Figure 1B) (Alikhan et al., 2011). It is also worth noting that V. parahaemolyticus strain VP103 deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LBDB01000000 reported by the same group in a different data report (Letchumanan et al., 2016a) also showed the same phylogenomic affiliation to the genus Citrobacter instead of Vibrio. Figure 1. Potential misidentification of strain VP152 to the genus Vibrio as revealed by phylogenomic analysis and whole genome nucleotide comparison with V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802T. (A) Maximum likelihood tree constructed from the concatenated alignment of 400 universal proteins. The tree was rooted with members of the genus Novosphingobium as the outgroup. Node values indicate SH-like local branch support as implemented in FastTree2 and scale bar indicates the number of amino acid changes per site. (B) Whole genome comparisons of various Vibrio and Citrobacter strains against the complete genome of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802T. Regions exhibiting significant homology (BLASTN with an E-value cut-off of 1E−7) were colored based on strain label. Furthermore, a search in the NCBI bioproject database revealed that C. amalonaticus YG6 and C. amalonaticus YG8 with the Bioproject IDs of PRJNA292629 and PRJNA292637, respectively, were also sequenced by the same institute. This observation in addition to the monophyletic clustering of strains VP103 and VP152 with the two Citrobacter strains suggest potential sample mislabeling or barcode index misassignment during library preparation or sequencing. Unfortunately, the authors did not describe any methodology associated with genome-based in-silico bacterial species validation in the data report to allow us to reproduce the identification of strain VP152 to the species V. parahaemolyticus. Given that the genome analysis of V. parahaemolyticus strain VP152 was based on the genome of a distantly related genus e.g. Citrobacter, it is unlikely that the biology interpretation in addition to the genome sequence reported in this study will be useful to the genomic study of V. parahaemolyticus or more generally the genus Vibrio. HG, TA, TC, and CY performed data analysis. HG wrote the manuscript. All authors proofread the manuscript. This research was supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Education (grant code FRGS/1/2016/STG05/MUSM/03/1) and by the Monash University Malaysia Tropical and Medicine Biology Multidisciplinary Platform (grant code 5140754-313). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Alikhan, N.-F., Petty, N. K., Ben Zakour, N. L., and Beatson, S. A. (2011). BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG): simple prokaryote genome comparisons. BMC Genomics 12:402. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-402 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Foo, S. M., Eng, W. W. H., Lee, Y. P., Gui, K., and Gan, H. M. (2017). New sequence types of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from a Malaysian aquaculture pond, as revealed by whole-genome sequencing. Genome Announc. 5:e00302-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00302-17 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Kondo, H., Tinwongger, S., Proespraiwong, P., Mavichak, R., Unajak, S., Nozaki, R., et al. (2014). Draft genome sequences of six strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease shrimp in Thailand. Genome Announc. 2:e00221-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00221-14 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Letchumanan, V., Ser, H.-L., Chan, K.-G., Goh, B.-H., and Lee, L.-H. (2016a). Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP103 strain isolated from shrimp in Malaysia. Front. Microbiol. 7:1496. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01496 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Letchumanan, V., Ser, H.-L., Tan, W.-S., Ab Mutalib, N.-S., Goh, B.-H., Chan, K.-G., et al. (2016b). Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP152 strain isolated from Penaeus indicus in Malaysia. Front. Microbiol. 7:1410. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01410 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Segata, N., Börnigen, D., Morgan, X. C., and Huttenhower, C. (2013). PhyloPhlAn is a new method for improved phylogenetic and taxonomic placement of microbes. Nat. Commun. 4:2304. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3304 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Soto-Rodriguez, S. A., Gomez-Gil, B., Lozano-Olvera, R., Betancourt-Lozano, M., and Morales-Covarrubias, M. S. (2015). Field and experimental evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81, 1689–1699. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03610-14 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Yang, Y.-T., Chen, I. T., Lee, C.-T., Chen, C.-Y., Lin, S.-S., Hor, L.-I., et al. (2014). Draft Genome Sequences of four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, three of which cause early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp in China and Thailand. Genome Announc. 2:e00816-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00816-14 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, taxonomy, genomics, shrimp, South East Asia Citation: Allnutt T, Yan CZY, Crowley TM and Gan HM (2018) Commentary: Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP152 Strain Isolated From Penaeus indicus in Malaysia. Front. Microbiol. 9:865. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00865 Received: 08 August 2017; Accepted: 13 April 2018; Published: 01 May 2018. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2018 Allnutt, Yan, Crowley and Gan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Han Ming Gan, [email protected]
Alexis Leprince
Published: 1 January 2018
Abstract:
Écrite à Berlin dans le cadre d’une bourse d’écriture de la villa Médicis hors les murs, Juste la fin du monde, semble être le fruit d’un travail acharné et difficile, ainsi qu’on peut le lire dans le Journal, par exemple le 26 mai 1990 : J’ai un peu avancé sur Quelques éclaircies que je songe à rebaptiser Juste à la fin du monde. […] Et puis, je bute à nouveau, je pense qu’il y a là quelque chose d’important, tout près que je n’arrive pas à atteindre. C’est la première fois que je prends les...
Published: 1 January 2018
La carte invente le monde pp 199-204; https://doi.org/10.4000/books.septentrion.27780

Abstract:
Anne-Laure Amilhat Szary est professeure de Géographie à l’Université Grenoble-Alpes, directrice du laboratoire PACTE et membre de l’Institut Universitaire de France. Géographe politique, son travail concerne les frontières, notamment les relations entre l’espace et l’art contemporain. Elle a participé à la fondation du collectif antiAtlas des frontières (http://www.antiatlas.net), un projet sciences/arts. Elle a notamment publié : « Les frontières, lieu/locus d’une post-politique des images », Les Carnets du Bal, n° 7, p. 63-81, 2016. Qu’est-ce qu’une frontière aujourd’hui ?, Paris, PUF, Hors collection, 2015, 142 p. Borderities: the politics of contemporary mobile borders, ouvrage codirigé avec F. Giraut, Éditions Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. « The antiAtlas of Borders, A Manifesto », avec Parizo C., Popescu G., Arvers I., Cantens T., Cristofol J., Mai N., Moll J., Vion A., Journal of Borderlands Studies, 29 (4), p. 503-512, 2014. Après la frontière, avec les frontières : dynamiques transf...
Mahmoud R. Reda, Ghazi Reda
Abstract:
Pt is required as a catalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen evolution reaction(HOR) . This means that any type of fuel cell or a configuration to split water into hydrogen and oxygen require platinum as a catalyst. Currently, much of the cost of fuel cells arises from the need for precious metal catalysts – primarily Pt – to drive the necessary electrochemical reactions. For example, the cost of the Pt alone in a PEFC for a small 100 kW car is higher than the cost of an entire 100 kW gasoline engine. And there is another problem. During the course of the lifetime of a fuel cell, the Pt cathode suffers from oxidation, migration, loss of active surface area, and corrosion of the carbon support. Impurities, as well as methanol diffusing from the anode side of DMFCs, can also 'poison' the catalyst, reducing its activity and efficiency. So not only do fuel cells rely on a high-price commodity for their operation, they also require a high density of that expensive material. Understanding the mechanism responsible for such material is necessary to reduce the cost of fuel cells and water splitting configuration. It is well known that the crystal structure of platinum is an face centered cubic (FCC). In this case the lattice constants which influence the bandgap energy are equal a. In fact it may be that the bandgap energy is inversely proportional to the inverse of the a**(3) [1] Based on the idea that the lattice constant influence the bandgap and the fact that the bandgap energy is the energy required to move the bonded valence electrons to free conduction band which is the energy required to do the rate limiting step for the ORR or HER, a mechanism for the effect of platinum will be derived. Reference [1] R. Da1ven, Phys. Rev. B, 8,12 1973 [2]D. Bensaid , International Journal of Metals, 2014 (2014), Article ID 286393, 7 pages
Susan Petit
Published: 1 January 2018
The French Review, Volume 91, pp 215-216; https://doi.org/10.1353/tfr.2018.0374

Abstract:
Reviews 215 un amour secret qu’ils pensent être hors du commun. Leur différence d’âge—elle a quarante-cinq ans, il en a soixante-dix—et leur élitisme social leur permettent de vivre une passion affranchie du quotidien mais ne leur épargnent ni jalousie ni manque. Marié à Irma, brillante professeure de littérature à l’université de Turin, Gigi mène une vie routinière où l’accoutumance a fait disparaitre toute intimité. Conscient de sa mortalité, Gigi retrouve une nouvelle jeunesse auprès de Clara: “Cet amour qu’il n’attendait plus, il m’a dit un jour qu’il le goutait intensément parce qu’il savait que c’était le dernier” (127). De son côté, Clara est heureuse avec Ron, un professeur de physique “au sommet de sa carrière à Princeton” (53) et s’épanouit dans son travail. L’arrivée de Gigi bouleverse cependant ses certitudes. Elle est subjuguée par cet homme engagé, hanté par la mort mystérieuse de son père communiste et admiratif d’une mère romancière aimante: “Le poids des ans, les visages sculptés, le dessin des rides, les cheveux blancs, même les lunettes... tout ça m’a toujours paru aussi rassurant qu’attirant. [...] Gigi le protecteur répondait parfaitement à ce tropisme insolite”(131). Au-delà de leurs opinions politiques et goûts cinématographiques divergents, Clara et Gigi vivent pleinement cet “amour clandestin doublé d’un amour vieux” (150) qu’ils nomment “Bliss. Gioia. Joie” (157). Ce premier roman relate, de manière sensible et tendre, une belle histoire d’amour qui prône le sentimentalisme et le droit au bonheur à tout âge. Outre un penchant évident pour Stendhal (61), le récit abonde en références cinématographiques: sont cités les grands réalisateurs italiens tels que Rossellini, Rosi ou Fellini ainsi que des films comme La bataille d’Alger (Gillo Pontecorvo, 1966), Le guépard (Luchino Visconti, 1966) et Un homme et une femme (Claude Lelouch, 1966). Sur fond de dolce vita et de paysages méditerranéens, Joie nous plonge dans une Italie mythique propice à l’art de la séduction et aux amours multiples. Mélangeant les modes d’écriture et de communication—journal intime, emails, interview, conversations téléphoniques—l’auteure illustre magnifiquement la plénitude amoureuse nourrie de liberté, de volupté et d’affinités intellectuelles. Cette rêverie littéraire s’achève sur une invitation ronsardienne, celle de cueillir le présent, sachant pertinemment que le “temps fiche le camp” (175). Siena College (NY) Nathalie Degroult Mansouri, Saber. Une femme sans écriture. Paris: Seuil, 2017. ISBN 978-2-02-1312904 . Pp. 350. In 2013 this author published Je suis né huit fois, a semi-autobiographical novel in which Massyre, a professor of history in France, recounts his youth in Tunisia. In this second novel, Massyre, now a historian living in Paris, has written to his mother, Mabrouka, after fifteen years of silence to ask for her reminiscences and photographs so he can write about her life. She is indignant because he has been silent for so long and because she wants to remain “la femme qui mange son verbe” (11) and live in “le silence et la malédiction” (309). Between her immediate reply chastising her son and her eventual reply to his inquiry, we read Mabrouka’s great-grandmother Sihème’s account of her life as told to her daughter, Gamra; Gamra’s account to her daughter, Zina; and Zina’s to Mabrouka. A three-generation history of French colonialism in Algeria and Tunisia and the resistance to it forms the backdrop to their lives, as does the immaturity of nearly all of the males they have to deal with. The men wage war incompetently, force women to marry them or their sons, betray their wives, stand on their pride, and generally make a mess of things. In contrast, in the city of La Calle (now officially Kalla), Sihème founded the impressively-named Cité des femmes affranchies et autarciques de l’Est algérien, whose tradition of educating women has strengthened her female descendants. Each has educated her daughter(s...
Yasin Emre Durmus, Saul Said Montiel Guerrero, Hermann Tempel, Florian Hausen, Hans Kungl, Rüdiger-Albert Eichel
Abstract:
Increased demand on resource efficient battery technologies and development of materials has urged an interest on Me–air batteries, such as Zn–air and Al–air, due to their high theoretical specific energies as well as using low cost, safe and abundant materials. In this regard, while employing pure metals as anode material is one line of development [1,2], modification of the electrode by alloying with other elements is also subject to recent investigations [3]. Up to now, the influence of the alloying on the electrochemical properties of the electrode, i.e. interactions between the microstructure constituents, impact on the potential, corrosion behavior as well as the electrolyte decomposition (water or oxygen reduction), have not been systematically investigated for alloys in the Al/Zi system. The main objective of this work is to characterize the electrochemical properties of Al-Zn alloys in neutral aqueous solutions. Al-Zn alloys with six different compositions were prepared in a muffle furnace and shaped to anodes. Microstructure of the anodes in the initial state was analyzed with respect to the fractions of its constituents. The electrochemical characterization of the prepared alloy anodes encompass (i) open circuit potential, (ii) potentiodynamic polarization measurements and corresponding determination of corrosion parameters, (iii) galvanostatic discharge/charge experiments under various current densities. The potentiodynamic polarization results are further discussed with Evans diagrams considering on possible scenarios for the galvanic interactions of the different microstructure constituents. A comprehensive analysis of the surface characteristics of the alloys is also carried out after the electrochemical experiments in order to reveal the interactions during discharge. Based on the electrochemical results on potentials, charge/discharge and corrosion behavior, the Al/Zi alloys are evaluated with respect to their suitability for application in batteries. References: [1] Sumboja, A., Ge, X., Zheng, G., Goh, F. W. T., Hor, T. S. A., Zong, Y., Liu, Z., Journal of Power Sources 332, 330–336 (2016). [2] Fan, L., Lu, H., Leng, J., Electrochimica Acta 165, 22–28 (2015). [3] Pino, M., Herranz, D., Chacon, J., Fatas, E., Ocon, P., Journal of Power Sources 326, 296–302 (2016)
, Geoff McCool, Samuel McKinney, Alia Lubers, Madeleine Odgaard, Debbie Schlueter, Barr Zulevi
Abstract:
Recent development of chemically stable anion exchange membranes and ionomers resulted in substantial increase in research and development in the field of Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs) [1]. One of the advantages of AEMFC technology is the possibility to use completely platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts for the cathode (Oxygen Reduction Reaction, ORR) and the anode (Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction, HOR) [2, 3]. High performance of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) with PGM-free catalysts was achieved using M-N-C type of materials (M=Fe, Co or Ni) [4]. The cathodic electrocatalysts consisted of transition metal, nitrogen and carbon matrix can be prepared by several methods: treatment of carbons with transition metal in ammonia atmosphere, high temperature pyrolysis of Metal Organic Framework (MOF) compounds or through templating approach (Sacrificial Support Method, SSM) [5, 6]. In contrast to massive research in the ORR for AEMFCs, the development of PGM-free catalysts for HOR is still in the early stage, with majority of electrocatalysts tested in Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) conditions. The only publications in open literature on integration of PGM-free anodic materials (nickel-based) are limited to NiW and NiMo supported on carbon blacks [7, 3]. In a present contribution the design, synthesis and scale-up of different Ni-based anodic materials for AEMFC application is reported. The electrocatalysts were synthesized by thermal reduction of nickel and second metal precursors on the surface of commercial and in house prepared carbon supports (in house carbon supports are denoted as Engineered Catalyst Supports, ECS). Several important synthetic parameters such as ratio between metals, type of carbon support, reduction temperature etc. were optimized in order to achieve the highest performance in fuel cell tests. As-obtained electrocatalytically active anodic materials were integrated into the catalyst layer by proprietary method practiced at EWII Fuel Cells [8]. The catalyst layer variations included different catalyst:ionomer ratio, loading of the Ni-based catalysts in the MEA and other parameters. Fuel cell tests performed at Pajarito Powder and EWII Fuel Cells revealed high performance of PGM-free materials similar to reported earlier (Figure 1) [3]. Figure 1. Fuel cell performance of MEA with NiCu/C anode using different loadings in catalyst layer. Conditions: A: NiCu/C, C: Pt/C, Tcell = 60°C, 100% RH, flow rates = 200 ccm, backpressure = 10 psig. The future directions on improvement of fuel cell performance will be discussed. Acknowledgements: Department of Energy, Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction in Alkaline Media, Control Number: 0966-1624, Award Number: DE-EE0006962 (PI A. Serov) and ARPA-E DE-AR0000688 (PI B. Zulevi). References. [1] A. Serov, I. V. Zenyuk, C. G. Arges, M. Chatenet "Hot topics in alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells" J. of Power Sources (2017) DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.09.068 [2] Md M. Hossen, K. Artyushkova, P. Atanassov, A. Serov "Synthesis and characterization of high performing Fe-NC catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in Alkaline Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells" J. Power Sources (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.036 [3] S. A. Kabir, K. Lemire, K. Artyushkova, A. Roy, M. Odgaard, D. Schlueter, A. Oshchepkov, A. Bonnefont, E. Savinova, D. Sabarirajan, P. Mandal, E. Crumlin, I. V. Zenyuk, P. Atanassov, A. Serov "Platinum Group Metal-free NiMo Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysts: High Performance and Durability in Alkaline Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells" J. Mater. Chem. A (2017) DOI: 10.1039/C7TA08718G [4] R. Janarthanana, A. Serov, S. Kishore Pilli, D. A. Gamarra, P. Atanassov, M. R. Hibbs, A. M. Herring "Direct Methanol Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with a Non-Platinum Group Metal Cathode based on Iron-Aminoantipyrine Catalyst", Electrochim. Acta 175 (2015) 202-208. [5] J. K. Dombrovskis, A. E. C. Palmqvis "Recent Progress in Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction" Fuel Cells 16 (2016) 4–22. [6] A. Serov, M. J. Workman, K. Artyushkova, P. Atanassov, G. McCool, S. McKinney, H. Romero, B. Halevi, T. Stephenson "Highly stable precious metal-free cathode catalyst for fuel cell application", J. Power Sources 327 (2016) 557-564. [7] Q. Hu, G. Li, J. Pan, L. Tan, J. Lu, L. Zhuang "Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cell with Ni-based anode and Co-based cathode" Int. Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38 (2013) 16264-16268. [8] T. Reshetenko, M. Odgaard, D. Schlueter, A. Serov "Analysis of alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells performance at different operating conditions using DC and AC methods" J. of Power Sources (2017) DOI: /doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.11.030 Figure 1
Anne Boitel
Published: 20 November 2017
Le camp de Rivesaltes 1941-1942 pp 217-266; https://doi.org/10.4000/books.pupvd.3824

Abstract:
« J’ai honte, honte pour la France, honte pour l’humanité. » Vivette Samuel Entre 1941 et 1942, la situation des juifs dans et hors du camp évolue dans le sens de l’exclusion et de la répression permanente. Le décret-loi du 4 octobre 1940 publié au Journal Officiel le 18 octobre 1940, revêt un caractère antisémite : « les ressortissants étrangers de race juive pourront, à dater de la promulgation de la présente loi, être internés dans des camps spéciaux par décision du préfet du département de leur résidence ». À la suite de la loi du 29 mars 1941, les préfets dépendent désormais, en ce qui concerne la politique menée à l’égard des juifs, du Commissariat général aux questions juives1 chargé d’orchestrer la répression antisémite. L’intensification de la lutte anti-juive est la conséquence de la conférence de Wannsee (20 janvier 1942), au cours de laquelle, sous la direction de Heydrich, les principaux responsables nazis de la question juive ont décidé de la mise en route effective de la ...
Estelle Leggeri-Bauer
Published: 22 June 2017
Médiévales, Volume 72, pp 87-108; https://doi.org/10.4000/medievales.8086

Abstract:
La conquête du pouvoir, l’un des thèmes majeurs du Roman du Genji, est traitée par Murasaki Shikibu en maniant les codes de la narration romanesque. Dans le livre « Les concours de peintures », le prince Genji et son rival se disputent la suprématie sur la cour à travers un divertissement mettant en scène des peintures. Murasaki Shikibu exalte la figure du Genji de deux manières : en lui faisant gagner le concours grâce à un Journal de voyage en images qu’il a tenu lors de son exil, dans lequel il déploie une sensibilité hors du commun ; par sa capacité à poser des précédents – ici inventer un nouveau type de concours – qui transforme le règne impérial en âge d’or.
Béla Bartók
Published: 16 May 2017
Abstract:
La musique d’aujourd’hui – et l’on en a déjà souvent débattu dans ce journal – tend décidément vers l’atonalité. Il ne me semble pourtant pas tout à fait juste de concevoir le principe tonal en complète opposition avec le principe atonal. J’aimerais bien plutôt affirmer que celui-ci est l’ultime conséquence d’une évolution graduelle issue de celui-là. Cette évolution, en effet, a toujours été graduelle : on n’y remarque absolument aucun trou, aucun saut forcé. Comme l’a établi Schoenberg dans son Traité d’harmonie, déjà le « développement », au sein de la forme-sonate, doit être considéré, d’un certain point de vue, comme un germe du principe atonal. Dans un sens élargi de l’expression, certes, car en fait il ne s’agit là que de mettre hors circuit la domination exclusive de deux tonalités (comme par exemple dans l’« exposition »), ou d’une seule (comme par exemple dans la « réexposition ») ; à sa place, on trouve une succession en un certain sens librement choisie de différentes to...
Marie-Eve Carignan, Claude Martin
Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française, Volume 70, pp 55-79; https://doi.org/10.7202/1039518ar

Abstract:
Le quotidien montréalais Le Devoir, fondé en 1910 comme un journal indépendant, nationaliste et catholique, a joué un rôle important dans l’évolution de la société québécoise. Selon plusieurs, il fut surtout lu par l’élite sociale et économique du Canada français, puis du Québec. Nous analysons ici l’importance chiffrée du lectorat du Devoir et certaines de ses caractéristiques en nous basant sur les données de tirage de ce quotidien et d’autres journaux. Nous regardons aussi la distribution géographique du journal ainsi que les résultats de certaines enquêtes auprès de ses lecteurs et de l’élite canadienne-française. L’analyse révèle que Le Devoir représente une part relativement stable du tirage des grands journaux en français à Montréal, mais que son lectorat hors du Québec a fortement diminué avec le temps. Son lectorat comporte bien une composante de l’élite québécoise, mais aussi d’autres classes de la société.
Jules Woolf
The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Volume 8, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.1.5

Abstract:
Increased emphasis is being placed on integrating research and teaching in higher education because of the numerous benefits accrued by students. In accordance, research methods courses are ubiquitously contained in curricula, ostensibly to promote research training and the research-teaching nexus. Students may not appreciate the inclusion, however, of such courses or emphasis on research training when their career ambitions are outside academia. In this analytical autoethnographic study, I examined my experience of teaching research methods to twenty graduate students using an inquiry-based learning strategy. To assist my analysis, I incorporated the students’ reflective journals of their experience of the course. Inquiry based learning motivated both the students and me, however the approach was time intensive and stressful for me. Contrary to current recommendations, guidance is of crucial importance with this teaching approach, particularly at the onset. Furthermore, an alignment between my own research interests and course content was not necessary for the research-teaching nexus to be experienced. Moreover, absence of such alignment provided opportunities for personal development both for the students and in my case, the instructor. Dans l’enseignement supérieur, on met maintenant de plus en plus d’emphase sur l’intégration de la recherche dans l’enseignement à cause des nombreux avantages dont peuvent bénéficier les étudiants. Par conséquent, les cours de méthodologie de la recherche font désormais partie des programmes de cours de façon ubiquitaire, visiblement pour favoriser la formation en recherche et le lien entre l’enseignement et la recherche. Toutefois, les étudiants n’apprécient pas toujours une telle inclusion de ces cours ni l’accent mis sur la formation en recherche lorsque leurs ambitions de carrière se situent hors du milieu universitaire. Dans cette étude analytique auto-ethnographique, j’examine l’expérience que j’ai eue quand j’ai enseigné un cours de méthodes de recherche à vingt étudiants au cycles supérieurs en utilisant une stratégie d’apprentissage basée sur l’enquête. Pour faciliter mon analyse, j’ai incorporé les journaux de réflexions personnelles des étudiants dans lesquels ils ont relaté leurs expériences concernant le cours. L’apprentissage basé sur l’enquête a motivé à la fois les étudiants et moi-même, mais il s’est avéré que cette approche avait pris énormément de temps et avait été stressante pour moi. Contrairement aux recommandations qui circulent actuellement, il est de la plus haute importance de fournir des conseils quand on utilise cette approche d’enseignement, en particulier au début. De plus, il n’a pas été nécessaire d’aligner mes propres intérêts en matière de recherche avec le contenu du cours pour faire l’expérience du lien entre la recherche et l’enseignement. Par ailleurs, l’absence d’un tel...
Andrew Michael Park, K.C. Neyerlin, Guido Bender, Hai Long, Bryan S Pivovar
Abstract:
Bipolar membrane fuel cells (BMFCs) have been discussed in the past few years as a potential game-changer for the fuel cell community (1). In the most favorable alignment for fuel cell operation, BMFCs comprise an acidic anode (HOR) and an alkaline cathode (ORR), where protons and hydroxide ions are formed, respectively. The ions migrate through a proton or anion exchange membrane to the bipolar junction, where they combine to form water. Optimizing this interfacial reaction is critical to a high performance cell, but outside of recent modeling work (2, 3), few studies have paid specific attention to it. In this study, a series of BMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated where the proton exchange side comprised a Nafion 211 membrane and ionomer, and the alkaline membrane/ionomer were varied. All MEAs contained platinum on carbon electrode catalysts and were investigated via polarization curves and impedance. Initial MEAs made with several different AEM polymers exhibited an exorbitant cell resistance, attributed to the bipolar interface. To reduce cell resistance, bipolar membrane fabrication conditions were altered to study parameters that impact observed performance. Altering fabrication conditions resulted in nearly a 3x reduction in overall resistance, translating to large gains in BMFC performance. These fabrications methods will be summarized with results presented, which should help inform rational design and future work for BMFCs. References 1. M. Ünlü, J. Zhou and P. A. Kohl, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113, 11416 (2009). 2. K. N. Grew, J. P. McClure, D. Chu, P. A. Kohl and J. M. Ahlfield, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, F1572 (2016). 3. Q. Li, J. Gong, S. Peng, S. Lu, P.-C. Sui, N. Djilali and Y. Xiang, J. Power Sources, 307, 358 (2016). Figure 1. Example polarization curves for BMFC MEAs in H2/O2 at 60°C with and without membrane pretreatment. Figure 1
Published: 1 January 2017
The French Review, Volume 91, pp 62-73; https://doi.org/10.1353/tfr.2017.0001

Abstract:
La parenté entre Notes de tournées, un journal d’impressions de voyage de la Tournée Baret, et le roman La vagabonde met en lumière l’importance du chemin de fer chez Colette. À la fois véhicule d’évasion et d’autonomie, moteur d’un impressionnisme sensualiste et ressort d’une exploration introspective, le train figure l’opposition entre la mobilité bohémienne et le piège du mariage, sur laquelle repose l’autonomie de Renée Néré. Le lyrisme du paysage vu du train nourrit le désir de l’artiste vagabonde. Au lieu de contraindre Renée à un circuit prescrit, le voyage en train ouvre la voie à la renaissance hors-réseau.
Susan Petit
Published: 1 January 2017
The French Review, Volume 91, pp 215-216; https://doi.org/10.1353/tfr.2017.0385

Abstract:
Reviews 215 un amour secret qu’ils pensent être hors du commun. Leur différence d’âge—elle a quarante-cinq ans, il en a soixante-dix—et leur élitisme social leur permettent de vivre une passion affranchie du quotidien mais ne leur épargnent ni jalousie ni manque. Marié à Irma, brillante professeure de littérature à l’université de Turin, Gigi mène une vie routinière où l’accoutumance a fait disparaitre toute intimité. Conscient de sa mortalité, Gigi retrouve une nouvelle jeunesse auprès de Clara: “Cet amour qu’il n’attendait plus, il m’a dit un jour qu’il le goutait intensément parce qu’il savait que c’était le dernier” (127). De son côté, Clara est heureuse avec Ron, un professeur de physique “au sommet de sa carrière à Princeton” (53) et s’épanouit dans son travail. L’arrivée de Gigi bouleverse cependant ses certitudes. Elle est subjuguée par cet homme engagé, hanté par la mort mystérieuse de son père communiste et admiratif d’une mère romancière aimante: “Le poids des ans, les visages sculptés, le dessin des rides, les cheveux blancs, même les lunettes... tout ça m’a toujours paru aussi rassurant qu’attirant. [...] Gigi le protecteur répondait parfaitement à ce tropisme insolite”(131). Au-delà de leurs opinions politiques et goûts cinématographiques divergents, Clara et Gigi vivent pleinement cet “amour clandestin doublé d’un amour vieux” (150) qu’ils nomment “Bliss. Gioia. Joie” (157). Ce premier roman relate, de manière sensible et tendre, une belle histoire d’amour qui prône le sentimentalisme et le droit au bonheur à tout âge. Outre un penchant évident pour Stendhal (61), le récit abonde en références cinématographiques: sont cités les grands réalisateurs italiens tels que Rossellini, Rosi ou Fellini ainsi que des films comme La bataille d’Alger (Gillo Pontecorvo, 1966), Le guépard (Luchino Visconti, 1966) et Un homme et une femme (Claude Lelouch, 1966). Sur fond de dolce vita et de paysages méditerranéens, Joie nous plonge dans une Italie mythique propice à l’art de la séduction et aux amours multiples. Mélangeant les modes d’écriture et de communication—journal intime, emails, interview, conversations téléphoniques—l’auteure illustre magnifiquement la plénitude amoureuse nourrie de liberté, de volupté et d’affinités intellectuelles. Cette rêverie littéraire s’achève sur une invitation ronsardienne, celle de cueillir le présent, sachant pertinemment que le “temps fiche le camp” (175). Siena College (NY) Nathalie Degroult Mansouri, Saber. Une femme sans écriture. Paris: Seuil, 2017. ISBN 978-2-02-1312904 . Pp. 350. In 2013 this author published Je suis né huit fois, a semi-autobiographical novel in which Massyre, a professor of history in France, recounts his youth in Tunisia. In this second novel, Massyre, now a historian living in Paris, has written to his mother, Mabrouka, after fifteen years of silence to ask for her reminiscences and photographs so he can write about her life. She is indignant because he has been silent for so long and because she wants to remain “la femme qui mange son verbe” (11) and live in “le silence et la malédiction” (309). Between her immediate reply chastising her son and her eventual reply to his inquiry, we read Mabrouka’s great-grandmother Sihème’s account of her life as told to her daughter, Gamra; Gamra’s account to her daughter, Zina; and Zina’s to Mabrouka. A three-generation history of French colonialism in Algeria and Tunisia and the resistance to it forms the backdrop to their lives, as does the immaturity of nearly all of the males they have to deal with. The men wage war incompetently, force women to marry them or their sons, betray their wives, stand on their pride, and generally make a mess of things. In contrast, in the city of La Calle (now officially Kalla), Sihème founded the impressively-named Cité des femmes affranchies et autarciques de l’Est algérien, whose tradition of educating women has strengthened her female descendants. Each has educated her daughter(s...
Yuanchao Li, Trung Van Nguyen
Abstract:
There has been growing interest in electrical energy storage because of the challenge of integrating intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar into the electrical grid. The hydrogen-bromine reversible fuel cell system serves as a promising technology to meet this need because of its high round-trip conversion efficiency and low cost. Since the commonly used catalyst, platinum, is not stable in the corrosive HBr and Br2 environment, an alternative catalyst which is durable and active is needed. RhxSy catalyst has been found to be stable in the HBr/Br2 environment1,2. The conventional synthesis of RhxSy/C has been developed by De Nora3, where (NH4)2S2O3 serves as sulfur source and XC72R is the carbon support. This kind of catalyst, however, has large and broad particle sizes (12-40 nm) and consequently low mass specific active area (< 10 m2/g) for HOR. Moreover, the exchange current density for the HOR/HER is also relatively lower than the commercial RhxSy catalyst from BASF, which can be seen from Figure 1. Other research groups4,5 have shown that smaller particle size can be achieved if preferable surface for precipitation of Rh cation is provided. Figure 2 shows the mass specific active surface area (ECSA) of the catalyst prepared with pretreated carbon and the commercial Rh2S3 synthesis process. In addition to the ECSA/mass enhancement, Na2S also serves as an appropriate sulfur source to modify the crystal structure of RhxSy, as shown in Figure 3. The modified crystal structure leads to improved exchange current density. This presentation will discuss the attempt to synthesize the RhxSy catalyst with pretreated carbon and Na2S. The characteristics and performance of this catalyst will also be presented. Reference 1. J. Masud, T. Van Nguyen, N. Singh, E. McFarland, M. Ikenberry, K. Hohn, C.J. Pan, and B.J. Hwang, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162, F455 (2015). 2. A. Ivanovskaya, N. Singh, R.-F. Liu, H. Kreutzer, J. Baltrusaitis, T. Van Nguyen, H. Metiu, and E. McFarland, Langmuir, 29, 480 (2013). 3. De Nora Elettrodi S.P.A, Synthesis of Noble Metal, Sulphide Catalysts in A Sulfide Ion- Free Aqueous Environment, US6967185 B2, 2005. 4. A. Eguizabal, L. Uson, V. Sebastian, J.L. Hueso, and M.P. Pina, RSC Advances, 5, 90691 (2015). 5. M.S. Shafeeyan, W.M.A.W. Daud, A. Houshmand, and A. Shamiri, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 89, 143 (2010). Acknowledgments The work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000262 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EFRI-1038234 and No. 1416874, as a sub-award from Proton Onsite. Figure 1
Nisa Erisen, Damla Eroglu
Abstract:
Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the most promising energy storage systems beyond Li-ion batteries because of the high specific capacity (1675 mAh/g), low cost, natural abundance and non-toxicity of sulfur [1-3]. Although Li-S batteries have many attractive characteristics, they are facing major problems that are required to be solved to improve the cycle life and capacity retention; the precipitation of the insulating solids on the cathode (S, Li2S), infinite charging due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism and the instability of the lithium anode [1-3]. Carbon to sulfur ratio in the cathode is one of the most critical design parameters in a Li-S battery [1-3]. Because of the insulating nature of both S and Li2S, Li-S cathodes typically require high C:S ratios [1-3]. As this ratio increases, cathode kinetics are improved due to an enhancement in both electronic conductivity and active surface area. However, techno-economic model predictions in a previous study show that too much increase in the C:S ratio results in a significant decrease at the system-level energy density [1]. Therefore, thoughtful selection of the C:S ratio in the cathode is critical to achieve high-energy density Li-S batteries. In this study, the effect of carbon to sulfur ratio in the cathode on the electrochemical performance of a Li-S cell is modeled. For this purpose, a one-dimensional, concentration-independent electrochemical model for an isothermal, constant-current discharge of a Li-S cell is developed based on a previous model [1, 4]. In the model, the current-voltage relationship is predicted using Butler-Volmer kinetics in the anode, Ohm's Law in the porous separator and the porous electrode model by Newman and Tobias in the cathode [5]. The effect of C:S ratio in the cathode on the electrochemical performance is investigated at 60% depth of discharge by feeding the model with the experimental cell design parameters from the literature (i.e. carbon to sulfur ratio and electrolyte to sulfur ratio in the cathode, anode, separator and cathode thicknesses and current density in references [2, 3]). Consequently, cell voltage at 60% DOD for different C:S ratios are predicted by the model proposed and compared with the experimental data. Cell voltage at 60% DOD predicted by the model as a function of C:S ratio for two different current densities is shown in Figure 1. It can be seen that the cell voltage increases significantly with increasing C:S ratio, especially up to a C:S ratio of 1. Further increase in the carbon content leads to a less apparent increase in the cell voltage for both current densities. This may suggest that the cell is limited by the kinetics at C:S ratios lower than 1 whereas the improvement on the cathode kinetics is less significant at higher ratios. The model predictions are also validated with the experimental data [2] as shown in the figure. It is clear that the model predictions show close agreement with the experimental data. Figure 1. The effect of C:S ratio in the cathode on the cell voltage at 60% DOD predicted by the model for two different Li-S cell designs [2, 3]. The comparison of the model predictions with the experimental data [2] is also presented. References [1] Eroglu D., Zavadil K.R., Gallagher K.G., J. Electrochem. Soc., 162 (6), A982-A990 (2015). [2] Xu R., Li J.C., Lu J., Amine K., Belharouak I., Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3(8), 4170-4179 (2015). [3] Ding N., Chien S.W., Hor T.A., Liu Z., Zong Y., Journal of Power Sources, 269, 111-116 (2014). [4] Erensoy S.C., Eroglu D., Meeting Abstracts. No. 5. The Electrochemical Society, (2016). [5] Newman J.S., Tobias C.W., Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 109 (12), 1183-1191 (1962). Figure 1
Published: 1 December 2016
Berliner Journal für Soziologie, Volume 26, pp 433-457; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11609-017-0328-4

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Niina Nurmi, Pamela J Hinds
Journal of International Business Studies, Volume 47, pp 631-654; https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2016.11

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Patricia Brignone
Published: 1 June 2016
Abstract:
L’embarquement est immédiat. L’ouvrage PNCI (Pensée Nomade, Chose Imprimée) est à lui seul un voyage, pas seulement parce que les destinations évoquées ont pour nom : Séville, Oaxaca, Los Angeles, Barcelone, New York, Rome-Naples, Bordeaux, Buenos Aires, Tour des Pyrénées, mais du fait qu’il est un viatique au service de la mise en œuvre d’une expérience pédagogique hors du commun. C’est le journal atypique de vingt-cinq ans d’histoire(s) (1989-2013) d’un atelier nomade, imaginé par Michel Ap...
Dmitri Bessarabov, Andries Kruger, Sean M. Luopa, Jiyoung Park, Attila A. Molnar, Krzysztof A. Lewinski
Abstract:
New trends in PEM water electrolysis systems development open up new technology gaps and requirements that have not been discussed before with respect to PEM water electrolysis. For example, hydrogen is considered as one of the best solutions for large-scale energy storage that comes from renewable and intermittent power sources such as wind and solar electricity [1], therefore, new megawatt PEM electrolysers are required. These trends are evident through new large-scale recent installations, especially for Power-to-Gas projects in Europe and plan to treat contaminated water at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Even though PEM electrolysis has in fact been used for quite a few years now without undergoing substantial improvements over those years, however, with the new focus on hydrogen as the energy carrier there is much more interest in low-cost and high-efficiency H2 production. There are two main ways to lower the cost of hydrogen production via PEM water electrolysis: to lower the capital expenses (CAPEX) and/or to lower the operating expenses (OPEX). 3M has recently demonstrated a very effective way to address reducing the high CAPEX by increasing the range of current densities where electrolyzers can operate from a maximum of about state-of-the-art 2.0 A/cm2, to as much as 20 A/cm2 by employing a novel 3M's proprietary Nano Structured Thin Film (NSTF) catalysts and more conductive 3M PFSA based electrolytes in the electrolyzer MEA [2]. What the cited work does not however addresses is an inherent limitation associated with 3M's Ir-NSTF based anode catalysts, namely their near complete inertness to HOR. An additional tradeoff between performance and gas-crossover also exists when thinner PEM membranes are used. Resulting high hydrogen cross-over creates a gap in the otherwise complete list of requirements for catalyst coated membrane (CCM) that has to be met to become successfully employed in PEM water electrolyzer [3-4]. This was plainly demonstrated in the early 3M catalyst trials where fuel cell derived Pt alloy based NSTF catalysts were used for water electrolysis. The reported durability of such electrolyzer catalysts was excellent, with performance however leaving room for improvement [5]. The performance aspect of 3M electrolyzer catalysts has since been addressed by switching to electrolyzer specific (and Ir based) catalyst compositions. Such approach has left a utility gap by eliminating hydrogen-crossover mitigating components out of the catalyst. To address this problem alternative means for mitigation strategies have to be devised. In this work we will present some data, such as permeability (gas cross-over) of oxygen and hydrogen as a function of current density and other operational variables, aimed at establishing baselines for un-mitigated hydrogen cross-over of 3M electrolyzer MEAs based on 3M NSTF low-PGM loading catalyst and several types of PerFluoro Sulfonic Acid (PFSA) based PEM membranes, both widely commercially available (such as Nafion™ membranes) and their counterparts made by 3M. Dependence of such unmitigated hydrogen cross-over on applied pressure, pressure differentials, and temperature will be discussed and analyzed with reference to existing models of gas crossover [6-8](. In addition, we will also discuss challenges of in-situ and ex-situ gas –cross over measurements and also intend to present results of our initial attempts to employ alternative (to alloying Ir with Pt) mitigation strategies and gauge their respective effectiveness at various electrolyzer operating conditions and time frames. All proposed X-over mitigation strategies are selected with strong emphasis on compatibility of these candidate solutions with high speed/low cost roll-to-roll manufacturing process that will not be negatively affected by their properties and/or needed modifications. In: D. Bessarabov, H. Wang, H. Li, and N. Zhao (Eds): "PEM Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production: Principles and Applications", CRC Press., 2015. K. A. Lewinski, S. M. Luopa, "High Power Water Electrolysis as a New Paradigm for Operation of PEM Electrolyzer", Spring ECS Meeting, Chicago, IL, May 2015. K. A. Lewinski, et al., "NSTF Advances for PEM Electrolysis - the Effect of Alloying on Activity of NSTF Electrolyzer Catalysts and Performance of NSTF Based PEM Electrolyzers", Fall ECS Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, Oct 2015. K. A. Lewinski, et al., ECS Transactions, 69 (17) , p. 893-917 (2015). M.K. Debe, et al., Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 159 (6), (2012), p. K165-K176. C. Mittelsteadt, M. Umbrell, 207th ECS Meeting, Abstract #770 D. Bessarabov, "Gas Permeability of Proton Exchange Membranes", Chapter 21, in: PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools , Editor(s): H. Wang, Xiao-Zi Yuan, Hui Li, CRC Press, Pages: 443-473, 2011 M. Schalenbach at al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 25156−25169 Figure 1
Éloïse Adde-Vomáčka
Revue de l’Institut français d’histoire en Allemagne; https://doi.org/10.4000/ifha.8356

Abstract:
Créé en 1951, le Cercle de recherche en histoire médiévale (Konstanzer Arbeitskreis für mittelalterliche Geschichte) a commencé dès l’année suivante à éditer les actes de ses colloques (deux par an) et des volumes de recherches dans la collection Vorträge und Forschungen chez l’éditeur Thorbecke (80 volumes à ce jour, dont la plupart sont consultables en ligne, et particulièrement le présent volume : http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/vuf/issue/view/1879), ainsi que des hors-séri...
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