(searched for: 10.29328/journal.apcr.1001022)
Published: 24 August 2021
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 010-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001022
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a unique technique that allows rapid quantitative measurement of multiple parameters on a large number of cells at the individual level. FCM is based on immunolabelling with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies, leading to high sensitivity and precision while time effective sample preparation. FCM can be performed on tissue following enzymatic or mechanical dissociation. The expression of epithelial antigens and cytokeratin isoforms help in distinguishing tumor cells from adjacent epithelial cells and from tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Tumor phenotypes can be characterized on expression intensity, aberrancies and presence of tumor-associated antigens as well as their cell proliferation rate and eventual heteroploidy. FCM can measure quantitative expression of hormone or growth factor receptors, immunoregulatory proteins to guide adjuvant therapy. Expression of adhesion molecules tells on tumor’s capacity for tissue invasion and metastasis seeding. Tumor heterogeneity can be explored quantitatively and rare, potentially emerging, clones with poor prognosis can be detected. FCM is easily applicable on fine needle aspiration and in any tumor related biological fluids. FCM can also be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) to assess metastatic potential at diagnosis or during treatment. Detecting CTC could allow early detection of tumors before they are clinically expressed although some difficulties still need to be solved. It thus appears that FCM should be in the pathologist tool box to improve cancer diagnosis, classification and prognosis evaluation as well as in orientating personalized adjuvant therapy and immunotherapy. More developments are still required to better known tumor phenotypes and their potential invasiveness.
Published: 1 July 2006
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, Volume 5, pp 335-348; https://doi.org/10.1139/s06-016
Air pollution control residues (APCR) from municipal waste incinerators are usually considered as hazardous wastes because of their high contents in easily soluble Pb and other toxic metal contaminants. The objective of this research was to compare various techniques using Pb adsorption on Sphagnum peat moss (MT) for the treatment of alkaline leachates produced during the decontamination of various types of APCR including used lime (CU), electrofilter ashes (CE), and boiler ashes (CC). Regeneration tests of saturated MT using hydrochloric and sulphuric acids have revealed that excessive acid consumption (>250 kg acid/metric ton of treated APCR) are necessary for the elution of metals. However, the incineration of the saturated MT and its possible valorization represents an interesting way to explore for the management of the adsorbent. This method allows to reduce by a factor of 3 or 4 the mass of residues and increases in the same proportion the Pb content in the incinerated MT. Finally, the present study has highlighted that ion exchange on the anionic functional groups of MT would be one of the most important mechanisms implied in the Pb fixation on this natural sorbent during the treatment of very alkaline leachates (pH > 11) of APCR.Key words: lead, leaching, incinerator, air pollution control residues (APCR), removal, peat, adsorption, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP).[Journal translation]