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C A Thompson
Published: 15 April 1994
American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Volume 51, pp 966-8, 974

Published: 1 January 2016
The Pharmaceutical Journal; https://doi.org/10.1211/pj.2016.20201995

Abstract:
A lack of awareness about reporting systems for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and confusion about how they work are preventing patients from informing medicines safety regulators when something goes wrong, according to research published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Gui-Ying Xing, , Yuan-Xiao Yang
Published: 1 June 2008
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, Volume 33

Abstract:
To understand the adverse drug reaction (ADR) induced by Mailuoning injection. 162 ADRs due to the drug were retrieved from national medical journals of 1988-2007 for statistics. It was shown that there was no relationship between ADR and dosage, but ADR appeared mostly in middle-aged and old groups, and more in male than in female. The occurrence of ADR was commonly within 30 min after injection. It involved injuries of various systems and organs. As for the 123 cases of allergy, 38 were anaphylactic shock (accounting for 23.46%), two people died. ADR characterized by immediate type on initial use and tachy type. It should be paid more attention to the Mailuoning injection for the immediate hypersensitivity reaction (such as anaphylactic shock).
Published: 18 October 2014
Journal: Reactions Weekly
Reactions Weekly, Volume 1523, pp 12-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40278-014-4144-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ian S. Blackshaw
Published: 1 January 2002
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ian S. Blackshaw
Published: 1 January 2009
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Judith Meyer
Published: 1 March 2019
Corporate Mediation Journal, Volume 3, pp 11-12; https://doi.org/10.5553/cmj/254246022019003102004

Abstract:
Eleven Journals is een online tijdschriftenplatform van Boom uitgevers Den Haag (Boom juridisch, Boom criminologie, Boom bestuurskunde en Eleven International publishing)
Charles E. Myers, Henry A. Woodson
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Volume 48, pp 1428-1428; https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/48.7.1428

Abstract:
Working toward uniformity in evaluation of ADR-reporting programs, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Volume 48, Issue 7, 1 July 1991, Pages 1428, https://d
Published: 7 March 2015
Journal: Reactions Weekly
Reactions Weekly, Volume 1541, pp 8-8; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40278-015-8160-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Comment
James M. Wooten
Southern Medical Journal, Volume 104, pp 83-84; https://doi.org/10.1097/smj.0b013e318206f8fd

Abstract:
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are commonplace these days. With so many pharmaceuticals used to treat so many varied diseases in patients of varying types, it is no wonder that ADR case reports have become common. In this issue of the Southern Medical Journal Ji et al1 document a case of pleural effusion and interstitial pneumonitis after treatment with pegylated interferon for hepatitis C...
Comment
, Cynthia W. Ko
The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 114, pp 1199-1201; https://doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000307

Abstract:
The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is our current best colonoscopy quality indicator, but it is not without limitations. In this issue of the Journal, novel ADR benchmarks are proposed based on historical local colonoscopy results. These minimally acceptable, standard of care, and aspirational benchmarks may encourage continuous quality improvement through the explicit determination of notably higher but proven achievable ADR targets, although validation in clinical practice is needed. Ultimately, we must transition from ADR measurement to the implementation of robust quality improvement processes that assure the best outcomes for our patients.
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Volume 55, pp 1097-1098; https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/55.11.1097

Abstract:
Study finds ADRs in 1 in 15 hospital patients, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Volume 55, Issue 11, 1 June 1998, Pages 1097–1098, https://doi.org/10
J Valladares, J M Ferrer, V Palop, E Rubio,
Published: 1 May 1992
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española, Volume 43

Abstract:
A 12 months prospective study to detect adverse drug reactions (ADR) was carried out in an ORL outpatients clinic. 52 patients (1.8%) out of 2891 examined suffered one or more ADRs. The incidence was higher in women and in older patients. 94% of the ADRs were mild to moderate and 3 patients suffered irreversible lesions. Reactions were most commonly located in the nervous system (50%) and gastrointestinal tract (21%). The most common drugs involved were cardiovascular (40%) and central nervous system (25%) active drugs. Papers concerning ADRs published from 1976 to 1985 in spanish otorhinolaringologic journals have also been analyzed. 0.88% of 1357 published papers described ADRs. The incidence of ADRs observed in our study is higher than expected from the low number of papers published on this subject.
Stephan Breidenbach, Lea Nesselhauf
Published: 1 October 2022
Zeitschrift Für Konfliktmanagement, Volume 25, pp 186-189; https://doi.org/10.9785/zkm-2022-250510

Abstract:
Article Klimawende und ADR – am Beispiel GermanZero was published on October 1, 2022 in the journal Zeitschrift für Konfliktmanagement (volume 25, issue 5).
Maham Ashraf, Huma Mahmood Ali, Saba Niaz, Moater Batool, Fauzia Rehman, Ifra Nabi
Published: 31 January 2020
Journal of Contemporary Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 65-74; https://doi.org/10.56770/jcp2019325

Abstract:
Background: Skin diseases are more common due to bacteria and fungi, mostly antibiotics, antifungal, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antipsoriatics and antiacne agents are prescribed. 10% of hospital admissions are due to these ADRsthat include anaphylactic shock, hypersensitivity reactions. Monitoring of ADRs associated with the use of these drugs can be monitored by various ways including spontaneous reporting, yellow card scheme, direct patient reporting, and case control and cohort studies. Method: It is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing researcharticles and journals like Journal American Medical Association, JAMA, American Society of Health System Pharmacists, MedCare etc. relating to skin diseases and ADR monitoring relating to use of drugs for treatment from1969 to 2016. Conclusion: Most prevalent skin diseases are acne, microbial infections, psoriasis, hypersensitivityreactions, fungal infections and drug used for their treatment results in various adverse drug reactions which should be monitored during the therapy. These ADRs may be associated with minor to life threatening conditions.
Laura Nader
Published: 8 May 2018
Abstract:
Lawyers and judges in the United States have been pummeled in the popular media and in dispute resolution journals by an accelerating wave of antagonism toward litigation and the adversarial process. This chapter argues that harmony ideology - manifested in the reluctance of many lawyers to defend their profession against the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) onslaught - finds fertile ground through mechanisms of hierarchy and coercive harmony. The rationalization for ADR was from the outset articulated as protecting the courts from the "garbage cases," such as gender, environmental, and consumer cases, and protecting the courts from overload. ADR is a hegemonic movement, in which the exercise of political control working through a combination of persuasion and force makes it appear as if persuasion is the predominant feature. In any period of history, harmony ideology is accompanied by an intolerance for conflict.
Published: 1 November 1987
Alternatives To the High Cost of Litigation, Volume 5, pp 188-188; https://doi.org/10.1002/alt.3810051112

Published: 1 January 1988
Alternatives To the High Cost of Litigation, Volume 6, pp 12-12; https://doi.org/10.1002/alt.3810060112

Alternatives To the High Cost of Litigation, Volume 7, pp 107-107; https://doi.org/10.1002/alt.3810070614

Annapurna Kolupoti, , K. Shahistha
Published: 1 June 2021
Abstract:
Introduction: An adverse drug reaction case report refers to a scientific publication that is written by a health care professional who suspects a causal relationship between a drug and an adverse drug reaction (ADR). ADR case reports help to identify potential risks associated with the use of the drug. Most of the case reports do not mention reporting the ADR to regulatory authorities. With this objective, the aim of this study was to analyze the number of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) published as case reports (PubMed indexed journals) from January 2018 to June 2019 and observe if they are translated into a regulatory framework like Vigibase and package inserts. Materials And Methods: 321 ADRs were obtained with the keywords “Adverse Drug Reaction.” Out of those, 158 were independently extracted by two investigators, observed and categorized according to classes of the drugs, geographic location, severity, hospitalization, completeness of ADR, and whether they were reported to the regulatory authority (VigiBase) or listed in the package insert. Literature review articles were excluded. Results: Out of the 158 ADRs, antibiotics accounted for 12.65%, CNS drugs and monoclonal antibodies accounted for 11.39%, anticancer drugs for 9.49%, CVS drugs for 4.43%, anti-virals for 3.79%, and the others for 45.56%. According to geographic region, 26 ADRs published were from USA, 4 from Australia, 3 from Italy, 17 from India, 9 from Turkey, 1 from Singapore and the UK, 20 from China, 2 from Denmark and Canada, 10 from Japan, 9 from France, 1 from Austria, 5 from Korea, 3 from South America, and 2 from Switzerland. Depending upon the severity, causality assessment was performed for 45 ADRs only; it was not performed for 113 ADRs. 41.13% of patients (from 65 case reports) were hospitalized. Among the 158 ADRs, 14 ADRs were not found in VigiBase. 32 ADRs were not mentioned in the drug package inserts. When categorized according to the completeness of case reports, weight accounted for 1.89%, lab values and procedure for diagnosis accounted for 96.8%, risk factors for 95.56%, prior exposure for 88.60%, post ADR status for 60.12%, and the start-stop medication, route of administration, first dose, last dose, and the duration of illness accounted for 100%. Conclusion: Depending upon our observation, we have noticed that there is a deficiency in reporting of suspected ADR to the regulatory authorities. Reporting can be included as mandatory criteria for ADR case reports. Also, there is an increased need for various healthcare workers to be aware about reporting ADR.
Cheryl A. Thompson
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Volume 51, pp 966-983; https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/51.8.966

Abstract:
Cheryl A. Thompson; Journals, FDA announce steps to encourage ADR reporting, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Volume 51, Issue 8, 15 April 1994, Pages 96
, V. Palop, A. Bayón, R. Sorando, I. Martínez-Mir
Published: 1 March 2006
Atencion Primaria, Volume 37, pp 187-193; https://doi.org/10.1157/13085947

Abstract:
To assess the quality and relevance of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) published as Letters to the Editor (LE) in Spanish medical journals. Observational study. LE on adverse drug reactions published over 5 years (1994-98). Four Spanish medical journals (Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española, Atención Primaria and Anales de Medicina Interna). Patient characteristics, drugs, ADR, causality algorithm, minimum criteria, and publication relevance. Out of 2244 LE, 204 (9.1%) reported ADRs, which included 235 cases. The therapeutic subgroups most commonly implicated were anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, antibiotics, and antineoplastic agents; 20.4% of the drugs were recently marketed. ADRs most commonly involved the nervous system (13.6%), liver (10.2%), skin and appendages (9.8%), general reactions (9.8%), and the digestive system (8.1%). The reactions were moderate in 50.2% of cases and severe/fatal in 34%. The mean causality algorithm value (5.9+/-2.2) was similar among journals. Of the ADRs, 28 (11.9%) were definitive, 182 (77%) possible or probable, and 26 (11.1%) improbable or conditional; 10.2% were unknown. There were no differences in the mean minimum publication criteria (9.5+/-1.2). Publication relevance was 3.2+/-1.6 points, and higher in Medicina Clínica. ADRs constitute an important part of LE in the journals studied. The causal relationship is acceptable, the documentation quality is high, with few unknown reactions and ADRs to recently marketed drugs. Relevance is generally low, although greater in Medicina Clínica.
Comment
Farzaneh Pirnia, Madlaina Breuleux, Erasmus Schneider, Manfred Hochmeister, Susan E. Bates, Andreas Marti, Michel A. Hotz, ,
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 92, pp 1535-1536; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.18.1535

Abstract:
The doxorubicin (ADR)-selected human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7/ADR-RES) has been a useful model for a multidrug-resistant subline in cancer research. However, a recent letter to the Journal has alerted the scientific community about the finding that MCF-7/ADR-RES is not a MCF-7-derived cell line. This report led to a change of nomenclature from MCF-7/ADR-RES to NCI/ADR-RES (1).
Lisa A. Ladewski, , Jonathan R. Nebeker, Oliver Sartor, E. Allison Lyons, Timothy C. Kuzel, Martin S. Tallman, Dennis W. Raisch, Amy R. Auerbach, Glen T. Schumock, et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 21, pp 3859-3866; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2003.04.537

Abstract:
Purpose: To describe the clinical findings, occurrence rates, causality evidence, and dissemination media for serious cancer drug–associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in the postmarketing setting. Methods: ADRs were termed serious if they resulted in death or severe organ failure. ADR information for oncology drugs from package insert (PI) revisions, so-called Dear Doctor letters, and journal articles was evaluated to identify serious ADRs reported from 2000 to 2002. Timing and content of information disseminated was assessed. Results: Twenty-five serious ADRs associated with 22 oncology drugs were identified after approval. Approximately half of these serious ADRs are associated with drugs approved before 1995. ADRs were described in articles in medical journals (17 ADRs), PI revisions (18 ADRs), and Dear Doctor letters (12 ADRs). PI revisions occurred less than 1 year after peer-reviewed publication for four ADRs. These revisions often differed for similar ADRs that occurred with drugs of the same class. Five of the seven ADRs lacking PI changes occurred with off-label use, for which PI change is not recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) policy. No cancer drug was withdrawn from the market during the observation period. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that serious ADRs may be discovered as long as 36 years after a drug receives FDA approval. This suggests a need for continued vigilance and efficient strategies for dissemination of information about ADRs associated with cancer drugs.
Sandra L. Kane-Gill, Pamela L. Smithburger, Evan A. Williams, Maria A. Felton, Nan Wang, Amy L. Seybert
Published: 4 February 2015
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 6, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098615569725

Abstract:
Purpose: A previous study of cases published approximately 10–30 years ago reveals that substantial improvement in the quality of adverse drug reaction (ADR) case reports is needed. Since that evaluation, recommendations are available concerning the content and formatting of case reports. Objective: To compare the quality of recently published ADR case reports to a previously published study of the quality of ADR case reports from 10–30 years ago. A secondary objective is to determine the quality of reporting by specialty journal. Methods: This was a two-phase study. Phase 1 included an assessment of the 23 patient, drug and ADR variables evaluated in the previous study to allow comparison with recently published case reports in specialty journals. Phase 2 mimicked the methods of Phase 1 with a random selection of available case reports in a 1-year period from a variety of journals. Results: For Phase 1, 19 of the 23 variables had significant differences in reporting compared with the previous study. Reporting of active diseases, social history, weight, race, other drugs and dose had frequencies ranging from 25 to 80%, which was an improvement, but affording an opportunity for greater improvement. For Phase 2, 21 of the 23 variables had significant differences compared with the previous evaluation; however illicit drug use, mechanism for ADR and route of administration had significant reductions in reporting. Conclusion: Progress has been made in ADR case reporting quality for a variety of journals, but more improvement is required to ensure data are understandable and relatable to patient care.
Comment
, Eswaran Devarajan, Jack Chen, Asha Multani, Sen Pathak
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 94, pp 1652-1654; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.21.1652-b

Abstract:
Two recent correspondences published in the Journal (1,2) labeled the MCF-7/ADR cell line—a multidrug-resistant (MDR) human breast cancer MCF-7 subline—as having a non-MCF-7 origin, which led to a change in the nomenclature of this cell line to NCI/ADR. We believe the original nomenclature of MCF-7/ADR should be retained.
Przeglad Epidemiologiczny; https://doi.org/10.32394/pe.76.41

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION. Collecting information about drugs in clinical practice is essential for ongoing risk-benefit analysis of the drug use. Medical literature is an important source of new information on drug safety, in particular for the signal assessment. A signal is an information about a new potentially causal association, or a new aspect of a known association (e.g. change in frequency or severity of the reaction) between a drug and an adverse event (AE). AIM OF THE STUDY. To verify the effectiveness of the identification of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports published in the local medical literature using MEDLINE and Embase, versus manual full text review of journals. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was performed for 20 randomly selected drugs and 84 Polish medical journals and covers a review of 1,576 individual journal issues with 20,146 articles. Retrospective analysis of literature reports collected during manual full text review was performed and compared to the outcome of database search. RESULTS. ADRs for analyzed drugs were identified only in 17 out of 84 journals, as a result of which 66 reports were analyzed. The majority of reports (55%) were found in local non-indexed journals. Three reports originated from journals indexed in MEDLINE and 9 reports from journals indexed in Embase were not found in these databases because databases do not fully cover conference abstracts and journal supplements. Moreover, while using databases for ADR report search there is a risk of missing up to 30% of ADR reports. The average gap between article publication date and database entry was 119 days. CONCLUSIONS. We verified that the effectiveness of the identification of ADR reports published in the local medical literature is more accurate based on manual full text review than by searching in bibliographic databases.
, Qiang Yuan, Gareth Marshall, Xiaohua Cui, Lan Cheng, Yuanyuan Li, , Boli Zhang, Youping Li
Published: 7 April 2010
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, Volume 3, pp 95-104; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-5391.2010.01073.x

Abstract:
We conducted a literature review on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to 33 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections (CMIs) on China's National Essential medicines List (2004 edition). We aimed to retrieve basic ADR information, identify trends related to CMIs, and provide evidence for the research, development, and application of CMIs. We electronically searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, January 1978-April 2009), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI, January 1979-April 2009), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (January 1989-April 2009) and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (January 1984-April 2009). We used the terms of 'adverse drug reaction', 'adverse event', 'side effects', 'side reaction', 'toxicity', and 'Chinese medicine injections', as well as the names of the 33 CMIs to search. We also collected CMI-related ADR reports and regulations from the Chinese Food and Drug Administration's 'Newsletter of Adverse Drug Reactions' (Issue 1 to 22). Then we descriptively analyzed all the articles by year published, periodical, and study design. We also analyzed regulations relevants to ADRs. (1) We found 5405 relevant citations, of which 1010 studies met the eligibility criteria. (2) The rate of publishing of research articles on CMI-linked ADRs has risen over time. (3) The included 1010 articles were scattered among 297 periodicals. Of these, 55 journals on pharmaceutical medicine accounted for 39.5% of the total (399/1010); the 64 journals on traditional Chinese medicine, accounted for only 19.5% (197/1010). Only 22 periodicals with relevant articles were included on the core journals of the Beijing University List (2008 edition); these published 129 articles (12.8% of the included articles). (4) The relevant articles consisted of 348 case reports (34.5%), 254 case series (25.2%), 119 reviews (11.8%), 116 randomized controlled trials (11.5%), 78 cross-sectional studies (7.7%), 61 literature analyses of ADR (6.0%), and 28 non-randomized controlled clinical studies (2.8%). (5) Three journals, Adverse Drug Reactions Journal, China Medical Herald, and Chinese Pharmaceuticals, together published 12.3% of the included literature. (6) The most commonly-reported CMI-related ADRs were to Shuanghuanglian, Qingkailing, and Yuxingcao injections, each of which had ADRs mentioned in more than 200 articles. Four of the five CMIs with the most ADR reports (Shuanghuanglian, Ciwujia, Yuxingcao, and Yinzhihuang injections) had been suspended use or sale in the market. (1) Articles published on CMI-related ADRs increased over time, but overall the research is of low quality and is scattered through a large number of sources. (2) Four CMIs (Shuanghuanglian, Ciwujia, Yuxingcao, and Yinzhihuang injections) had been suspended for clinical use or sale. (3) There is an urgent need for a clear standard to grade ADRs of CMIs in order to better risk manage. (4) It is necessary to continually re-evaluate the safety of CMIs and to promote rational use of CMIs.
Sheng-Yung Yang
Published: 10 October 2004
Applied Economics Letters, Volume 11, pp 755-758; https://doi.org/10.1080/1350485042000254629

Abstract:
This study tries to answer the following question: Should the US investors purchase American depository receipts (ADRs) issued by Taiwanese multinationals? The conditional international asset pricing model of Dumas and Solnik (Journal of Finance, 50, 445–79, 1995) is applied to price these Taiwanese American depository receipts (ADRs). Empirical results show that foreign exchange risk is priced in Taiwanese ADRs. Moreover, Taiwanese ADRs are shown to help US investors diversify their portfolios globally. These findings suggest that Taiwanese ADRs are valid investment tools for US investors who seek international diversifications.
Correction
Published: 1 January 2017
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 139; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.11.001

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Joseph Finkelstein, Qinlang Chen, Hayden Adams, Carol Friedman
Amia Joint Summits on Translational Science Proceedings. Amia Joint Summits on Translational Science, Volume 2016, pp 68-77

Abstract:
Academic literature provides rich and up-to-date information concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR), but it is time consuming and labor intensive for physicians to obtain information of ADRs from academic literature because they would have to generate queries, review retrieved articles and summarize the results. In this study, a method is developed to automatically detect and summarize ADRs from journal articles, rank them and present them to physicians in a user-friendly interface. The method studied ADRs for 6 drugs and returned on average 4.8 ADRs that were correct. The results demonstrated this method was feasible and effective. This method can be applied in clinical practice for assisting physicians to efficiently obtain information about ADRs associated with specific drugs. Automated summarization of ADR information from recent publications may facilitate translation of academic research into actionable information at point of care.
, Krisha Danekhu, Bhuvan Kc, , Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim
Published: 1 January 2020
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098620922480

Abstract:
Background: Bibliometric analyses have been used previously to study the measures of quality and impact of research performed in several health-related areas such as adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and pharmacovigilance (PV), etc. This method can assess the research performance of publications quantitatively and statistically. There is no evidence of bibilometric studies analyzing ADRs and PV from Nepal. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess scientific output on ADRs and PV-related research activities in Nepal using a bibliometric analysis of publications from 2004 January to December 2018, that is, 15 years.Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and Nepal Journal Online (NepJOL) databases. ‘Adverse Drug Reactions‘ or ‘ADRs‘ or ‘ADR‘ or ‘Adverse drug reaction‘ or ‘AE‘ or ‘Adverse Event‘ or ‘Drug-Induced Reaction‘ or ‘Pharmacovigilance‘ or ‘PV‘ and ‘Nepal‘. The search covered 15 years (January 2004 to December 2018) of study on ADRs and PV in Nepal. Only articles retrieved from databases were included, whereas published/unpublished drug bulletins, pharmacy newsletters and thesis were excluded. The articles thus retrieved were recorded, and thereafter analyzed. Word count code was used for the analysis of keywords used in the retrieved articles.Results: A total of 124 articles were retrieved, with the highest rate of publications in 2006 and 2007, with 16 papers each. Among the articles, 10 (8.1%) were published in Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ). Single papers were published in 38 different journals. Brief reports (1.6%), case reports (31.2%), case series (0.8%), education forums (0.8%), letters to the editor (5.6%), original research articles (41.9%), review articles (9.7%), short communications and short reports (8.1%) on ADRs and PV were recorded. Out of 124 papers, 52 (41.9%) were original research publications. The majority (74.1%) of research was done in the category of ADR incidence, types, prevention, and management, followed by policy and suggestions for strengthening national and regional pharmacovigilance centers of Nepal (14.5%).Conclusions: During the study years, there was an increase in scientific publications on drug safety. A total of 124 published articles were found during bibliometric analysis of ADRs and PV research activities in Nepal.
Published: 6 February 2019
Journal of Medical Internet Research, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.2196/11016

Abstract:
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet #Preprint #PeerReviewMe: Warning: This is a unreviewed preprint. Readers are warned that the document has not been peer-reviewed by expert/patient reviewers or an academic editor, may contain misleading claims, and is likely to undergo changes before final publication, if accepted, or may have been rejected/withdrawn. Readers with interest and expertise are encouraged to sign up as peer-reviewer, if the paper is within an open peer-review period. Please cite this preprint only for review purposes or for grant applications and CVs (if you are the author). Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common and they are the underlying cause of over a million serious injuries and deaths each year. The most familiar method to detect ADRs is relying on spontaneous reports. Unfortunately, the low reporting rate of spontaneous reports is a serious limitation of pharmacovigilance. Objective: Our objective was to identify a method to detect potential ADRs of drugs automatically using a deep neural network (DNN). Methods: We designed a DNN model that utilizes the chemical, biological, and biomedical information of drugs to detect ADRs. This model aimed to fulfil two main purposes, identifying the potential ADRs of drugs and predicting the possible ADRs of a new drug. For improving the detection performance, we distributed representations of the target drugs in a vector space to capture the drug relationships by using the word embedding approach to process amounts of biomedical literature. Moreover, we built a mapping function to address new drugs that do not appear in the dataset. Results: We predicted the ADRs of drugs recorded up to 2012, by using the drug information and the ADRs reported up to 2009. There were contained 746 drugs and 232 new drugs which only recorded in 2012 with 1,325 ADRs. The experimental results showed that the overall performance of our model with mean average precision (MAP) at top-10 is achieved 0.523 for ADR prediction on the dataset. Conclusions: Our model was effective in identifying the potential ADRs of a drug and the possible ADRs of a new drug. Most importantly, it can detect potential ADRs irrespective of whether they have been reported in the past.
Published: 18 January 2021
Philosophy of Management, Volume 20, pp 293-306; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40926-020-00156-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Comment
, Brennan Spiegel
The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 111, pp 730-732; https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2016.103

Abstract:
The colonoscopy quality assurance movement has focused on a variety of process metrics, including the adenoma detection rate (ADR). However, the ADR only ascertains whether or not at least one adenoma is identified. Supplemental measures that quantify all neoplasia have been proposed. In this issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, Aniwan and colleagues performed tandem screening colonoscopies to determine the adenoma miss rate among high-ADR endoscopists. This permitted validation of supplemental colonoscopy quality metrics. This study highlights potential limitations of ADR and the need for further refinement of colonoscopy quality metrics, although logistic challenges abound.
Ana Miguel
Journal of Ocular Diseases and Therapeutics, Volume 1, pp 36-40; https://doi.org/10.12974/2309-6136.2013.01.01.8

Abstract:
Sometimes ocular (and systemic) therapeutics may cause ocular (and systemic) diseases, namely adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Journal of Ocular Diseases and Therapeutics is therefore doubly adequate for discussion of the theme of ADRs in Ophthalmology. Many terms are utilized as synonyms but the correct definition of ADR (according to the World Health Organization, WHO) is: "any noxious, unintended and undesired effect of a drug, which occurs at doses used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy". Ophthalmology is one of the medical specialties in which there is a high difficulty in continuous diagnosis, assessment and treatment. Additionally, the specific and delicate anatomy and physiology of the eye may easily be disrupted by an ADR, with possible irreversible consequences. Ocular ADRs may be frequent (such as cornea verticillata caused by amiodarone) or specific. On the other hand, systemic ADRs may occur after ocular treatments (such as hypotension after instillation of a beta-blocker drop). The timely detection and recognition of ADRs is therefore critical. Several methods exist for the detection of ADRs, but few are specific or apply to ADRs in Ophthalmology. Spontaneous reporting is a low-resource method for detection of ADRs but has flaws, namely under-detection and risk of bias. The literature can be confusing or incomplete, with several case reports and case series about ocular ADRs lacking a causality assessment (such as Naranjo's or WHO's). In conclusion, ADRs in Ophthalmology are a heterogeneous group of ADRs that lack detection, assessment and systematization. Studies about ADRs should increase their quality for further clarification. Each ophthalmologist should know the specific ocular ADRs to systemic medication, the specific systemic ADRs to ocular medication, and to detect and treat them adequately for good clinical practice.
Published: 13 September 2014
Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News, Volume 711, pp 11-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40274-014-1520-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Li Zhang, Jing Hu, Lu Xiao, Yongling Zhang, Wei Zhao, ,
Published: 30 August 2010
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, Volume 3, pp 177-182; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-5391.2010.01089.x

Abstract:
To analyze adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with Shenmai injection and possible contributing factors.We searched all clinical studies and ADR reports of Shenmai injection from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the Data Bank of Chinese Scientific Journals (VIP), and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) database. We collected relevant information such as gender, age, allergic history, and diseases treated in ADR cases; types, occurrence times, and severity of ADRs; and menstruum and compatibility of Shenmai injection.Of the 1828 clinical studies of Shenmai injection, 146 (7.99%) mentioned 576 ADR cases; 181 ADR reports mentioned 246 ADR cases. The most commonly affected age group was 40 to 69 (57.32%). In 36 (14.63%) cases, patients were described as having an allergic history. The diseases treated in ADR cases were principally heart failure and coronary artery heart disease. Thirty-eight (15.45%) of the 246 ADR cases in ADR reports described anaphylactic shock, while the most common ADR reported in clinical studies was headache/dizziness. Of the 822 total reported ADR cases, 99 (12.04%) were class III, and 637 (77.50%) were class IV, and there were no fatalities. The menstruum of most Shenmai injections was 5% glucose. Incompatible drugs were given in 68 ADR cases. In ADR cases, the most common dosage of Shenmai injection was 40 to 60 ml; 215 (80.90%) ADR cases occurred in first time medication, mainly in the first 30 minutes after injection.Current evidence shows that Shenmai injection had lower ADR occurrence, but some potential factors such as irrational compatibility, dosages may lead to a high risk of ADR. In future, clinicians should follow indications or functions to promote rational use of Chinese Medicine Injections .
Published: 13 September 2014
Journal: Reactions Weekly
Reactions Weekly, Volume 1518, pp 8-8; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40278-014-3260-9

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, J De Dios Luna
Published: 13 July 2006
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Santosh Kc, P Tragulpiankit, P Gorsanam, Ir Edwards, K Alam
Published: 30 March 2013
Nepal Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 3, pp 230-235; https://doi.org/10.3126/nje.v3i1.8286

Abstract:
The aims of pharmacovigilance are early recognition of previously unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), recognition of changes in frequency of known ADRs, identification of risk factors and mechanism of ADRs, quantitative analysis of benefit/risk ratio and dissemination of safety information for rational drug prescribing and regulation. The pharmacovigilance programme in Nepal is a recent development. The Department of Drug Administration (DDA) took the initiative to set up a pharmacovigilance program in 2002; however, it was initiated systematically only after two years. DDA acts as the National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC). It collects ADR case reports from the Regional Pharmacovigilance Centre (RPC). Currently there are six RPCs operating in the country. The current reporting trends suggest high under-reporting of suspected ADRs. This paper is a review of those studies which are focused on pharmacovigilance and healthcare professionals’ perspectives on ADR reporting in Nepal. It also recommends the possible ways to improve the ADR reporting based on the context of Nepal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nje.v3i1.8286 Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 2013;3 (1): 230-235
Zhao-Xiang Bian, Hao-Yao Tian, Lin Gao, Hong-Cai Shang, Tai-Xiang Wu, You-Ping Li, Bo-Li Zhang, Li Song
Published: 25 February 2010
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, Volume 3, pp 5-10; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-5391.2010.01055.x

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, Sheena Derry, Jeffrey K. Aronson
Published: 3 February 2004
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 57, pp 616-621; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0306-5251.2003.02055.x

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Joel Fossouo Tagne, Reginald Amin Yakob, , ,
Published: 5 June 2022
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance; https://doi.org/10.2196/40080

Abstract:
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet #Preprint #PeerReviewMe: Warning: This is a unreviewed preprint. Readers are warned that the document has not been peer-reviewed by expert/patient reviewers or an academic editor, may contain misleading claims, and is likely to undergo changes before final publication, if accepted, or may have been rejected/withdrawn. Readers with interest and expertise are encouraged to sign up as peer-reviewer, if the paper is within an open peer-review period. Please cite this preprint only for review purposes or for grant applications and CVs (if you are the author). Background: Medications aim to relieve suffering & ailment, but they can be associated with adverse side effects or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs are a major cause of hospital admissions and cause a significant strain on healthcare funding in Australia and Globally. There is little integrative and collective knowledge on ADR reporting and monitoring in the Australian healthcare system. Objective: This review aims to investigate the current trends in ADR reporting, monitoring, and handling in the Australian healthcare system and describe related interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search of appropriate keywords, regarding ADRs was used to search 6 electronic databases to retrieve peer-reviewed scientific articles published from 2010 to 2021. Only articles with a precise focus on ADRs in the Australian medicine’s management context were included. Results: Seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The findings offer a comprehensive picture of ADR reporting and monitoring in the Australian healthcare system. The current ADR systems were compiled with the involvement of both consumer/ patients and healthcare providers to record or report all types of ADRs of various severities and aimed at improving ADR monitoring and reporting. The major barrier to consumer/patients’ participation is awareness to reporting mechanisms. Consumers are also more likely to report ADRs to their doctor or pharmacists. Documentation of opioid and penicillin ADR reports in hospital electronic health records shows nurses and pharmacists to be significantly less likely than doctors to omit the reaction description and pharmacists significantly more likely to enter the correct classification than doctors. Conclusions: There is a need to (1) improve the current initiatives on public awareness to ADR reporting and the provision of report feedback to enhance interdisciplinary collaboration; (2) implement digital solutions to support consumer/patients reporting and empower healthcare providers to electronically capture and report ADRs within their clinical workflow; (3) undertake studies to understand ADR management at the primary healthcare institutional level; (4) develop and validate frameworks to evaluate novel technological solutions designed to facilitate pharmacovigilance and improve the safety of medicines management in Australia.
Published: 10 January 2015
Journal: Reactions Weekly
Reactions Weekly, Volume 1533, pp 9-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40278-015-6027-z

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Ni Kadek Sri Jayanti, Politeknik Negeri Bali, I Ketut Budarma, I Wayan Jendra
Journal of Applied Sciences in Travel and Hospitality, Volume 3, pp 107-115; https://doi.org/10.31940/jasth.v3i2.1915

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the relationship and influence of the Chinese market Average Daily Rate (ADR) on the overall ADR at Conrad Bali Hotel. Data collection used in this study through observation, interview, and documentation. The analysis techniques used are descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, simple linear regression, and the coefficient of determination test (R2). The results of this study indicated that the Chinese market ADR (X) variable has a positive correlation with very strong category, overall ADR with a correlation value of 0.819. The coefficient regression is 1.085 and the coefficient determination shows that the influence of Chinese market ADR (X) on overall ADR (Y) is 66%. Thus, Chinese market can be an option to filling the occupancy when low seasons and a good target market when special occasion but should be followed by a necessary way to optimize its strength.
, Ming-Yuan Leon Li, Ti-Chen Chen
Published: 1 May 2010
Applied Economics, Volume 42, pp 1811-1823; https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840701736057

Abstract:
The purposes of this article are to reinvestigate how returns of major American depository receipts (ADRs) from different countries are related to the underlying stock returns and to identify the determinants of ADR risk premiums. We use different types of error-correcting terms in vector error correction models to examine information flows between ADRs and the underlying foreign stocks. General method of moments estimation of conditional international asset pricing model of Dumas and Solnik ( 1995 Dumas, B and Solnik, B . 1995. The world price of foreign exchange risk. Journal of Finance, 50: 445–79. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] ) is applied to investigate ADR return premiums. We find that stock returns are more affected by disequilibrium between ADR and stock prices in an inefficient way. For US investors, foreign exchange rate risk premiums and world market risk premium (beyond US index) are priced in ADRs returns ex ante. Surprisingly, it is shown that the exchange rate of New Taiwan dollar and the interest rates of Brazil and Taiwan play important roles in determining ADR risk premiums across countries.
Syed Robayet Ferdous
Journal of Business and Technology (dhaka), Volume 8, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3329/jbt.v8i1-2.18283

Abstract:
In recent times, most of the parties involved in dispute resolution process are favoring Alternative Dispute Resolution or ADR over the formal adjudication process due to ADR’s distinguished benefits. In order to reduce the backlog and pressure of workload, courts randomly select alternative ways to settle dispute. Therefore, a question can be raised how well ADR is working in reality? If a dispute is in existence between a company and an individual, the individual might not get a proper redress against an esteemed company. Moreover, there is a possibility of bias in favor of those who is in the superior positions. Though it was a courageous effort from the legislature and the judiciary to make the dispute resolution system compatible with the changing society, a question remains: how much upshot is there in the legal field? To what extent does the ADR process elude or ensure justice? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbt.v8i1-2.18283 Journal of Business and Technology (Dhaka) Vol.8(1-2) 2013; 1-16
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