(searched for: (title:(Epithelial Cells Orchestrate the Functions of Dendritic Cells in Intestinal Homeostasis)
Published: 1 November 2020
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 343-352; doi:10.37871/jbres1165
The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest mucosal membrane surface and is the one of the most complex human organs. The intestinal barrier dysfunction contributes to systemic immune activation. The mucosal immune system has extremely arduous tasks to resist invaders and promote tolerance of food antigens and the microbiota. The intestinal mucosal immune system fulfills these tasks through complex interactions between immune cells and the local microenvironment in intestine. Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) play important roles in these complex interactions. IECs not only constitute the first barrier of the intestine but also are crucial for integrating external and internal signals and for coordinating the ensuing immune response. Dendritic Cells (DCs) play key roles in shaping the intestinal immune response by their ability to coordinate protective immunity and immune tolerance in the host. DCs are pivotal actors in the connection between innate and adaptive immune responses. The IECs coordinate with the DCs in immune recognition, tolerance and host defense mechanisms. In this review, we will summarize how IECs orchestrate intestinal DCs in intestinal homeostasis and diseases.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, Volume 10, pp 447-461; doi:10.1016/j.apsb.2019.08.006
Ulcerative colitis (UC) manifests as an etiologically complicated and relapsing gastrointestinal disease. The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a pivotal role in rectifying and orchestrating the inflammatory responses in gut tract. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is known as its anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects in experimental colitis. However, little research focused on its regulatory function on ENS. Therefore, we set out to explore the pathological role of neurogenic inflammation in UC and the modulating effects of berberine on neuro–immune interactions. Functional defects of enteric glial cells (EGCs), with decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and increased substance P expression, were observed in DSS-induced murine UC. Administration of berberine can obviously ameliorate the disease severity and restore the mucosal barrier homeostasis of UC, closely accompanying by maintaining the residence of EGCs and attenuating inflammatory infiltrations and immune cells overactivation. In vitro, berberine showed direct protective effects on monoculture of EGCs, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), T cells, and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the simulated inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, berberine could modulate gut EGCs–IECs–immune cell interactions in the co-culture systems. In summary, our study indicated the EGCs–IECs–immune cell interactions might function as a crucial paradigm in mucosal inflammation and provided an infusive mechanism of berberine in regulating enteric neurogenic inflammation.