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European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11493

Abstract:
Digital learning has been the need of the hour as it has been providing access to online resources and to get engaged in their higher education courses amid COVID-19 lockdown. This paper is focused on highlighting how the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools, media and E-pedagogy as an instructional practice have been robustly used to gain disciplinary knowledge and information and to continuously avail the benefits of virtual learning. Higher education has been specifically digitalized and trialled without any preparation on the part of academies as well as teachers and students. This paper is more concerned on understanding how lockdown accelerated the digitalization of higher education and universities positively responded switching on to technology enabled online platforms for both instruction and evaluation. Further, it is also suggested that in the process of shifting to E-Pedagogy, both teachers and students need to be continuously provided with adequate technical tools and media to stay connected in online classes through virtual mode.
, Argyris Kyridis, Ioannis Kamarianos, Κonstantia E. Dragouni, Aggeliki Katsanou, Evangelia Kouroumichaki, Nikoleta Papastergiou, Eleftherios Stergianopoulos
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11494

Abstract:
Undoubtedly the pandemic of COVID-19 had a great impact globally on our daily activities. Whereas to face this unprecedented situation all the educational institutions were compelled to keep the lessons conducted over the internet. Under the current circumstances this quantitative research detects, describes, and measures attitudes of 807 students of 5 Greek universities towards the distance learning process. The data that was collected by using a 5-point Likert scale reflects the strong agreement of the students that face-to- face teaching cannot be replaced by distance learning, especially when it comes to laboratory training. The consensus is also that remote learning has abased pedagogical relationships between professors and classmates and among the latter as well. Findings indicate that students come to a meeting of minds about the educational inequalities which are worsened by the lack of digital equipment and undeveloped technological infrastructure. Furthermore, this study reveals a correlation between the responses of the sample and their demographic and social characteristics, something that offers possibilities for additional research.
, Hassan Ramzan
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11492

Abstract:
This research was based on classroom action research. The main objective of this research was to know the improvement in students writing skill in writing paragraph through an outline strategy. This research was done at fifth grade students of five Government Primary Schools located at D. G. Khan city. The participants of this research were 15 students of grade five. Such participants were selected through random sampling technique. The obtained data was analyzed in percentage. Pre-Test and Post-Test used as an instrument in this research. In both Pre-Test and Post-Test required items like paragraph title writing, grammar, spelling and total sentences (length) of paragraph were same. In Pre-Test, outline strategy in paragraph writing was not employed but in Post-Test such strategy was used. According to findings, in Pre-Test students writing paragraph were 20.00%, 26.66%, 20.00%, 26.66% (Good), 46.66%, 20.00%, 33.33%, 33.33% (Average), 33.33%, 53.33%, 46.66%, 40.00% (Weak) in paragraph writing title, proper use of grammar, correct spelling and total sentences (length) of paragraph, respectively. After Pre-Test, instructor taught participants about writing paragraph through an outline strategy for a period of 4 weeks and then conducted Post-Test. In this test, participants writing paragraph through an outline strategy were 46.66%, 53.33%, 60.00%, 53.33% (Good), 40.00%, 26.66%, 33.33%, 40.00% (Average), 13.33%, 20.00%, 6.66%, 6.66% (Weak) in paragraph writing title, proper use of grammar, correct spelling and total sentences (length) of paragraph, respectively. This action-based research demonstrated that outline strategy can improve the students writing skills.
, Khetsiwe Mthethwa-Kunene, Cosmas Maphosa
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11439

Abstract:
Teaching and learning in higher education should shift from surface learning to deeper learning. Deeper learning provides opportunities for students to achieve high learning outcomes. However, there is a dearth of information on the utilization of deeper learning in higher education. Deeper learning demands educators to employ pedagogy that enhances the acquisition of higher-order skills. Through deeper learning, students develop critical skills that are necessary for the twenty-first century. Such skills enable the students to succeed in their careers and social life. In this paper, the authors explore deeper learning for enhancing teaching and learning in higher education. In particular, unpacking the competencies of deeper learning. The paper focuses on promoting problem-solving, content knowledge, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration, contextualising learning, learning how to learn, transferring of knowledge and skills, the utilisation of digital technology supporting students to become life-long learners, as well as deeper learning and the 21st-century skills. To collect data, a desktop review of deeper learning competencies was done. In conclusion, the paper proposes the most appropriate strategies for promoting deeper learning for the attainment of 21st-century skills.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11437

Abstract:
This study examines the level of Ondo State science teachers’ Technological Knowledge (TK) and the effect of demographic variables such as school geographical location and gender, with a view to bring about effective teaching of science concept through integration of technology. This study is based on survey research design. The population comprised all science teachers in public secondary schools in Ondo State. Data was collected from 628 science teachers across the three senatorial districts in the State. The instrument used was technological knowledge questionnaire and a reliability coefficient r = (0.93) was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. Two research hypotheses and one question were posed to guide the study. Findings from this study revealed that 66.9% of science teachers in Ondo State have low level of TK, a significant difference between the TK of rural and urban teachers and no significant difference between the TK usage between female and male teachers. It is recommended that government should develop a comprehensive framework for professional development that will assist teachers to develop skills to teach in the 21st century environment.
, Adil Youssef Sayeh, Mohamed Yeou
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11436

Abstract:
The current paper discussed the challenges encountered by university teachers during online education in Morocco. It also investigated teachers’ attitudes towards their distance teaching experience. 156 Chouaib Doukkali University teachers, (male=85 and female=71) were administered an online questionnaire via their professional email addresses. The participants, belonging to five faculties, were kindly invited to fill out the question within two weeks. For triangulation purposes, 20 (male=12 and females=8) informants were interviewed about their experience with distance education. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics to extract demographic characteristics of the participants and provide measurements of mean values, standard deviations, and frequencies of the variables. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Findings showed that although the vast majority of the respondents used online teaching, many faced both technical and logistical barriers, which were reported to impede the good delivery of lessons. Also, the majority of the participants showed a negative attitude towards the COVID-19 online teaching experience. The study discusses some implications for online teaching practice in tertiary education in Morocco.
, Gabriel Dwomoh, Ebenezer Kofi Boakye,
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11438

Abstract:
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, universities in Ghana instituted drastic interventions to support large-scale online teaching and learning. This study, therefore, examines student’s participation, level of satisfaction, and related challenges in teaching and learning delivery during the Coronavirus pandemic. The study also selects significant predictors of student’s e-learning perceptions. Data was collected via an online structured survey based on students from the Kumasi Technical University. In all 2000 complete responses were received and formed the basis for our analysis. The study results reveal that 197 (9.85% of the sample) were unable to fully participate due to challenges such as lack of access devices, unreliable internet connectivity, and inability to afford the cost of internet data. It is again clear from the results that about 90.1% of students are not satisfied with e-learning and its associated challenges. From the positive perception model, students held the view that e-learning technology in the COVID-19 era is positive regardless of the challenges. On the other hand, level 300 students, and Moodle VClass platform users express a high negative perception over the use of e-learning technology. It is clear from this study that further investments and contingency plans are needed to develop a resilient education system that supports electronic and distance learning and shapes the perception and acceptance of students. University managers and the Education Ministry should formulate post-COVID-19 strategies to promote e-learning in a developing country like Ghana.
Carlo P. Cortez, Carlo S. Patricio, Wilfredo N. Uriarte Jr.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11288

Abstract:
This study examines the attitude of teachers toward e-learning as the new learning modality and the possible development of general anxiety disorder among teachers amidst COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 116 teachers were taken before the start of the school year and another 75 teachers after one semester of executing e-learning served as the sample of this study. Data were collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire sent through a google form to comply with the existing lockdown policies of the government. The result indicates that the respondents, in majority, developed mild to severe GAD while preparing and executing e-learning. The data also showed that the acceptability of the teachers were found to be not relatively high nor relatively low. Problems using GAD 7-item questionnaire and TeLRA assessment revealed the rising problem brought by the change in learning delivery system among teachers. This study examines the attitude of teachers toward e-learning as the new learning modality and the possible development of general anxiety disorder among teachers amidst COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 116 teachers were taken before the start of the school year and another 75 teachers after one semester of executing e-learning served as the sample of this study. Data were collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire sent through a google form to comply with the existing lockdown policies of the government. The result indicates that the respondents, in majority, developed mild to severe GAD while preparing and executing e-learning. The data also showed that the acceptability of the teachers were found to be not relatively high nor relatively low. Problems using GAD 7-item questionnaire and TeLRA assessment revealed the rising problem brought by the change in learning delivery system among teachers.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11260

Abstract:
The traditional lecture-based method has been used in universities, colleges, and schools to assimilate the knowledge. A modern method of teaching is needed to overcome the limitations and challenges of the traditional lecture-based method, to improve students’ satisfaction and to increase learning outcomes. Among the modern methods of teaching, a flipped classroom (FC) model has recently been implemented as an alternative method of teaching. To explore students’ satisfaction in a flipped classroom model, a quantitative approach with a questionnaire as an instrument was used for data collection from an accessible sample size of 110 students. The results from a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) indicated that perceived value has positively influenced students’ satisfaction. However, the results further revealed that instructor-generated video content, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use were found to have no positive influence on students’ satisfaction. The study makes some recommendations that aid in the design and implementation of the FC model. It also offers additional information for those who wish to adopt the FC model in their institutions.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11259

Abstract:
The dwindling interest and perceived difficulty experienced by science students in learning physics at the senior high school level of education in Ghana speak to the need for the creation of authentic instructional platforms that promote enhanced learning as well as motivate students’ interest in physics. This study used an explanatory case study design to examine the affordances of Physics Education Technology simulations (PhETs) as an instructional tool with the intent to explain how enhanced students’ learning of physics concepts with simulations through implementation processes are possible in the context of Ghana. Nine pre-service physics teachers were engaged as learners to mimic the role of senior high school science students in witnessing simulation-based physics lessons. Questionnaires, pre- and post-tests and focus group interviews were the data sources employed in this study. The results showed that the learners’ learning enhanced with the use of PhETs because their learning outcomes improved and also, they had positive experiences with the simulations. Consequently, the study advocates that enhanced learning of concepts in physics with simulations are possible through interactive implementation processes that are exploratory and demonstrative in nature and context-sensitive.
, Wahyu Nurul Faroh
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11133

Abstract:
Vocational High Schools/VHS (or SMK in Indonesian), which initially aimed to produce ready-to-work graduates, is the biggest contributor to unemployment in Indonesia. In efforts to overcome this, VHS graduates need to be given 21st-century skills to increase agility to survive in the current industrial 4.0 era. 21st-century skills are described as the life and career skills, learning and innovation skills, and information communication and technology skills. This study conducted a sample grouping of the data from 10,737 students of State VHS in Bogor Regency who took advantage of the data mining process using clustering techniques. The method in this study uses the Cross-School Standard Process for Data Mining (CSISP-DM). While the algorithms used for cluster determination are hierarchical and non-hierarchic (K-Means) algorithms. SPSS 25 is used to help find accurate values. The results showed that life and career skills had a frequency of 4,130 students (38%), learning and innovation skills had a frequency of 4,977 students (46%) and information media and technology skills had a frequency of 3,796 students (35%). Meanwhile, 21st-century skills at 11 VHSs in Bogor Regency are described in stages. The results of Non-Hierarchical Clustering are described in three ways.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/11000

Abstract:
After the coronavirus outbreak, face-to-face teaching was interrupted partially or entirely, and several universities adopted a variety of remote-based learning approaches. Most institutions in the developing world were not ready for such an abrupt change. Access to appropriate devices that facilitate students’ effective learning in developing countries remains a challenge. This study evaluates university students’ perceptions regarding e-learning deployment during COVID-19 and the factors that affected usage. The quantitative study employed an adapted Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model to guide the research process. The model has five exogenous and two endogenous variables. The survey research was administered to randomly selected undergraduate University students, with 314 completing the online questionnaire. The results show that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and the facilitating conditions positively influenced the students’ behavioural intentions to use Moodle. Thus, the students had a positive perception of online learning. Results indicate a significant loss of learning due to the unavailability of technology and the cost of data; nevertheless, students agreed that online learning represents the future of teaching and learning. The findings also show that subsidised access to resources and materials is critical for the effective adoption of e-learning. This study’s output provides valuable information to policymakers and researchers regarding students’ perceptions and the state of e-learning at institutions of higher learning.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/10909

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of computer simulations and conventional teaching in Physics concept learning on high school students. The descriptive-experimental design was used in this study. The teacher-made test and evaluation questionnaire were used for gathering data. The data gathered were statistically treated and analyzed using SPSS software. Findings of the study revealed that there were 40 or 50% male student respondents and 40 or 50% female. The pre-test score of the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly, while pre-test and posttest of the experimental and control groups were found to be significantly different. The evaluation of the teachers and students on lecture with computer simulation and conventional lecture methods did not differ significantly in terms of effectiveness/appropriateness, students’ participation/interaction, influence on cognitive skills and influence on content knowledge. There was a significant relationship between the sex and performance of the student respondents who were exposed to lecture with computer simulation method while the performance of the male and female student respondents exposed in conventional lecture method did not differ. Based on the findings of this research, the use of computer simulation as instructional material in teaching Physics is recommended. This may be used to improve the performance of the students. It may be tried in other schools and respondents. Further studies may be undertaken in other Science subjects to establish the validity of the effectiveness of Lecture with Computer Simulation in teaching-learning process. Developers of instructional materials may improvise other teaching aids that may suit the needs and interest of the students.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/10847

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate ICT competency of mathematics teachers at secondary schools of Nepal. A cross-sectional survey design was deployed among 336 secondary school teachers of Nepal. The data was analyzed by Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis H, and multiple linear regression. Result showed that teachers’ ICT competency level was found to be proficient in the fundamental concept of computers and the use of Internet. In contrast, it was found to be developing-level in software and hardware. Statistically significant results were found in competencies with respect to age, type of school, culture, and district. Additionally, own laptop, Internet use, work experience, knowledge of software and hardware were significant predictors for ICT competency of teachers. The overall findings clarify that ICT enhancement programs are needed for mathematics teachers at secondary schools in Nepal.
, Sayibu Muhideen, Olayemi Hafeez Rufai, Riffat Shahani, Tunde Simeon Amosun
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9703

Abstract:
The proliferation of online crowdsourcing information via mobile technology intervention achieved progressive learning in recent times. The study seeks the mobility of crowds using internet-contents as crowdsourcing knowledge phenomenon in community-learning task actualization. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (SLT) and TPB induced and investigated 361 respondents among international students using IBM Amos v. 25 for the analysis. Results found exogenous variables were positively significant, whiles broadband moderation on mobile learning behavior run-up. Mobile learning mediation magnifies the behavior actualization effectiveness. Significantly, crowdsource at the individual level colored internet-content via mobile learning technology collaborated communication problem-solving tasks. Mobility of learning makes a mountain of molehills in knowledge sourcing, communication community-centered performance.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9684

Abstract:
The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic (SARS-COV-2) in December 2019 disrupted traditional forms of teaching and learning centred on face-to-face and in-class instruction. Governments enforced social distancing measures characterised by stay-at-home strategies and the closure of schools and other learning facilities. The government of Zimbabwe adopted radio broadcast as the primary tool for lesson delivery during the COVID-19. Contextually, Zimbabwe’s radio signals are only accessed by 29.1 percent of the entire population, with weak to no reception in some regions, especially those in the south. While radio access is low, mobile phone ownership per household is over 90 percent. In light of the contextual dynamics, the study examined available technologies to deliver educational content during the COVID-19 lockdown as the government declared radio broadcasts as the primary tool to support teaching and learning. The study utilised an adapted Technology Acceptance Model as the theoretical framework. Secondary school teachers from the southern region were drawn through random sampling to participate in the survey to gather their opinions and practices. The study results revealed that teachers preferred to use smartphones and computers/laptops for teaching rather than radio. The study identified barriers such as lack of infrastructure, cost of data, lack of connectivity, lack of access to computing devices, and the institution’s culture. The results could influence policymakers in adopting digital media for teaching, and this will equip learners with 21st-century skills. Continuous professional development of teachers should aim to improve their digital skills.
, Karen Joy Brillo Talidong
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9683

Abstract:
COVID-19 affected not only the lifestyle and socioeconomic conditions of the people worldwide but also the governing affairs of the process of education. To limit the transmission of COVID-19 in the educational sector, teachers worldwide immediately diverted from face-to-face education to a virtual-based education. This abrupt paradigm shift in education posits a challenge to the teachers who are accustomed to the conventional settings as they embark to emergency online teaching classes. Although distance education is a normalcy in many of the institutions globally, it is still new to the context of the Philippine teachers. In this account, an empirical study on the experiences of the Philippine teachers in Xi’an, China was explored to examine the benefits, challenges, and process in the implementation of emergency online education. Results revealed that emergency online teaching fosters benefits to the teachers and learners during this emergency situation. However, the teachers experience challenges dealing with technical issues, lack of instructional design, and other factors which disrupt emergency online education. This article offers positive and negative standpoints of the application of emergency online teaching to address the unprecedented educational issues brought by the pandemic.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9360

Abstract:
This study explores teachers’ perceptions, experiences, and challenges on teens ages 12-14 years old who have reported online insecurity issues in Kenya. The study recognizes that teachers have increased pressure to teach learners digital skills and manage their online and offline lives. Although much of the online insecurity discourse is children centric, little is known about the teacher’s experiences when tackling teen’s online safety issues. Outside the minimal discussion, an inferential approach towards the demarcation of online insecurity is reached that is coined on the professed notion of internet safety. Data was generated using an in-depth interview with respective teachers, Guidance & counseling, ICT teachers, and school principal. A total of twenty-three participants were recruited who qualified for the study inclusion criteria. A qualitative intrinsic case study was employed, and data analyzed thematically. The findings from the study revealed that teachers lack online safety competency skills to protect teens. Therefore, they depend on the very learners they are supposed to protect to teach them to navigate digital platforms. It is imperative to integrate online digital insecurity in the Kenya curriculum to develop workable frameworks to support teens who have encountered troubles on the internet. The study recommends effective digital literacy instruction intervention for teachers to support the children in the online space effectively. Additionally, in-depth research exploring parents’ responses to online challenges while protecting children is a gap that needs to be filled.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9361

Abstract:
E-learning approach cannot be underrated in sustaining teaching-learning activities in the schools. This paper reports a survey done that assessed the E-learning approach organized by organized by Oyo State government for Oyo State secondary school students. The study adopted quantitative approach of descriptive survey. The target populations of the study comprised only Senior Secondary School students in class three (SSS 3) within Oyo State Secondary Schools. The sample of 200 students was selected using simple random, purposive and convenience sampling techniques respectively. An instrument was used for the study. The data were analysed using frequencies, percentage scores, pie charts, mean and standard deviation (SD). The findings showed students were highly aware e-learning programmes (60%) and highly participated during the programmes (62.5%). The study equally indicated that e-learning programmes on radio and television organized by Oyo State government was very highly efficient (57%). The study further indicated that inadequate power supply (x=3.45) and high cost of subscriptions to the satellite television stations (x=3.45) were factors hindering the students’ participation during the E-learning programmes on radio and television. The study recommended that Government should continue the e-learning programmes during and after CONVID-19 might have fully eradicated and they should equally incorporate other electronic devise for teaching-learning activities such as Zoom, Google Classroom and social media.
, Oluwole Caleb Falode, Blessing Fausat Ogunje, Ahmed Bello
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9348

Abstract:
This study investigated the perception and attitude of employers of labour toward distance learning graduates in Niger State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research approach was adopted and employers of labour in both private and public sectors within the study area constituted the sample. Four research questions and two null hypotheses were answered and tested respectively in the study. A 19-item researchers’ developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The instrument was considered suitable after undergoing experts’ validation and reliability checks. Data gathered were analyzed in which Mean and Standard Deviation were used to provide answers to the four research questions while t-test statistics were used to test the two hypotheses. Findings revealed that both the perception and attitude of respondents were positive toward distance learning graduates. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that the government should expand the existing ODL and establish more new ones to reduce the load on conventional institutions and curtail the problem of access to Higher Education in Nigeria.
Olubusayo Foluso Adebusuyi, Emmanuel Folorunso Bamidele, Adeola Samuel Adebusuyi
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9306

Abstract:
There is a growing supply of various technologies that teachers can integrate to teach in the classroom. However, despite all the technologies that have been developed, research examining the effects of teachers’ ability to harness these technologies with pedagogy and content on students’ scientific attitude and literacy is scarce. This study therefore investigated the level of teachers’ Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK), relationship and effects on students’ scientific attitude and literacy in Chemistry. A cross sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised all Chemistry teachers and students in secondary school in southwest Nigeria. A sample of 75 teachers’ and 1518 students in their intact classes were randomly selected for the study. Data from the scores of each teacher on TPACK observation checklists was paired with the mean scores of students on scientific attitude and literacy. Data were analyzed using Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The result showed that teachers level of TPACK were limited to content knowledge (CK) and do not translate to high TPK and TPACK. Also, there was a correlation between the teachers’ individual components of TPACK and students’ scientific attitude and literacy. Finally, there was a significant effect of teachers’ TPACK on students’ scientific attitude and literacy. The study recommended that professional development programs should not only focus on helping teachers to increase their repertoire of technologies and pedagogical practices, rather emphasize ways to integrate TPACK. This integration should reflect in their classroom teaching and ultimately improve students’ scientific attitude and literacy in Chemistry.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/9138

Abstract:
This study was necessitated by the paucity of the data on the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Arab education system in Israel. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey among novice students from the three Arab teacher training colleges. The aim of the survey was to examine whether students’ perceptions reflect the skills associated with the concepts of digital competence and higher order thinking skills (HOTS). Data were collected through the closed-item and mixed-item questionnaires. Open-ended items had also the purpose to examine participants’ reasoning skills. The results of the pilot showed good internal reliability for a closed-item questionnaire (α < 0.72) and for a mixed-item one (α < 0.76). Both quantitative and qualitative results suggested that the majority of participants understood the relevance of ICT to their learning and other areas of life and demonstrated safe and responsible use of ICT. The findings suggested that participants were less skilled in the areas of independent learning, teamwork, and developing creativity through digital tools. The results of this survey gathered baseline information for further investigations intended to examine pre-service teachers’ digital competence and develop intervention measures.
, M. Khalid M. Nasir
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8403

Abstract:
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is an online course accessible through the internet to deliver online learning content to anyone who is interested to gain knowledge in the various fields offered. Some of the accessible materials are video clips, downloadable and plenary discussion in social media activity. In addition, there are interactive forums that build a community of educators and students. This paper reviews the ongoing research trends from ongoing research in various disciplines at MOOC. Its background reviews are structured descriptively and chronologically from the information collected. This paper then focuses on the role of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) as a strong support to MOOC. The advantages of MOOC are very beneficial, it enables more people to gain knowledge at no cost, without space or temporal constraints, in online courses over the web. The findings indicate the SRL has a great impact in the MOOC achievement. Although there are obstacles in providing solutions for the implementation of MOOCs to achieve the best results. Future studies should look at more complex and challenging current situations for the implementation of MOOCs in keeping with the latest modern learning.
, Sylvia Ndanu Mutua
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8402

Abstract:
The outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic that purpoted to originate in the city of Wuhan draws a lot of questions on the extent of crisis health communication concerning the international media. At the inception stage, in January 2020, it was reported that about ten major cities in China had been affected by this virus at that time labelled as 2019 nCov. By March 10, 2020, the disease had spread to Europe, the UK, Middle-East, and Africa, with more than 114,344 confirmed cases reported globally. In this situation, various scholars have often criticized the media for framing, misinformation, or exaggeration in the news information. In contrast, others have hailed the media for playing an educative and informative role to the public. Utilizing content analysis, framing and consecutive day sampling, this study focused on examining the media coverage of the initial two months of the COVID-19 Pandemic by four international news media organizations namely; BBC, CNN, Al-Jazeera and the People’s Daily. The article contributes to the discourse of mass media practice, and application of various research paradigm in deconstructing media framing during critical periods.
, Favour Mosunmola Sobowale, Abdullateef Eyitayo Babatunde, Samaila Dominic
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8362

Abstract:
The study examined the effects of ATutor Platform on learning outcomes in Agricultural Science among university students in North-Central, Nigeria. The researcher used quasi-experimental design (pretest, posttests, non-randomized, non-equivalent experimental and control groups design). The population of the study was 4,562 students. The sample size for the study comprised 237 students from two Universities in North-Central, Nigeria drawn from the population. The research instrument was developed by the researchers and validated by two experts, from the Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna. To determine the reliability of Agricultural Science Achievement Test (ASAT), Spearman Brown Coefficient was used to analyse the data that was collected from ASAT administered to the students using SPSS version 20, a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained which is above the bench mark of 0.70. This shows that the instrument was reliable. To determine the reliability of Agricultural Science Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASSQ), Cronbach Alpha was used to analyse the data collected and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained, which shows that the instrument was reliable. To determine the reliability coefficient of Agricultural Science Interest Inventory (ASII), Cronbach Alpha was also used and when analysed, a reliability coefficient of 0.75 was obtained which showed that the instrument is suitable for the categories of students in this study. Three research questions guided the study while the three hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Frequency counts, mean (X) and standard deviation (SD) were employed to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Findings showed significant difference between the students taught using ATutor Platform and those taught using lecture method. It was concluded that ATutor Platform should be employed to teach Agricultural Science. It was also recommended that ATutor Platform be used in teaching and learning process among others.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8351

Abstract:
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the time factor influencing technology integration in social studies teaching in a Jordanian school. The case study method was chosen because the research questions sought to explore time factor influencing technology integration in teaching. In Jordan, little research qualitative empirical research has investigated the level of the time of technology has been carried out for educational purposes. Therefore, this paper intends to identify the importance of the time factor of teachers in technology integration in teaching. These data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach, semi-structured interview interviews and observation were used as instruments to collect data. Five social studies teachers participated in this study. Findings showed that all of the teachers have mentioned that the time was one of the most important factors that affected the technology integration in their teaching. Where most of the responses indicated that, the time was a major obstacle in front of their technology integration. Furthermore, I found out through my classroom observations that the time was an obstacle for all teachers.
, Oluwole Caleb Falode, Ahmed Bello, Tunde Baderinwa
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8320

Abstract:
This study examined the relationship between flexibility of learning, support services and students’ attitude towards distance learning programme in Nigeria. Correlational research design was adopted and 385 participants constituted the sample of the study using a multi-stage sampling procedure. The instrument used for data collection was a researchers-designed questionnaire comprising of three sections. The questionnaire was validated by experts and administered once on the randomly selected sample to determine the internal consistency of the items. Cronbach Alpha formula yielded 0.74, 0.77 and 0.78 for the three different constructs of the questionnaire. Two research questions were raised and two corresponding null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data gathered were analysed using Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation formula. The results obtained reveal a positive correlation between the flexibility of learning and students’ attitude towards distance learning programme (r=0.439, p<0.05). Also, there was a positive correlation between support services and students’ attitude towards distance learning programme (r=0.334, p<0.05). It was therefore recommended among others that providers of distance learning programmes should ensure high flexibility and quality learner support services in order to cater for academic needs of learners with different characteristics as these would enhance students’ positive attitude and improve the enrolment of candidates for distance learning programmes.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8283

Abstract:
ICT increases access, enhances efficiency and improves quality in education. Kenya recommended the use of the ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in secondary schools. However, studies show that adoption rate has been very low in comparison to global demands... The study sought to investigate the state of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Kenyan secondary schools. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics in form of frequencies and percentages were used to analyze data. The study established that most schools have low investment in ICT infrastructure due to high costs of computer hardware, software and related accessories. The use of ICT infrastructure has necessitated the need for development of new skills and competencies among teachers, school heads and learners. Therefore, there is need for all stakeholders to address all the challenges that hinder use of ICT in teaching and learning so as the schools cannot lag behind since the process is in its initial stages.
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30935/ejimed/8276

Abstract:
This study examines the perception of the senior high school students on blended, distance, electronic and virtual learning as a new way of delivering lessons for the following school year due to the existing threat of CoViD-19. A random sample of 342 senior high school students of different strands from STI College Global City served as the sample of this study. Data were collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire sent through a google form to comply with the existing lockdown policies of the government. The result indicates that the subjects’ perception on the effectivity of online learning and their capability to attend the e-learning sessions is independent of their life style and available e-learning tools despite the result analysis of variance showing that their perceived mathematical capability are significantly different.
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