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T.M. Babkina, , O.V. Polishchuk, L.Yu. Hladka
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227711

Abstract:
Quantitative assessment of cavities and heart function is the most common task of echocardiography (EchoCG). It is difficult to overestimate the importance of standardizing EchoCG measurements, because their results influence clinical decisions. In January 2015, the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, published an update Recommendations for Cardiac Chamber Quantification by Echocardiography in Adults. Since then, the results of new research using obtained prospective data, on the basis of which in February 2020 the British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) released a new guide. The authors of the recommendations set the goal of creating a simple, practical reference document and guide for everyday use that encourage the holistic interpretation of measurements (no single number should define normality or pathology). Based on these data, we considered the rational component of the updated recommendations, focused on important conceptual changes in the assessment of heart structure and function, provided new terminology for left ventricular function and left atrial size, and a new approach in assessing aortic root, right heart and left atrium. The BSE recommends obtain left ventricular dimensions from the parasternal long-axis window preferentially using 2D imaging. Aortic dimensions should be obtained using the “inner-edge to inner-edge” technique in end-diastole. The BSE suggests that for those Echocg labs that currently use the “leading-edge to leading-edge” technique, it is reasonable to continue doing so for continuity and consistency.
V.і. Cherniy, L.O. Sobanska, P.O. Topolov,
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 85-90; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227936

Abstract:
The damage to erythrocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a recent problem. The aim of this research was to study the effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate on the state of the erythrocyte membrane during CPB and the level of phosphorus in blood as a marker of the energy potential in the cell. Patients were divided into two groups. The control group 1 (Gr 1) consisted of 75 individuals. The group 2 (Gr 2) included patients to whom fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) was administrated according to the developed scheme as follows 10 g of the drug was diluted in 50 ml of a solvent, 5 g of the drug was injected intravenously with the use of perfusor immediately before initiation of CPB at a rate of 10 ml/min and 5 g at the 30th minute of CPB (before the stage of warming) the same way. When comparing two groups the best results in hemolysis (p<0.01), mechanical (p<0.01). osmotic resistance of erythrocytes (p<0.01), the time of acid hemolysis (p<0.01) and the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane in postperfusion period were in Gr 2. Вefore cardiac surgery hypophosphatemia was detected in 18% out of 150 and in 32% out of 150 patients – a lower limit of normal phosphorus content in the blood. After CPB in Gr 1 phosphorus content in blood was 0.85±0.32 mmol/l and hypophosphatemia was in 53% out of 75 patients. This indicates a pronounced energy deficit in this group. In Gr 2 phosphorus level was 1.7±0.31 mmol/l and there was no hypophosphatemia. As a result, FDP as an endogenous high-energy intermediate metabolite of the glycolytic pathway leads to resistance to hemolysis, protects the erythrocyte membrane from damage and increases the energy potential of the cell during CPB.
O.I. Gura, Z.M. Ragrina
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 63-68; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227734

Abstract:
The article explores the benefits of using computer technology in the educational process and emphasizes their ability to increase the motivation of foreign medical students to study. Using the latest technologies in the educational process is a demand of time. Intensifying the interest to the discipline and improving the quality and level of knowledge of students is the purpose of such using. The necessity and importance of on-line education at the current stage of society development is substantiated. Using effective techniques and methods of online learning, creating a variety of online courses, engaging students in an independent creative process – this is the optimal way to update the internal reserves of the educational process. The role of students' independent work in the educational process is determined. It is moticed that the independent work of students requires the same organization and methodological support as the traditional class work. The peculiarities of the content of independent work of foreign medical students are revealed and their communicative needs are determined. In accordance with the subjects of the educational programs for specialists in the field of knowledge 22 "Health care", specialty 222 "Medicine" and according to the communication needs, EDX on-line platform was selected and created for creating and implementing online special courses for independent work of foreign students at different stages of study. The structure of individual online special courses is analyzed, the purpose, tasks and results of each of them are highlighted. The subject, distribution of classes, structure, linguistic, speech and communication material of the on-line special course "Introduction to the specialty: scientific speech" are characterized. The specificity, orientation, purpose and specifics of the task of the on-line special course "Professional communication: doctor – patient" are revealed. The conclusions about the necessity and appropriateness of the application of the specified online special courses in the process of preparation of foreign students in medical institutions of higher education.
A.T. Stashkevych, A.V. Shevchuk, D.V. Uleshchenko, V.G. Martynenko, V.I. Melenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 169-175; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227996

Abstract:
Currently, insufficient attention is being paid to an issue of the necessary anti-osteoporotic therapy after percutaneous vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis, which leads to premature termination of medical treatment and worsening of the treatment results in this group of patients. An objective of the research is to study the results of treatment of patients with vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis, depending on the use of anti-osteoporotic therapy. The results of percutaneous vertebroplasty of 91 postmenopausal women aged 50-90 years, depending on the use of anti-osteoporotic therapy during the postoperative period were analysed. An assessment was made according to the dynamics of pain syndrome using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Quality of Life Scale by J.R. Gaughen to estimate the patient's mobility and a need for pain medication. The results of the treatment were assessed 3 and 6 months after the percutaneous vertebroplasty. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 6 month after the treatment. Anti-osteoporotic therapy, which was prescribed for all patients comprised calcium supplements, antiresorbents and in D-hypovitaminosis – alfacalcidol or cholecalciferol. Only half of the patients followed the recommendations – 46 (50.6%), while the rest of the patients stopped the therapy in 2-3 months due to the improvement of their condition. In the main group of patients, where necessary anti-osteoporotic therapy was administered, significant reduction of pain syndrome and increase in quality of life during 3 and 6 months’ observation period were revealed. In the group of patients where prescribed anti-osteoporotic therapy was not adhered, significant reduction of pain syndrome and increase in quality of life in the observation period 3 months was revealed but deterioration in the form of pain syndrome increase and decrease in quality of life in the observation period of 6 months occurred. Effectiveness of anti-osteoporosis therapy, with regard to measuring bone mineral density can be reliably confirmed only in the main group. Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred up to 5.5%, and generally did not require further treatment and did not affect the overall treatment result. Thus, it was revealed that to ensure a stable effect after the surgery, long-term prescription of anti-osteoporosis therapy is needed.
Maedeh Pourhossein Alamdari, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Mahmoud Abedini
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 163-168; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227962

Abstract:
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and unpredictable disease and is a growing trend and, like other chronic diseases, affects one's quality of life and since sleep quality is one of the dimensions of quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of applying continuous care model on sleep quality of patients with MS in 2013. This clinical trial study was performed on 80 patients with multiple sclerosis who were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire, PSQI questionnaire and model implementation in four stages (familiarization, sensitization, control, evaluation). Model stages were performed individually and in groups for three weeks according to patients' educational needs (sleep, activity, medication and nutrition) and after two months follow up, control and evaluation were performed. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test and repeated measures ANOVA and spss16 software. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures showed a significant difference between the mean of total score and the scores of sleep quality dimensions in three times between the two groups (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the implementation of continuous care model causes a significant difference in the sleep quality of patients with MS.
V.O. Berestoviy, Ahmad Mahmood, I.B. Venckivska, V.G. Ginzburg, I.V. Sokol, D.O. Govsieiev
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 54-62; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227733

Abstract:
A search of peer-reviewed articles regarding heat shock proteins (HSP’s) especially HSP 60 and 70 was conducted in this review to understand its role in the development of various complications like miscarriage, preterm birth, tubal infertility and spontaneous abortion associated with chlamydial HSP 60 in IVF, male infertility, preeclampsia, cancer, immune system activation, autoimmune diseases, coronary heart disease, dysregulation of steroidal hormone from the endometrium and its up-regulation in stress response. ELISA, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and affinity chromatography were the most common methods researchers used to determine and separate HSP 60 and antibodies related to it. Heat shock proteins are responsible for normal folding of other proteins and prevent its abnormal folding and cause degradation of abnormally folded proteins, mitochondrial protein transport, DNA metabolism, regulation of apoptosis are their significant functions. HSP 60 is a homologue of bacterial HSP 60 (GroEL) and needs co-chaperonin HSP 10 for its proper functioning. Gynaecological and obstetrical complications were more prevalent in most studies. Pregnant women were mostly affected subjects. Abnormal HSP 60 leads to a high level of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which in turn activate other body systems to produce the clinical outcome. Some researchers stated that there is no association between preterm birth and HSP 60 & 70, chlamydial HSP 60 antibodies trigger tubal infertility, preeclamptic pregnancies has detectable HSP60 as compared to control, GroEL leads to tubal infertility and IVF failure, chlamydial (CHSP 60) activates autoimmunity. HSP60 seropositivity reduces the opportunities of ectopic pregnancy, levels of HSP 60 does not stay constant throughout the menstrual cycle in reference to control, while other opposed these conclusions in their research works. According to some researchers, HSP 60 is a risk factor for pregnancy-related pathologies development, and some other opposed this theory and considered HSP 60 as a safety factor for normal pregnancy outcome, according to this review harmful effect of HSP 60 dominate, in future further high-quality studies need to be done for better understanding.
, L.A. Vasylevska
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 196-200; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228011

Abstract:
The ideal marker of bacterial infection should not only allow for early diagnosis, but also provide information about the course and prognosis of the disease. Nowadays the most well-studied and widely used in clinical practice is procalcitonin (PCT), but its value in surgical forms of erysipelas is insufficiently defined. The aim of the article is to determine the diagnostic and prognostic significance of procalcitonin in patients with surgical forms of erysipelas.114 case histories of patients who were hospitalized in the center of purulent-septic surgery of the Non-profit municipal enterprise "City Hospital №3" in Zaporozhye for 2019-2020 period were analyzed retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that most often the focus was localized on the lower extremities. In the complex treatment of patients with erysipelas, the main place belongs to antibiotic therapy (ABT) and early surgical treatment of the area of the pathological process. Determination of the level of procalcitonin in the serum makes it possible to assess the progression and generalization of the process and is a sensitive test for the effectiveness of treatment.Radical surgery and timely targeted ABT are key elements of success in the treatment of surgical forms of erysipelas and are not subject to revision. Procalcitonin is a diagnostic marker that can predict the development of sepsis.
I.V. Odintsova, A.D. Diudiun
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 191-196; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228005

Abstract:
The purpose of the work is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of extemporal dosage form with pyroctone olamine in the local treatment of patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Under our supervision there were 78 patients with seborrheic dermatitis aged 18 to 57 years. The average age of the patients was 29.5±2.1 years. Comprehensive treatment of patients with seborrheic dermatitis in both groups depended on the severity of clinical manifestations, the duration of the disease, and information on the effectiveness of previous therapy. For external treatment of the main group of patients with seborrheic dermatitis, an extemporaneously prepared gel with pyrocton olamine was used. Local treatment of patients in the comparison group consisted of the appointment of 1% cream of clotrimazole. An analysis of the results shows good therapeutic, microbiological effectiveness and good tolerance of extemporaneously prepared gel with pyrocton olamine in the complex treatment of patients with seborrheic dermatitis. The period for resolving the clinical manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis among patients in the main group was 2.5±0.1 days shorter compared with patients in the comparison group. The intensity of clinical manifestations in patients with seborrheic dermatitis of the main group decreased twice on the second day of complex treatment. In control patients with comparative seborrheic dermatitis, similar therapeutic efficacy was achieved on the fourth to fifth day. Long-term results of the study showed that the recurrence of the disease among patients of the main group was 5 (6.4%), and in patients of in the comparison group was 14 (17.9%). Clinical studies have shown good therapeutic efficacy and tolerance of the extemporal gel with pyroctone olamine in the complex treatment of patients with seborrheic dermatitis, which gives reason to recommend this dosage form for wider use in the practice of dermatovenerologists.
Yu.K. Bolbot, T.A. Bordiі, Ya.V. Vilenskyi
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 150-155; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227957

Abstract:
Allergic diseases of the respiratory system seriously affect the psychological, physical and social aspects of the live of sick children, morally and financially exhausting members of their families as well. It is known that exacerbations of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract occur due to interaction with numerous triggers, one of which is a respiratory viral infection. At the same time, it is widely known that patients with allergic respiratory diseases are more prone to to acute respiratory infections. One of the reasons for this tendency often is an insufficient activity of non-specific factors of local immunity of the respiratory system – endogenous amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, in particular the most studied their representatives - the family of defensins and human cathelicidin. Current research proves that these antimicrobial peptides are characterized by broad antiviral, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to study the concentrations of local immune factors - human HbD-2 and LL-37 - in the secretion of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and to clarify their role in protection against respiratory viral infections in this contingent of patients. We performed laboratory and clinical examinations of 76 children aged 7 to 18 years, of whom 24 were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, 28 children - bronchial asthma, and 24 - bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children of the appropriate sex and age. In addition to general clinical methods, patterns of respiratory morbidity were analyzed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides were determined: by ELISA human cathelicidin (LL-37), β-defensin 2 (HbD-2) in the secretion of the upper respiratory tract, statistical analysis was performed. It was found that children with allergic diseases of the respiratory tract are characterized by a higher frequency of acute respiratory infections with more frequent involvement of the lower respiratory tract, which led to an increase in the duration of the disease compared to their healthy peers. In children with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, there was revealed a significant decrease in the concentrations of antimicrobial peptides in the secretion of the upper respiratory tract compared with the control group.
S.I. Ilchenko, A.O. Fialkovska, V.I. Cherhinets, K.V. Skriabina
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 136-142; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227953

Abstract:
In modern pediatric practice, inhalated hypertonic saline (IHS) is often used for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. However, the potential development of serious side effects in children is not predicted. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of IHS of various concentrations in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The study involved 34 children with CF aged 6 to 18 years (middle age is 13.0±4.4 years). The comparison group consisted of 27 children (middle age is 7.8±2.3 years) without chronic respiratory diseases. The study included three consecutive inhalations. Sterile 0.9% NaCl solution was used for the first inhalation, 3 % NaCl solution – for the second one and 7% NaCl solution – for the third inhalation. For children under 7 years of age, a patented method of obtaining sputum without forced coughing was used. Spirometry was performed before and after each inhalation, and clinical changes were analyzed. It was noted that after inhalation of IHS, the cough in patients became more productive, moist rales were more often heard over the entire surface of the lungs. The activity of induced sputum secretion after inhalation of 3% and 7% NaCl solution did not differ significantly. However, after inhalation of 7% NaCl solution, side effects, such as sore throat, shortness of breath, spastic cough, auscultatory symptoms of bronchospasm were recorded significantly more often compared with lower concentrations of the solution. The decrease in FEV1 was observed in 5.8% of patients after inhalation of 3% NaCl solution and in 11.8% of patients after inhalation of 7% NaCl solution, which was significantly associated with the clinical symptoms of bronchospasm. Inhalation of IHS has an effective mucolytic effect in patients with CF, however, it is necessary to determine the individual sensitivity of the patient to predict a positive therapeutic effect.
N.V. Mynka, Yu.Yu. Kobelyatskyy
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 128-135; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227950

Abstract:
Various techniques are applied to reduce the severity of postoperative pain and discomfort in patients. The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant of anesthesia in ophthalmic surgery. The study included 80 patients who underwent corneal transplantation on the basis of Dnepropetrovsk Regional Clinical Ophthalmologic Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: control (group K) – 30 men and main (group D) – 50 ones. Multicomponent balanced anesthesia was applied in both groups. Sibazone was administered as the sedative medicine in the group K, Dexmedetomedin was administered in the group D. The main criteria for evaluating the research results were hallmarked: hemodynamic stability during surgery, the amount of administered opiates, the severity of intraoperative pain syndrome by evaluating the ANI index (ANI – analgesia nociception index), the severity of postoperative pain syndrome and the frequency of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Both schemes of anesthesia allowed avoiding pronounced fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters and gas exchange at all stages of the study. Analyzing the severity of intraoperative pain, we found that in group K pain relief could be considered insufficient during the first 7 minutes of the most traumatic stage of the surgery, while in group D the ANI index did not fall below 50. Statistically significant differences were obtained on minute 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7 of the surgery. The number of episodes of insufficient anesthesia during the most traumatic stage of the surgery in group K was statistically significantly higher than in group D. Analyzing the quality of pain relief in the postoperative period it was determined, that the level of pain on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after awakening in both groups was equal to 0. At the next three stages of the study (2 hours, 6 hours after surgery, and the next morning), the level of pain in group K was significantly higher than in group D. In addition, it was determined that the need for narcotic analgesics and the number of episodes of postoperative nausea and vomiting in group K was statistically significantly higher than in group D. These given data allow us to conclude that Dexmedetomedin is the effective adjuvant of the anesthesia for corneal transplantation.
, , V.P. Shkarban, V.I. Trachuk, S.V. Lynnyk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 98-105; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227943

Abstract:
Several studies showed that sarcopenia is associated with an increase of postoperative complications, with worse postoperative results in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to European Working Group on Sarcopenia, it is a "progressive and generalized skeletal muscle loss" characterized by both loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (Cruz-Jentoft AJ et al., 2019). Aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on the occurrence of postoperative complications after pancreatic resections in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment of 152 patients who underwent radical pancreatic resections. Sarcopenia was determined by preoperative computed tomography using the Hounsfield Unit Average Calculation (HUAC). In our investigation we measured the psoas area and density (Hounsfield Units) at the level of the third lumbar vertebral body (L3). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 66 (43.4%) patients. Among patients with sarcopenia complications occurred in 41 (62.1%), mortality was 4 (6.1%). In the group of patients without sarcopenia, complications occurred in 29 (33.7%) of 86 patients, mortality was 2 (2.3%). The level of postoperative complications in patients with sarcopenia was significantly higher (c2 =12.1, p=0.0005). Postoperative mortality in patients with sarcopenia was higher without significant difference (c2 =1.3, p=0.24). Sarcopenia significantly affects the level of postoperative complications and its detection can be used to improve the selection of patients before pancreatic resections in patients with pancreatic cancer.
O.M. Kononets, O.V. Tkachenko, O.O. Kamenetska
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 90-98; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227941

Abstract:
The nervous system, in particular the autonomic one, is well known to constantly regulate the internal functioning of the body, adapting it to changeable external and internal environmental parameters. In particular, there is a close multiple-vector correlation between the nervous system and the kidneys. The aim of this study was to specify the mechanisms, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of the concomitant lesions of the nervous system and the kidneys in patients with acute stroke. This paper presents the case report of 215 patients, aged 70 ± 8.44, who suffered from ischemic stroke. Among them, we examined 144 women and 71 men. The patients underwent a comprehensive examination, including a detailed clinical and neurological check-up (evaluating the patients’ condition severity with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Barthel index on admission and on the 21st day of the disease), laboratory analysis (electrolyte balance, nitrogen metabolism (on admission and on the 21st day of the disease) and instrumental examination (CT scan of the brain, the follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging). The statistical methods were used to analyze the data. In the 1st day of the disease, all the surveyed patients with right hemispheric carotid stroke and the overwhelming majority of the patients with left hemispheric carotid stroke and ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar system had cerebral renal syndrome, represented by renal concentration-filtration dysfunction, accompanied by the reduced glomerular filtration rate. A reliable relationship was found between the renal concentration and filtration function and the right hemispheric ischemic focus in patients with ischemic stroke, the characteristics are to be specified.
T.P. Borysova, O.Yu. Obolonska
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 156-162; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227960

Abstract:
Premature infants with hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) have a high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) due to renal hypoperfusion and use of ibuprofen for duct closure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ibuprofen for the closure of HSPDA on the development of AKI in preterm infants depending on high dose of the drug on the first day of life. 40 preterm infants with HSPDA who were admitted for observation on the first day of life were examined. To close the ductus arteriosus, infants received restrictive therapy. In addition, 32 (80,0%) preterm infants on the first day of life were prescribed ibuprofen: 19 infants – in high dose (20 mg/kg), 13 infants – in standard dose (10 mg/kg). Clinical examination and treatment of preterm infants was carried out according to the generally accepted methods. Echocardiography with Doppler was performed at 5-11 hours of life and then daily to determine the size and hemodynamic significance of patent ductus arteriosus. Diagnosis and stratification of the severity of AKI were performed according to the criteria of neonatal modification of KDIGO, for which the concentration of serum creatinine and diuresis were studied. According to the results of the study, it was established that the frequency of AKI on the third and fifth days of life in preterm infants with HSPDA, who received ibuprofen in a high dose (20 mg/kg) on the first day, was 73.7% and 84.2%, respectively, which is 2.2 (OR=5.6; CI: 1,43-21,95; р<0.02) and 2.5 (OR=10.67; CI: 2.31-49.31; р<0.002) times, more often than in infants without such therapy. High dose of ibuprofen on the first day of life in preterm infants with HSPDA are most often associated with the development of stage I AKI on the third or fifth day of life, which was temporary in one third of patients. The use of a high-dose ibuprofen for HSPDA closure on the first day of life in preterm infants was significantly more often associated with foci of infection in the mother, large duct size and furosemide use.
О.о. Vlasov
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 115-121; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228024

Abstract:
In pediatric anesthesiology in surgical interventions various methods of combined anesthesia with a combination of inhalation, regional, and intravenous anesthesia are used. The provision of high-quality anesthetic support in newborns and infants during surgical treatment of congenital defects is complicated by risk factors, concomitant diseases and different pathology conditions. The study of risk factors and their influence on the functional indices of the child's vital activity in prescribing anesthesia at all stages of the surgical intervention will help prevent complications and deaths in children. Aim – to сonduct a comparative assessment of various types of anesthesia for surgical correction of congenital defects in children and create a predictive model of the association of risk factors and deaths in the selected methods of anesthetic support. The retrospective study included 150 newborns and infants with congenital defects of the surgical profile depending on anesthesia (inhalation + regional anesthesia; inhalation + intravenous anesthesia and total intravenous). After identifying and evaluating prognostic variables by simple logistic regression with calculating the odds ratio, stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and a predictive model of the association of risk factors and deaths with various types of anesthetic management was created. In thoracic operations a combined anesthesia with sevoran and fentanyl was most often used – 20.4%. In abdominal operations, in total anesthetic support with sevoran and regional anesthesia was used– 69.4%, while in urological operations combined total intravenous anesthesia with 2 drugs – 18.4% ranked first. No significant diffe­ren­ces were found between the types of anesthesia in various surgical interventions for congenital pathologies, between the types of surgery and deaths (p = 0.863). To prevent fatalities in various types of surgical intervention and options for anesthetic support of newborns and infants with congenital defects, it is advisable to more closely monitor the cerebral and peripheral oximetry indicators at all stages of treatment and timely correct the impaired condition of the child.
L.O. Shevchyk, N.Ya. Kravets, I.M. Grod
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 69-77; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227735

Abstract:
The purpose of the work was the need to study the change in weight and hematological indicators of the rats as a reaction-response to being in difficult and unfavorable experimental conditions. The biological experiment was conducted in compliance with the normative conditions of keeping the rats, in accordance with ethical standards and recommendations for humanization of work with laboratory animals. In order to accomplish these tasks, rats were divided into two groups: control rats were housed in a spacious cage with comfortable living conditions and experimental animals were housed in a small cage with limited ability to move freely. For the purity of the experiment, the feed ration of animals of two groups was the same. Weight and hematological indicators were determined by conventional methods in physiology. It has been found that improper housing conditions, causing a stressful situation adversely affect the eating activity of the test animals, which explains the weak correlation of the dynamics of the weight of the animals in the control and experimental groups. The analysis of the absolute mass of the internal organs of rats showed their direct dependence on body weight and the correlation of these parameters between animals of both groups. The study found that the quantitative ratios of the main hematological parameters of each of the rodents are strictly different. The tendency to increase of the investigated parameters in the experimental group in comparison with the control one is symptomatic and can be explained by sympathetic-vegetative influences. The amount of hemoglobin is directly correlated with the number of red blood cells. Comparison of the content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes with body weight showed inversely proportional relationship between them. The persistent predominance of leukocytes in the blood of rats in both groups is likely to genetically determined.
, K.M. Shevchenko, L.I. Averkina, P.A. Kobeza
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 46-53; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227731

Abstract:
Оbjective control of the level of knowledge in medical universities is the basis for guaranteeing the quality of education. There are a lot of examples of universal systems designed to evaluate medical students in different countries, including USMLE, IFOM and others; particularly in Ukraine Krok 1 licensed exam is conducted since 2005. Results of Krok 1 are also used for ranking medical universities at the national level. The purpose of our work was to conduct a comparative analysis of the results of the licensing exam Krok 1, in particular, a histology subtest, among students of specialties 221 “Dentistry” and 222 “Medicine” and different languages of education (Ukrainian, Russian, English) in Dnipropetrovsk medical academy. We have revealed that all the analyzed contingents of students (DMA as well as Ukrainian) in the majority of observation periods from 2014 to 2019 had lower average results on histology compared to average Krok 1 results. This could be explained by low quota of histological tests for students of specialty 222 “Medicine” which is 4-6%, and absence of the threshold level for doing each particular subject. These conditions do not motivate students of the third course to recollect a complicated discipline that ended more than a year ago. Another problem is in the content of anchor questions in Krok 1 booklets: the number of such questions are distributed unevenly among booklets of different years and different languages of study. As a result, students with different languages of study are put in unequal conditions. In addition, the variation in the number of anchor tests from year to year, the lack of a declared quota of such tests disorients students and makes it difficult to develop algorithms for preparing for Krok 1.
I.S. Borуsova
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 232-238; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228021

Abstract:
The economic burden of disability due to occupational diseases is significant: the economic losses "due to health problems related to work" in the developed world exceed 1,25 trillion US dollars and amount to 4 to 6% of GDP. A large number of employees work in Ukraine in unfavorable conditions. The study analyzes the dynamics of disability due to occupational diseases in Ukraine for the period from 2015 to 2018 using the example of Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv and Donetsk regions. The results of the study proved that the indicators of disability due to occupational diseases in these areas have a pronounced upward trend. It has been determined that the number of injured or aggrieved persons who received occupational diseases in the Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv and Donetsk regions is 78.5% of the total number of those in Ukraine with occupational diseases. The proportion of those who were initially recognized as disabled due to occupational diseases increased in 2015-2018, increased in these areas and amounted in absolute numbers: in the Dnipropetrovsk region – 906 people (2018) against 705 people (2016); in the Lviv region – 273 people against 239 people, respectively; in Donetsk region – 193 people against 108 people, respectively. Primary disability rate for 2015-2018 period increased by 28.5% in Dnepropetrovsk to almost 50% in Donetsk region. The proportion of those who were initially recognized as disabled due to work injury in the Dnipropetrovsk region was 159 people (2018) against 123 people (2016); in the Lviv region: 42 people against 11 people, respectively; in the Donetsk region: 28 people against 11 people, respectively. The rate of primary disability due to work injury also increased by 29.2% in the Dnipropetrovsk region and by 53% in the Donetsk region. The number of persons with disabilities recognized for the first time depended on age and length of service in hazardous conditions. Persons with 10-19 years of work experience in 2015-2018 accounted for 89.2%. According to our data, 50.1% of workers aged 40 to 49 years are recognized as persons with disabilities, 40% – from 50 to 59 years of age. It is important that in 2018 in 5% of cases, an occupational disease caused disability among workers at the age of 39. In 2018 (as in 2016 and in 2017) in Ukraine, the main conditions that resulted in occupational diseases were: imperfection of mechanisms and working tools – 23.9%; the imperfection of the technological process - 19.5% and the ineffectiveness of the personal protective equipment – 13.5% of their total number. In the structure of disability due to occupational diseases, diseases of the musculoskeletal system occupied the 1st place; 2nd place – respiratory diseases; 3rd place – injuries and poisoning.
A.M. Serdiuk, I.O. Chernychenko, O.M. Lytvychenko, V.F. Babii, O.Ye. Kondratenko, D.O. Hlavachek
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 226-231; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228020

Abstract:
The objective – to study the dynamic changes for the health risk of the population of the industrial center in accordance with the state of atmospheric air pollution with carcinogenic compounds. The assessment of the state of atmospheric air pollution was carried out by us based on the results of physicochemical analysis of samples taken in places attached to the locations of stationary posts of state monitoring. The concentration of identified substances was determined by conventional methods: spectral-luminescent and gas chromatographic. Heavy metal concentrations were determined using data from the Central Geophysical Observatory of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The calculation of the inhalation load of chemical carcinogens and the risks associated with them (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) was carried out in accordance with domestic guidelines. The assessment of dynamic changes in the nature of atmospheric air pollution with a complex of carcinogenic substances was made 5 of them are constantly recorded at levels exceeding hygienic standards. When compared with the reference concentrations, all compounds are characterized by high coefficients, indicating the likelihood of their effect on the body's immune system, respiratory organs, malformations, etc. A high individual carcinogenic risk of the effect of chromium VI and nitrosamines was determined. A total carcinogenic risk is formed at levels of 2.5 – 3.9×10-3, which should be considered as high; this requires development and implementation of preventive measures. On the territory of the industrial center, a high level of air pollution with increased carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk is stably registered.
А.і. Foros, Ye.Ya. Kostenko, M.Yu. Goncharuk-Khomyn
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 217-225; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228019

Abstract:
The number of drug addicts in the world is growing every year. The aim of the study was to assess the dental status of drug-addicted patients with parafunction of the dental-jaw apparatus. We used clinical, analytical, functional and histological research methods. 119 drug-addicted and 110 non-drug-dependent patients aged 18 to 54 were examined. In order to confirm the presence of parafunctions of the dental-jaw apparatus in patients, we conducted an occludogram study, as well as an assessment of the index of parafunctions of the masticatory muscles and the degree of their severity. The structure of tooth tissues was examined by histological method. Examination of drug-addicted patients revealed the presence of numerous carious cavities, secondary adentia, enamel erosion, pathological abrasion, signs of gingivitis and periodontitis, tooth chipping. The prevalence of parafunction of the dental-jaw apparatus, in particular bruxism, in drug-addicted patients is 1.56 times higher than this figure among non-drug addicts. The results of the occludogram and the index of parafunctions of the masticatory muscles differ significantly between the study groups. The mean value of the masticatory muscle parafunction index among drug-addicted patients is 2.06 times significantly higher than the value among non-drug-addicted men and 2.03 times higher among women. Histological examination of the tooth tissues of drug-addicted patients indicates a disorder of the mineralization of both enamel and dentin. Thinning of the peripheral zone of the pulp, which is normally represented by a layer of odontoblasts, which provide regeneration and nutrition of dentin, is more common in persons under 25 years of age. Drug use adversely affects the dental status of patients and the condition of the hard tissues of the tooth.
M.A. Nikolaychuk, L.R. Shostakovych-Koretskaya, I.V. Budayeva, S.V. Biletska
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 184-190; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228000

Abstract:
According to WHO, about 150-200 million people are currently infected with the HCV virus worldwide. Recently, in the professional literature, the number of publications on the role of vitamin D in patients with viral hepatitis C has increased as vitamin D metabolism occurs with the participation of the liver and its deficiency is associated with an increased risk of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seasonal factor on vitamin D (25 hydroxycalciferol) levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and healthy subjects. The study involved 100 patients in the registry of patients with chronic viral hepatitis in the Dnipropetrovsk region. The prevalence and deficiency of vitamin D in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and conditionally healthy subjects at different times of the year were determined, which showed the presence or absence of a seasonal effect on serum 25(OH)D level. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the time of the year (autumn-winter and spring-summer), in which the level of 25 (OH) D was determined. The serum was metabolised by vitamin D, which is synthesized by the liver – 25 hydroxycalciferol (25 (OH) D), an indicator of the supply of vitamin D to the human body. Vitamin D levels were evaluated according to the M.F. Holick classification. According to the level of vitamin D patients were divided into 3 groups (patients with normal level, insufficient (suboptimal) level and vitamin D deficiency). The results of the study showed no effect of seasonal factor on the level of 25 (OH) D in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. Vitamin D levels are controlled by the time of the year: in spring and summer this indicator is normal, in autumn and winter – seasonal decrease in vitamin D.
N.M. Kostyshyn, M.R. Gzhegotskyi, O.A. Yarova, L.P. Kostyshyn, Yu.O. Kulyk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 30-39; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227726

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the influence of high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) on metabolic and structural responses of rats' bone tissue under the sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Obesity combined with a sedentary lifestyle can present the potential negative health effects. However, whole body vibration can be used as a means of non-pharmacological correction of bone mineral density. For characterization of bone nanocomposites organisation and prevention of mineral density loss, X-ray diffraction method was used. Markers of bone remodeling in the rats' blood: leptin, osteocalcin, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase 5b, alkaline phosphatase. Using a high-calorie diet and low-mobility model, we proved that bone mineral mass had been decreasing since 8th week. It should be noted that the decrease in the relative amount of crystalline phase (hydroxyapatite) continued throughout the experiment, up to 24 weeks (p<0.05). These structural changes were accompanied by changes in quantitative indicators of the bone remodeling markers. Rats had lower bone mineral density compared to the animals that were on the normal diet and were additionaly affected by WBV. We observed the increase of the crystalline phase volume fraction from 84% to 93% (p<0.05) in group with additional whole body vibration and the decrease of the mineral component in rats with limited mobility and high-calorie diet. Therefore, WBV could improve structural conditions of bone and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical markers in obese rats. This can be an effective method to improve the structural and functional state of the bones while preventing the loss of bone mineral density.
O.V. Zubarenko, T.V. Stoieva, L.I. Koval, G.K. Kopiyka, R.M. Papinko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 143-149; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227956

Abstract:
Pneumonia is one of the most severe respiratory pathology forms in children, which contributes significantly to infant mortality. The high risk of chronic bronchopulmonary process and child`s disability, in case of severe and complicated disease, requires careful pathophysiological change's analysis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. In particular, for the prediction of these disorders in children with CAP are important the dysmetabolic phenomena study and the specific approaches development. The immediate aim of this work is to study the cellular energy metabolism (CEM) features and to develop approaches for the early bioenergetic disorders diagnostics in conditions of community-acquired pneumonia in adolescents.The aim of the study is to develop approaches for the early diagnosis of shifts in energy metabolism in children aged 14-18 years with CAP. An examination of 41 children aged 14-16 years with the definition of CEM indicators was conducted in order to develop an approach for predicting CEM disorders in community-acquired pneumonia using the method of logistic regression. A logistic regression method was used to develop a method for predicting CEM disorders in children with CAP. The characteristics of CEM in children with CAP were determined. A decrease in the succinate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in the lactate dehydrogenase / succinate dehydrogenase ratio in children with CAP relative to the reference parameters were observed, which indicated an inhibition of the anaerobic energy synthesis pathway. Two mathematical models for predicting CEM disorders in CAP based on logistic regression equations were proposed. The first mathematical model consisted of social and health characteristics and of pneumonia clinical course characteristics. In ROC analysis the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.82, diagnostic specificity – 71%, diagnostic sensitivity – 90%. The second model included only hematological parameters, AUC – 0.78, diagnostic specificity – 69%, diagnostic sensitivity – 81%. Thus, changes in CEM in children with CAP aged 14 – 18 years have been established. Two methods for predicting disorders of CEM in children with CAP have been developed, which can be applied to optimize the treatment of children with CAP aged 14-18 years.
G.S. Dorofeeva
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 122-128; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227948

Abstract:
Reduction of cognitive functions in the postoperative period is gaining importance in the context of the insurance medicine introduction. Operational stress and anaesthetization are factors which increase the risk of deepening and developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The function of short-term memory, attention function, and the speed of psychomotor cognitive reactions are the most vulnerable to the action of general anesthetics. The influence of various methods of anesthesia on cognitive functions in ophthalmic surgery patients after end-to-end keratoplasty has been studied in this research work. Dexmedetomidine was used (the selective agonist of α-adrenoreceptors) as one of the components of multimodal anaesthetization. The sedative effect of this drug is explained by inhibition of neural activity in the blue spot of the brain stem. Dexmedetomidine is known to be used for sedation of patients. It allowed possibility to reduce the amount of fentanyl which was necessary for intra-and post-operative anaesthetization. Our research was conducted on the basis of ME "DRCOH". 78 patients at the age of 18 to 60 years were examined after end-to-end keratoplasty. Non-inclusion criteria: presence of concomitant pathology, neurological diseases, use of psychotropic substances and alcohol 6 months before the study. The study was conducted using neuropsychological testing: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Luria’s test. Testing was performed before the operation, in 6, 24 hours, 7 and 21 days. Patients were randomized into two groups. The first group – group k (n1=45) included patients who were provided with anaesthetic management according to the following scheme:premedication — ondansetron 4 mg, dexamethasone 4 mg, ketorolac 30 mg intravenously, sibazone 10 mg, fentanyl 0.1 mg intramuscularly 40 minutes before intervention. Induction of propofol – 2-2.5 mg/kg fractionally to achieve clinical symptoms of anaesthetization, fentanyl – 0.005% 0.1 mg tracheal intubation after relaxation on the background of atracuriumbenzylate – 0.3-0.6 mg/kg. Maintaining of anaesthetization: oxygen-sevoflurane mixture FiO250-55%, sevoflurane 1,4-1,8 vol.% on exhalation (1-1. 5 WT.) with the flow of no more than 1 l/min. BIS indicators were kept at the level of 30-40, during the surgery, the bolus injection of 0.1 mg of fentanyl was used in the event of hemodynamic reactions. Anaesthetic support was performed using the infusion of dexmedetomidin for 40 minutes, ondansetron 4 mg, dexamethasone 4 mg, ketorolac 30 mg intravenously in the second group d (n2=33). Induction, relaxation and maintenance of anaesthetization were performed as in the previous group. Intra-operative monitoring of patients in both groups included: non-invasive measurement of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry, determination of blood gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide and inhaled anesthetic on inhalation and exhalation). Control of the depth of anaesthetization was performed on the basis of BIS and ANI - monitoring. The use of dexmedetomidinu as the component of a multi-modal method of anaesthetizational al lowed obtaining less pronounced POCD, due to the reduction in the number of used drugs. Further use of the combination of highly selective agonists of α2-adrenoreceptors with regional anaesthetization in ophthalmic surgery is the promising method.
O.V. Burlaka, V.O. Vahnier
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 105-114; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227944

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to define awareness level and use of different contraception methods by servicewomen in the current armed conflict in the East of Ukraine. Between October 2018 and September 2019, 507 military women serving in the Joint Forces Operation Zone in eastern Ukraine and 100 civilian women from the frontline region participated in the questionnaire-based survey. The survey was focused on the knowledge and use of different methods of contraception and STI preventing by military women in conditions of armed conflict in Donbas. Servicewomen reported using of different methods of contraception in 48.3±4.3% of the cases, which is 1.5 times less than civilian women (RR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.2 – 1.7, p=0.001). Among those who reported using contraception, hormonal methods were chosen by 8.2±3.4% of active duty military women, which is two times less than by civilians (RR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.1, p=0.03). The low use of effective methods of contraception by active-duty servicewomen according to results survey is one of the reasons for the disruption of female reproductive health during military deployment. The primary reserve of preserving women's health in the current war environment,besides access to modern contraceptives and counseling, is improving the education of military medics in the gender-specific issues of reproductive health and contraception.
I.S. Shponka, L.A. Pesotskaya, H.S. Korolenko, I.O. Hutnik, B.V. Murashevych, V.A. Nikonenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 78-84; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227934

Abstract:
Chronic myelomonocytic leukosis (CMML) is rarely diagnosed and amounts to 1 per 100 thousand of adults per year, more often in men over 60 years. The clinical case of the rare, prolonged course of myelodysplastic chronic myelomonocytic leukosis (MD-CMML) in a middle-aged woman with rapid transformation into acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL-M5в) with the atypical fulminant course is presented. A retrospective analysis of the course of the disease drew attention to the severe vasculitis suffered by the patient 19 years ago, which could be regarded as the debut of CML in the presence of characteristic pathological changes in the hemogram. Non-pronounced clinical manifestations in the form of moderate cervical lymphadenopathy, skin lesions in the form of transient erythema, spotty eruptions over the next 10 years, fit into the clinical picture of MD-CMML. A detailed picture of the disease was observed after viral infection, bronchitis, antibiotic therapy. Absence of significant blastemia and severe inhibition of normal hematopoiesis with expressed extramedular manifestations of the disease in the patient were not typical for the course of AMoL-M5b in this case. The progression of skin lesions was noteworthy, which gave reason for unfavorable prognosis. For several weeks, the spread of erythematous elements was observed throughout the body with itching, not controlled by antihistamines and corticosteroid drugs; the appearance of maculopapular rashes, merging in places; small-point hemorrhages like vasculitis over the entire surface of the skin. Notable was the development of severe hemorrhagic syndrome without severe thrombocytopenia, significant changes in the coagulogram, as a manifestation of early severe coagulopathy.
S.S. Ostrovska, V.F. Shatorna, E.O. Liholetov
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 40-46; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227729

Abstract:
The concept of the viral etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was first proposed in 1982. Its author MJ Ball suggested that the herpes simplex virus (HSV1) may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD, finding that the areas of the brain damaged in acute herpetic encephalitis are the same as those that are affected in AD, and those who survived usually suffer from memory loss and other cognitive impairment typical of AD. Subsequently, in all postmortem brain samples (temporal, frontal, and hippocampal) viral sequences of the viral thymidinekinase gene were found in a high proportion (70-100%) both in AD and in elderly people without it, while in young people and children the virus was found in very low proportions, so it was suggested that HSV1 comes from the peripheral ganglia, where the virus can remain inactive for many years, then enters the brain at an older age due to a decrease in the activity of the immune system. The increased risk of AD is associated with the presence of HSV1 in the brain and the carriage of a specific genetic factor – allele-ε4 of the apolipoprotein E4 gene (APOE-ε4). By themselves, neither HSV1 nor the APOE-ɛ4 allele were found as risk factors for the development of AD but their combination increased the risk of AD development by 12 times and made up 60% in patients with AD. The phenomena involved in the pathophysiology of AD are neurodegenerative changes that occur as a result of fibrillation and deposition of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles – accumulations of aggregated phosphorylated tau-proteins (P-tau), leading to brain atrophy due to neuronal death. Traditionally, Aβ has been characterized as a catabolic by-product. However, it has recently been shown that Aβ-peptide has antiviral activity and protective effects against HSV infections in the brain. А 16-year study in Thailand with more than 33,000 patients showed that long-term use of antiherpetic drugs reduces the risk of dementia, including AD patients infected with HSV1. Patients with HSV1 infection who received antiherpetic drugs showed a lower risk of all types of dementia compared with the group without these drugs. Their positive effect on stopping the accumulation of amyloid beta and tau protein in the body has been confirmed. In this regard, it is assumed that vaccination against HSV1 may be useful not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of AD.
S.O. Kizhaev, V.O. Petrenko, N.V. Mazur, V.V. Belitsky, O.I. Dudnikova
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 18-29; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227724

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the development and use of intelligent systems in the management of medical technological processes and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The relevance of the work is due to the need for effective use of intelligent systems in healthcare. The purpose of this work is to study the possibilities and prospects of using information technologies and artificial intelligence systems in clinical medicine to improve the efficiency of providing medical care to the population. Information retrieval method; theoretical analysis of legislative and regulatory documents, literary sources, Internet resources, research results; spectral-dynamic and mathematical analysis of the current state and assessment of the quality of life of an individual using the artificial intelligence system "CME". The paper analyzes the development trends of information technologies and artificial intelligence systems, as well as the features of their use in medical technological processes. As an example, the technological capabilities of the intelligent system Complex Medical Expert are briefly described.
, , D.V. Chernov, I.A. Samoilenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 209-217; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228016

Abstract:
The purpose of the work is improvement of the effectiveness of the mandibular fractures treatment in patients with partial or complete adentia by developing and experimentally testing transalveolar osteosynthesis technique. An experimental study was carried out by 3D computer simulation modeling by the final element analysis to assess the efficiency of mandibular fractures fixation at partial or complete adentia using the Ш-shaped plate, which we developed for the transalveolar osteosynthesis method. Calculations of the immobilized fractures for static (own weight) and dynamic (functional) loads were performed according to the author's method, taking into account pronounced resorptive processes in the bone from the beginning of the reparative reaction to assess the rigidity of fragments fixation during the entire period of the fractures healing. Under the conditions of the same three-dimensional model of the mandible, calculations were performed when the fracture was fixed with ordinary linear titanium osseous plates. It is proved that at functional load the new plate provides a compression effect in the fractures region, as evidenced by the negative displacements in the final elements of the mental region according to the results of design load combination 2- 3. The maximum efforts in the screws of the calculation model with a conventional bone plate were 136.955 N, which is almost ten times more than on the model with a Ш-shaped titanium retainer (12.656 N).
R.N. Mikhaylusov, V.V. Negoduyko, G.I. Gubina-Vakulik, S.B. Pavlov, G.B. Pavlovа, A.M. Veligotsky, O.M. Khvysiuk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 201-209; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.228013

Abstract:
The article presents the results of experimental modeling of super­ficial fragment gunshot wounds of soft tissues, obtained in low-energy gunshot wounds. The pathomorphosis of gunshot wounds was studied, and the features and timing of their healing were compared depending on the temperature of the damaging fragments. The aim of the work was to study the effect of the temperature of the injuring shrapnel on the healing processes of the soft tissues of experimental animals with superficial low-energy fragment gunshot wounds. Using the random number method, laboratory animals (rabbits) were divided into 3 experimental groups (15 animals each). In each group, wounding was with fragments with different temperatures − 18°С, 50°С and 100°С. The control group consisted of 10 intact animals. On day 14th, 30th and 60th, 5 animals from each group were withdrawn from the experiment. Microscopic examination of soft tissues was performed using a PRIMO STAR light microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany) at magnification by 56 and 400 times. When assessing the state of tissues in the area of wound damage, it was established that as the temperature of the injuring fragment increases, a slower filling of the defect formed by the necrotic detritus in the process of utilization of necrotic detritus is observed. The high temperature of the injuring fragment along with the mechanical rupture of tissues causes thermal coagulation necrosis. Dense coagulated necrotic masses covering the wound canal from the inside, not only increase the volume of necrotic masses, but also complicate the process of wound healing. At a temperature of wounding fragments 100°C, the formation of a necrotic crust on the surface of the wound occurred on average 3±1.2 days later than at temperatures of 18°C and 50°C, the least pronounced healing took place at the bottom of the wound and in the muscle tissue. Microscopically necrotic, not dystrophic changes were observed in myocytes. Thus, a comparative analysis of the pathomorphosis of soft tissues in a wound when injured from an air rifle MP-532 with different temperature of the fragments showed differences from both the alteration of the tissues and the regenerative potential.
V.V. Ogorenko, A.G. Kyrychenko, O.M. Hnenna
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 175-184; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227999

Abstract:
The article studys the psychological characteristics in patients with brain tumors of different localization which allows to reduce the diagnostic period and, as a result, minimize the time of early detection and the consequences of the surgical treatment of this pathology, and to cause a positive effect on preventing the development of psychopathological disorders at the hospital stage. Analysis of the clinical manifestations of depressive disorders of the subclinical level revealed their polymorphism: depression was accompanied by various variants of asthenic (prevalence of dyssomnias, psychalgia, adynamia and anxiety component) and anxiety (prevalence of senestopathies, hypochondria, phobia) states. The revealed symptom complexes of psychopathological and pathopsychological characteristics of the patient's condition were the clinical justification for the choice of methods of psychotherapeutic correction. Adjuvant psycho­logical therapy, individual rational and family psychotherapy were used as the basic method of psycho­therapeutic influence. Pharmacological correction included: anxiolytics, antidepressants, atypical mild antipsychotics in low doses. The results of the SCL-90-R test demonstrate the effectiveness of the comprehensive treatment aimed at preventing and reducing the manifestations of psychopathological symptoms. Comparison of the mean values of the SCL-90-R test revealed significant differences in such indicators as somatization (p<0.05), depressiveness (p<0.01), anxiety (p<0.05); high statistical significance is noted in the “index of symptom severity” integral indicator (p<0.01). Obtained results of psychological and psychiatric research became the basis for the development of differential diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis and prevention of the development of mental disorders.
, , L.I. Konopkina, K.O. Bielosludtseva, G.M. Stadnichuk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 26, pp 4-11; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2021.1.227647

Abstract:
Continuing education in terms of improving the professional competence of doctors has a great importance. In May 2020 for the first time in Ukraine under conditions of quarantine connected with COVID-19 the Prydniprovsk Association of Internal Medicine Doctors organized a 2-day international conference on internal medicine in a web format. The purpose of the work was to organize, conduct, determine the effectiveness of the international conference of internists in online format and analyze the results of the survey of students. A questionnaire which included 28 test tasks was developed to obtain a feedback from the lecturers. The answers were analyzed and the reasons for possible errors were considered. The level of knowledge acquired by students is generally quite high; however, the most problematic issues were the most modern diagnostic methods in gastroenterology, ECG diagnostics, clinical pharmacology in cardiology and pulmonology. The prospect of developing a system of continuing professional education for internists is to improve teaching methods with the subsequent involvement of leading specialists in various therapeutic areas to cover current issues of medical science and practice.
V.N. Lekhan, L.V. Kriachkova, O.о. Doroshenko, L.O. Gritsenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 189-198; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221711

Abstract:
The purpose: this study aims to identify the most relevant diseases that can be treated outpatient (Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, or ACSCs) and to define the scope of potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) for such conditions (Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations, or ACSH), for Ukrainian adults (above 18 years old), subject to improvement of primary care efficiency. The study has been carried out in four phases, using the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidance on ACSCs for the European Region, which was adapted to the national context. The data was taken from the official statistical reporting and analyzed by 104 reviewers. The assessment of the PPHs is conducted based on responses of the subgroup of reviewers – 6 experts and 61 primary care physicians, which confirmed the levels of competencies. The most significant rates of potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) are registered for hypertension, pneumonia, angina, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and diabetes, which coincide with ACSCs that are most prevalent for Ukrainian adults. The overall rate of PPHs for adult population of Ukraine with ACSCs is 28.2% as defined by physicians and 32.9% as defined by experts, which may reduce the hospitalization rate for all ACSCs (as percent of all patients with ACSCs) from 8.2% to 6.1% (according to reviews of physicians) or to 5.7% (according to experts’ reviews). The study has shown an important scope for better managing of ACSCs in Ukrainian adults. The results of the study can be used to inform the continued health system transformation, specifically for the development of interventions to prevent avoidable hospitalizations for ACSCs in Ukraine, which can lead to more efficient use of resources in the health system and further strengthening of the primary care.
O.M. Makarchuk, O.M. Ostrovska, Okolokh Onieka Gibson, I.K. Orishchak, A.R. Cheredarchuk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 114-121; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221395

Abstract:
In recent years, the number of cases of uterine factors infertility is constantly growing. Unfortunately, the analysis of scientific works is characterized by the lack of data on the improvement of the diagnostic algorithm and the expediency of accentuating the significance of the preconceptional stage. The purpose of this study was to develop sonographic criteria for endometrial readiness for implantation at the stage of preconceptional care in women with uterine factor infertility. The first group included 80 women with uterine factor infertility, the second group (40 women) consisted of patients who entered the IVF program for the first time. The control group consisted of 30 women with normal fertility. Studies of the structure of the endometrium, myometrium and ovarian tissue were performed on a Voluson 760, on the 4th-6th days of the menstrual cycle (according to the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) – consensus of ultrasound description of endometrial changes) and on the 20th-24th days of the cycle. To assess the indirect signs of chronic endometritis the echographic criteria developed by V.N. Demidov et al. were used. The sonographic diagnosis was verified during morphological and immunohistochemical examination. The most common menstrual disorders in women with uterine factor infertility were algodysmenorrhea – 33.3%, algohypomenorrhea –22.2%, hypoopsomenorrhea – 64.4%. Thinning of the endometrium was significantly more often observed in the group with uterine factor of reproductive disorders; one third of patients (33.8%) had dyschronosis of the endometrial echotexture; heterogeneity of M-echo with a predominance of hyperechoic areas was diagnosed in 41.3% of cases. Hyperechogenic inclusions in the basal layer, multiple structures of a linear nature and increased echogenicity were revealed in every fifth patients and hypoechoic uterine contour – in 47.5% of cases. The most significant odds ratio associated with IVF failures and early reproductive loss was found in patients with endometriosis (OR – 5.85; 95% CI: 1.32-13.32), synechiae (OR – 2.27; 95% CI: 0.96-10.16) and polyps (OR – 2.48; 95% CI: 0.84-11.36). It was possible to distinguish the following criteria of functional readiness of the endometrium for implantation: endometrial thickness was more than 8 mm, compliance with the echostructure phase of the menstrual cycle, homogeneity of M-echo, absence of hyper-and hypoechoic inclusions, and full hemodynamics in the vascular pool of the pelvis.
O.M. Kovalyova, N.D. Chukhrienko, T.M. Pasiieshvili, L.M. Pasiyeshvili, N.M. Zhelezniakova
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 87-93; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221237

Abstract:
Aim of research was assessment of the levels of antioxidant biomarkers associated with mitochondrial function in young patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). This study included 165 patients of them 120 patients with GERD and AIT - the main group, 45 patients with isolated GERD - the comparison group. The examined contingent was presented by students aged 18 to 25 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals of corresponding gender, age and social status (students). Total antioxidant activity (TAS-TAC) was determined in blood serum of study persons with enzyme immunoassays (ELISA, Elabscience, USA), levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) – with enzyme immunoassays (ELISA, Elabscience, USA) and Klotho protein - with enzyme immunoassays (ELISA, Elabscience, USA). Statistical data processing by the Statistica Basic Academic 13 for Windows En local was made. In examined patients with esophageal and thyroid pathologies the decline of total antioxidant activity has been revealed. The MnSOD level in patients with comorbidity of GERD and AIT and isolated GERD was significantly higher as compare to control group. Significant increasing of Klotho protein in serum of young patients was observed. We assessed imbalance between decline of extracellular antioxidants and activation of mitochondrial antioxidants which is more pronounced in combination of diseases. The increase of biomarkers of mitohondrial antioxidant defense system with non-specific citoprotection mechanism in patients with GERD provides the basis to consider MnSOD and Klotho protein as prognostic indicator of clinical outcome of disease in young age. Under combination of GERD and AIT the tendency to overexpression of MnSOD and depression of total antioxidant activity has been revealed, this may cause the deterioration of mitochondrial function.
A. Gamian, S.O. Zubchenko, A.M. Havrylyuk, I.Y. Kril, V.V. Chopyak
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 99-106; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221245

Abstract:
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are created during the process of glycation of cells from various tissues and fluids and are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with the amino group of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid. In normal conditions, they play the immunoregulatory role. In pathologic conditions AGEs activate the receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and cause long-lasting inflammation. RAGE participates actively in various disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, etc. However, there is relatively small number of scientific studies on the possibility of using the role of AGE in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. RAGE transcript and protein are expressed in the lung by pulmonary type I alveolar epithelial cells, suggesting that RAGE has an important role in lung pathophysiology. They repress some endogenous autoregulatory functions leading to many diseases, including allergy. Oxidative stress increases the inflammatory reaction in asthma and allergies. Long-lasting inflammation followed by free radicals production are important factors involved in allergic reactions, they negatively influence the incidence and prognosis of allergy. RAGEs are expressed on circulating immune cells, they activate NF kappaB and intracellular oxidative stress also increases the inflammatory reaction in asthma and allergies. The membrane RAGE (mRAGE) signaling is proinflammatory, whereas soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a secreted form of RAGE, is generally anti-inflammatory. The study of AGEs, soluble RAGE, ligands of RAGE HMGB1, and S100A8/A913 and IL-33 is useful in the context of their considering as biomarkers to the differentiation diagnostic between eosinophils-derived and neutrophil-derived asthma/AAD. The mean serum levels of RAGE may be the target of new therapeutic interventions.
Se Dma
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 229-230; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221789

Abstract:
Doctor of Philology, Professor Tetiana Vitaliivna Filat (to the jubilee).
Yu.Z. Kotsiubynska, N.M. Kozan
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 47-58; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221228

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to search for the possibilities of forensic identification criteria through integrated study of the nature of correlative relationships between the dermatoglyphic parameters of the middle and proximal phalanges of the fingers together with gender and ethno-territorial belonging of persons and identify factor criteria for the diagnosis of unknown person’s phenotype. The material for the study was dermatoglyphs of middle and proximal phalanges of fingers of 480 persons belonging to males and females of different ethno-territorial groups of the Carpathian region, obtained digitally using the Futronic's FS 80 USB 2.0 optical scanner and reformatted from bitmaps to vector graphic objects using algorithm VeriFinger 6.6/Mega Matcher 4.4 Identification Technology Algorithm. The results of quantitative and qualitative study of the morphological elements of dermatoglyphic parameters were subjected to one- and multivariate statistical analysis. Significant differences were found between in incidence of dermatoglyphic parameters in the males and females of the Boiko, Lemko, Hutsul, Opillia, Pokuttia and control groups during the study. On the basis of the obtained result, diagnostic phenotypic complexes of dermatoglyphic parameters of middle and proximal phalanges of the fingers of representatives of different ethno-territorial groups of the Carpathian region were formed, and thus the register of identification criteria was expanded, which can be further used as a separate self-sufficient identification system, as well as together with dermatoglyphic parameters of hands and feet in complex identification expertise.
V.A. Poniatovskyi, O.L. Bondarchuk, M.O. Prystupiuk, O.O. Smikodub, V.P. Shyrobokov
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 73-80; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221232

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens that causes a variety of diseases, from minor skin infections to life-threatening sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and a number of other diseases. Particular attention was paid to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with multiple drug resistance. The purpose of this study is investigation of the sensitivity of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, to bacteriophage drugs and determination of possibility of using this agent for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. A number of classical and modern microbiological methods for the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus: an indication of genes, responsible for antibiotic resistance (PCR analysis), determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (disc diffusion method) and bacteriophages (spot test, Gracia method, Appelman method) were used in the study. The susceptibility analysis of Staphylococcus aureus with presence and absence of mecA gene to the commercial bacteriophage product – “PYOFAG® BACTERIOPHAGE POLYVALENT” was performed. The results of the study showed that the total number of susceptible strains of bacteria was 95±0,2%. The use of investigational Bacteriophage drug for the treatment of furunculosis caused by MRSA has shown positive results. After one week of using the bacteriophage as monotherapy, the patient experienced regression of the clinical symptoms. For the period of use no adverse effects have been detected. Thus, the phage drugs using can become an important tool in the control of antibiotic-resistant strains, which cause a variety of infections in humans.
D.D. Diachuk, I.M. Hidzynska, G.Z. Moroz, I.M. Tkachuk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 4-11; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221220

Abstract:
Scientific interest to the problem of multimorbidity is increasing due to the increase of the number of such patients. The aim of this work was to analyze and summarize current approaches to optimizing care for patients with multimorbidity and the results of their implementation in clinical practice. Since the beginning of this century, a number of documents have been created by WHO, government agencies and professional medical societies to improve medical care to patients with multimorbidity. The evidential basis of the effectiveness of the majority of the proposed measures based primarily on expert consensus. In 2016 NICE has published a clinical guideline NG56 «Multimorbidity: clinical assessment and management», WHO – a monograph «Multimorbidity: Technical Series on Safer Primary Care». In 2017 NICE has published a quality standard – Quality Standard №153 «Multimorbidity». The strategy of improvement of medical care for patients with multimorbidity is directly related to the patient-centered approach formation, which includes comprehensive assessment of the patient's condition. The main component of medical care is the definition of a realistic goal of medical intervention according to patient`s preferences, and making the choice of the optimal amount of diagnostic, treatment, and preventive measures, which can lead to the desired goal. A number of studies (the 3D randomized controlled trial, the MultiCare AGENDA, the SPPiRE study, the WestGem study etc.) have being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing proposed approaches in clinical practice. The results of the studies and meta-analysis do not provide conclusive evidence of the medical and economic effectiveness of their implementation at the presentstage. Improving the outcomes of medical care to patients with multimorbidity involves conducting further clinical trials that can provide evidence to determine the list of most effective interventions for clinical practice.
L.M. Yuryeva
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 12-21; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221224

Abstract:
During the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, healthcare workers are at the forefront of the battle undergoing not only significant physical but also emotional stress. At the same time medical workers are considered to be at high risk for the incidence of COVID-19. Staying in a state of constant emotional stress over time leads to the emergence of both mental and somatic disorders. The purpose of this article is to conduct a literature review on the principles of consistency regarding the mental health of staff members of medical institutions providing care to patients with COVID-19. A systematic literature search has been carried out, as a result of which 32 articles with reports of mental and behavioral disorders during the pandemic have been selected for analysis. The main group of disorders are disorders of the anxious-depressive spectrum. According to various sources, from a quarter to a third of medical workers have clinically significant anxiety, about a third – depression. Significant prevalence of sleep disorders in individuals providing medical care to patients with COVID-19 has also been indicated. In the long term, the expectation of an increase in the level of post-traumatic stress disorder has been indicated. The article also provides modern views on the socio-psychological effects of epidemics and pandemics. Excessive attention, especially on social media devoted to the problem of COVID-19 significantly complicates the fight against the real problem of overcoming the pandemic. It has been proven that overconcentration on problems associated with COVID-19 is a factor of the increased risk of developing generalized anxiety disorder in the end. Thus, the protection of mental health and the socio-psychological support of medical workers are some of the important directions in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic. The management of psychological crises during pandemics should be based on psycho-hygienic and psycho-preventive measures both at the level of the individual and society as a whole.
B.S. Burlaka, I.F. Belenichev, O.O. Nefedov, O.G. Aliyeva, N.V. Bukhtiyarova
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 31-38; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221226

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to study the specific activity of our developed nasal dosage form with n-phenylacetyl-l-prolylglycine ethyl ester. The experiments were performed on 260 white outbred rats weighing 190-220 g. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by a single subcutaneous inoculation of an encephalitogenic mixture (EHM) in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) based on 100 mg of homologous spinal cord homogenate; 0.2 ml of CFA (the content of killed mycobacteria 5 mg/ml) and 0.2 ml of physiological saline per animal. There were five groups of animals in the study: 1) intact; 2) control - untreated with EAE, received saline solution; 3) animals with EAE that received basic treatment - methylprednisolone (MP), 3.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally slowly in saline no more than 1/10 of the CBV rat; 4) animals with EAE treated with MP + Noopept, at a dose of 10 mg/kg; 5) animals with EAE treated with MP + Citicoline (Ceraxon, Ferrer Internacional S.A., Spain) D003U1 series, 500 mg/kg, intragastrically. The in­tegrative functions of rats’ brain with EAE were studied using the “Open Field” method with an arena of own production with dimensions 80x80x35 cm. The study of memory was carried out using the radial labyrinth LE760 (AgnTho's, Sweden). Capture and image recording was carried out using a color video camera SSC-DC378P (Sony, Japan). Video file analysis was performed using Smartv 3.0 software (Harvard Apparatus, USA). As a result of the stu­dies on experimental model of multiple sclerosis with a nasal gel containing ethyl ester of n-phenylacetyl-l-pro­lylglycine revealed the presence of normotimic activity, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, an increase in the total activity of the central nervous system. The results obtained indicate a high neuroprotective and nootropic activity of the Noopept intranasal gel. By the degree of influence on reducing the number of errors in working memory, the Noopept gel sig­nificantly exceeds monotherapy with methylprednisolone and combination therapy with methylprednisolone and citi­coline. A further study of the effect of the developed nasal gel on the morphofunctional indices of sensorimotor cortical neurons under experimental multiple sclerosis, as well as on the content of HSP70 in the animal brain, is promising.
M.A. Shyshkin, T.O. Khrystenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 95-98; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221242

Abstract:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is one of the most widely used cancer stem cells markers, even though the question of its significance for certain stages of colorectal carcinogenesis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare ALDH1 immunohistochemical expression levels in polyps and adenocarcinoma of the distal colon. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of biopsies from 40 patients (biopsies of polyps and histologically non-changed mucosa of the distal colon), as well as surgical material of colorectal adenocarcinoma from 30 patients were carried out. It was established that distal colonic polyps are characterized by cytoplasmic expression of ALDH1 with the median of relative area that is equal to 25.63 (18.26; 30.42)% stromal cells. ALDH1 expression by epitheliocytes is revealed exclusively in dysplastic polyps with the median of the area that is equal to 22.13 (17.22; 30.05)%. Colorectal adenocarcinoma is characterized by cytoplasmic expression of ALDH1 with the medians of the area that are equal to 40,22 (22,54; 47,77)% stromal cells and 32,12 (23.64; 40.28)% cancer cells. The area of ALDH1+ cells varies depending on the pTNM stage of the carcinoma, herewith the median of ALDH1+ stromal cells is significantly increasing during the tumor progression from the I to the III stages that displays increasing in number of stromal cells which are involved in oncogenic signaling pathways activation. The median of ALDH1+ cancer cells is significantly increasing during the tumor progression from the III to the IV stages that shows increasing number of cancer cells that acquire properties of stem cells on advanced stages of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Comparative analysis of the parameters obtained for polyps and carcinoma indicates that the median of ALDH1+ stromal cells area in polyps is 2 times smaller than the median of ALDH1+ stromal cells area in carcinoma, and the median of ALDH1+ epitheliocytes area in polyps is 1.5 times smaller than the median of ALDH1+ cancer cells area.
O.P. Vavrinevych, B.I. Shpak, A.M. Antonenko, S.T. Omelchuk, T.I. Zinchenko
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 166-173; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221663

Abstract:
This work is the second part of our study to develop alternative experimental mathematic models for predecting toxicity of insecticides, where we carried out a statistical analysis and comparative estimation of the toxicometric parameters obtained experimentally and calculated according to the proposed equations. In the first stage calculations were carried out and the most reliable models were proposed. The purpose of the research is the scientific substantiation and statistical analysis of the calculation models for predicting the toxicity of insecticides of different classes. For research we took the insecticides of the following chemical classes: neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, organophosphorus compounds. Statistical analysis of the linear and nonlinear regression equations obtained for insecticides was conducted. The equations described the dependence of subthreshold doses in the chronic experiment of all insecticides, the median lethal doses at oral admission of pyrithoids and neonicotinoids from molecular weight; and toxicometry parameters of all insecticides and their individual groups (pyrithoids, neonicotinoids, organophosphorus compounds) on melting temperature and the octanol-water partition coefficient. On the basis of a comparison of the toxicometry parameters obtained experimentally (actual parameters) and calculated according to the proposed equations checking of possibility of using of the calculating models for predicting the danger of the investigated groups of insecticides was performed. For substantiated pairs of resultant and factorial variables for pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and organophosphorus pesticides a reliable correlation was established (ractucal> rtable at p = 0.05) or trend (ractucal> rtable at p = 0.1). A good and very good consistency of the features selected for the calculations according to the Cronbach’s alpha (index ranged from 0.8 and above) was indicated. The developed algorithm makes it possible to significantly simplify the conduction of toxicological studies of the studied classes of insecticides
I.M. Poiasnyk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 214-220; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221779

Abstract:
Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne transmitted infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spread by the bite of ticks of the genus Ixodes. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, which affects the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system in up to 15% of the affected patients. Nerve structures are affected by spirochetes both in acute and late phase of the disease. The clinical course of neuroborreliosis is highly variable. Although at least 80% of European patients present with facial nerve palsy and radiculitis, symptoms of neuroborreliosis may be quite unspecific or even mimic other neurological diseases. Idiopathic peripheral facial palsy has long been considered as the most common cause of prosopoparesis, but modern diagnosis significantly narrow the range of cases of unknown genesis. Neuroborreliosis is difficult to diagnose, especially when prosopoparesis is the only clinical manifestation, so practitioners should be mindful of possible etiology to avoid misdiagnosis. The article presents a clinical case of early neuroborreliosis in a woman of 57 years who manifested with peripheral facial palsy. The author describes in detail the course of the disease (the appearance of new symptoms on the background of standard medical therapy (poor response), the presence of additional criteria (erythema migrans, lymphocytoma (rarely), arthralgia), diagnosis (specific immunological examination of blood to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato). Antibiotic therapy made it possible to achieve complete recovery of facial nerve function and avoid future complications.
Se Dma
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 231-232; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221790

Abstract:
To the 100th birthday of Viktor Mykolayovych Dziak.
A.A. Gudaryan, I.S. Maschenko, A.S. Dorogina, S.V. Shyrinkin
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 138-146; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221409

Abstract:
Rapidly progressing generalized perio­dontitis (RPGP) still remains an extremely important medical problem, despite certain achievements in solving most of the issues of etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. The study included 102 patients with rapidly progressing periodontitis of I-II and II-III degrees of severity, with ineffective and inconsistent results of previous treatment who were examined and treated in the clinic of the Department of Surgical Dentistry, Periodontics and Implantology of the SE «Dnipropetrovsk medical academy of Health Ministry of Ukraine». On the basis of the diagnostic and therapeutic measures carried out, it was established that, in patients with rapidly progressing generalized periodontitis, the formation of various drug sensitivity in periodontopathogenic microorganisms to protocol antibacterial therapy is closely associated with immunological protocol diseases. The presence of drug-resistant bacteria in the periodontal tissues is combined with a more pronounced immunodeficiency in the mechanisms of systemic and local protection than when the lesions are colonized by drug-sensitive periodontal microorganisms. The revealed features of immunity disorders in patients with RPGP with drug-resistant infection to conventional antibiotic therapy are manifested by a decrease in CD3+ lymphocytes, cells with cytostatic activity (CD4+, CD16+) expressing receptors for the activation of lymphocytes CD25+, HLA-DR and apoptosis CD95+), against the background of a slight increase in CD20+, CD116+, CD54+, significant inhibition of the synthesis of SIgA, IgM, α-INF, γ-INF; a pronounced increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The need for a differentiated approach in the correction of immunological disorders in patients with RPGP depending on the detected sensitivity and resistance of periodontal pathogenic bacteria to the protocol generally accepted antibacterial therapy has been clearly proved; this provides a faster relief of the infectious and inflammatory process (on average on 3.6±0.2 day) in more than 90% of cases, normalization of the parameters of immunological reactivity in 93.3% of the observed and stable clinical remission of the disease.
Se Dma
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 233-235; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221791

Abstract:
Talanted scientist, brilliant surgeon-urologist, teacher.
V.P. Ivanov, Yu.Yu. Shushkovska, O.I. Afanasiuk, L.O. Pentiuk
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 22-31; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221225

Abstract:
The main morphological structural lesion substrate is myocardial fibrosis. The processes of fibrosis in a certain way are associated with the severity of a variety of cardiac arrhythmias. Myocardial fibrosis may be manifested by prolongation of the QRS complex, frequent ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia on the electrocardiogram. Echocardiography is the main tool used to assess the structure and function of the heart, it reveals an increase in the left ventricle, and decrease in ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle and an increase in filling pressure. Biological markers are quantitatively defined biological parameters that, as indicators, determine the norm, pathology and result of medecinal correction of the disease (definition of experts from the Biomarkers Definitions Working Group, USA). Changes of biomarkers can be controlled to determine the individual risk of cardiovascular diseases development and measures to normalize them. Among the main causes of fibrosis activation, hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and, as a consequence, the excessive formation of angiotensinogen and aldosterone are considered; increased levels of galectin-3, which contributes to the migration of macrophages, proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen synthesis in cardiomyocytes. Recently, much attention is paid to the study of biochemical markers such as aldosterone, galectin-3 and transforming growth factor- beta-1.Thus, these markers were determined in hypertension, metabolic syndrome, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation. However, to date studies considering association between frequent ventricular premature beats, as a marker of electrical instability and plasma levels of biomarkers of fibrosis, such as aldosterone, galectin-3and transforming growth factor beta-1, in patients with essential hypertension without / or in combination with coronary heart disease are absent. Based on the aforesaid material,, further thorough study of this problem is promising.
N.V. Volotovska
Medicni perspektivi (Medical perspectives), Volume 25, pp 39-47; doi:10.26641/2307-0404.2020.4.221227

Abstract:
The organism’s reaction to pathogenic impacts such as blood loss and ischemia can appear either on systemic or on ultrastructural level. The tourniquet inflation pressure on the extremity triggers local lipid peroxidation. However, the systemic influence of tourniquet is not completely studied. This experiment was dedicated to study of the changes that occur in the liver on the background of ischemic-reperfusion syndrome of the limb. In our experiment the animals were divided into 5 groups, in which the effect of ischemia-limb reperfusion, blood loss, mechanical injury of the thigh bone and their combination on the concentration of malonic dialdehyde and glutatoin peroxidase activity was studied. Biochemical investigation of the liver has shown that each of these experimental interventions had caused activation of lipid peroxidation in the liver and proper increase of the activity of the antioxidant protection enzyme in the blood. The peculiarities of the reaction were an increase of the first index, which was the highest among all experimental groups – on the background of blood loss combined with the use of a tourniquet; at the same time the critical suppression of antioxidation was noted as well. Besides 2 periods of exhaustion of the wounded organism were established – on the 3rd and 14th day. At the same time, the content of malonic dialdehyde was higher in the group where the imposition of the tourniquet was combined with mechanical trauma, comparatively to isolated mechanical trauma of the thigh, this indicated the role of the tourniquet as a factor complicating the course of posttraumatic period due to ischemic reperfusion syndrome. Understanding the pathogenesis of traumatic disease will allow to find a new way of valuing of the effects of limb decompression, to cope with oxidative stress and more successfully treat multiple organ failure.
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