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Polina Golomidova, Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Aleksander Saburov
Published: 1 November 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 25, pp 61-77; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.25.61

Flera Sokolova, Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University
Published: 1 November 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 25, pp 158-172; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.25.158

Anna Gornova, Moscow Representative of the Fund of reconstruction and development of national tuna fishery ", Marlin"
Published: 1 November 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 25, pp 196-210; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.25.196

Sergey Grinyaev, Ngo ", Center For Strategic Assessments And Forecasts”
Published: 1 August 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 24, pp 105-111; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.24.105

Yury Lukin, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Arctic and North, Volume 23, pp 171-185; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.23.171

Alexander Oboimov, Northern Gms
Arctic and North, Volume 23, pp 130-143; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.23.130

, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Nadezhda Tulskaya, Maria Tsekina, Natalia Kirasheva
Arctic and North, Volume 23, pp 66-79; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.23.66

Aleksey Alsufev, Government Of The Arkhangelsk Region
Published: 1 February 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 22, pp 5-24; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.22.5

Natalia Shmakova, Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute named after N.A. Avrorin of Kola Science Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Evgenia Markovskaya, Petrozavodsk state university
Published: 1 February 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 22, pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.22.150

Svetlana Lipina, Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration (RANHiGS)
Published: 1 February 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 22, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.22.66

Anatoly Shevchuk, Council for Study of Productive Forces, Valentin Kurteev
Published: 1 February 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 22, pp 75-86; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.22.75

Aleksandr Konstantinov, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Published: 1 February 2016
Arctic and North, Volume 22, pp 112-129; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2016.22.112

Svetlana Lipina, the Council for Studies of productive forces of Ministry of Economic Development of Russia and RAS, Konstantin Zaykov, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Published: 1 November 2015
Arctic and North, Volume 21, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2015.21.33

Yury Lukin, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Published: 1 March 2015
Arctic and North, Volume 18, pp 61-80; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2015.18.61

Sergey Shubin, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Ivan Rogachev, Andrey Opryshko
Published: 1 March 2015
Arctic and North, Volume 18, pp 114-121; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2015.18.114

Oleg Kurilov, the Association for economic interaction of the Arctic and Far North City Alliance, Norilsk Town Administration
Published: 1 June 2015
Arctic and North, Volume 19, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2015.19.6

Valentine Kondratyeva, State Autonomous Institution ", Yury Lukin, Cen-­‐ Ter For Strategic Studies Of Sakha (Yakutia) ", journal "Arctic and North"
Published: 1 March 2015
Arctic and North, Volume 18, pp 148-169; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2015.18.148

Aleksandr Yu. Tsvetkov, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Abstract:
In our article we analyzed the transport accessibility of the subjects of the Arctic zone of Russian Federation for potential tourists. To do this, we estimated in points the material and time costs of tourists, traveling from the main centers of the formation of tourist flows in Russia (Moscow and St. Petersburg) to various Arctic destinations. For each administrative-territorial subject of the Arctic zone we have selected potential support logistic centers of the development of Arctic tourism, which will receive visiting tourists, provides them with basic services and redistributes them along tourist routes. These are mainly transport centers, connected with Moscow and St. Petersburg and with settlements on this territory. We referred to Murmansk, Apatity, Arkhangelsk, Naryan-Mar, Vorkuta, Salekhard, Norilsk, and Anadyr. As a result of the study, we have found that currently the most promising for the development of Arctic tourism is Murmansk region, its transport infrastructure is convenient for using by tourists and the development of Arctic tourist routes. Arkhangelsk Oblast and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomus Okrug are also promising, their support centers of the development of Arctic tourism are capable of receiving and redistributing tourist flows in Arctic directions. The least developed in terms of transport is the Arctic part of Yakutia, where there are no large transport hubs, capable of taking on the function of tourist distribution centers.
, N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ,
Abstract:
The article deals with the key aspects of the formation of the integrated socio-economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). The main purpose of the study is to create a conceptual model for balanced socio-economic development. The article uses such methods as comparison, analysis, deduction and induction. The importance of the development of these territories for the sustainable development of the country is shown. The main regulatory documents defining the development of this region are highlighted. Threats to the security of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation are identified. The relations of other countries to the Arctic are considered. The importance of bringing the standard of living in the Arctic region closer to the average in Russia and the importance of this direction of action to reduce the negative demographic trend are outlined. Besides, the need to study the development of the Arctic region of the Russian Federation is determined not by statistical methods, but by new research methods. The importance of creating a megaproject for the development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation with specific measurable goals is highlighted. Such risks of this region are described as: population decline, in particular, the decline of the able-bodied population (including highly qualified personnel), the critical state of housing and communal services, the high cost of living and use of resources, the threat to environmental safety, weak diversification of production, long distances from industrial centers. Economic, social and environmental factors affecting the dynamics of the integrated socio-economic development of the Arctic region of the Russian Federation are considered. A conceptual model of balanced socio-economic development of the region was developed on the basis of a set of factors. The conceptual model of integrated development of the Arctic regions of the Russian Federation is a complex of various factors. This model can become a basis for the preparation of strategic planning documents in the regions of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and it is possible to compare and compare the development of the regions using this model.
Abstract:
The Russian Arctic has been attracting a growing interest in terms of research and management. The former is due to the lack of knowledge about current processes in its development in the rapidly changing internal and external environments, and the latter is driven by the rising significance of this macroregion in ensuring the country’s economic, ecological, geopolitical stability, and national security. Being inter-dependent, these interest spheres evidence the demand for the study of Arctic regions, especially newly established ones, and underlie its practical value, which consists in building the analytical foundations for working out and implementing the administrative mechanisms for socio-economic space integration in Arctic regions. Hence, the aim of this study is to define the strategic development priorities for the regional socio-economic system of the Karelian Arctic as a newly established region in the context of the multifarious Russian Arctic integration processes. This aim is achieved through the following tasks: analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the socio-economic system of the Karelian Arctic, identification of key challenges and opportunities for its development, identification of the strategic priorities to overcome threats and realize opportunities. The principal methods were expert and in-depth interviews, SWOT analysis and content analysis, the dialectic method and system approach, which were applied in the context of the propositions of spatial economics. As a result of the study, characteristics of the Karelian Arctic’s socio-economic system are identified in the context of the high-relevance problems of managing the development of the Arctic macroregion as a complex system. Directions for further research are defined, with the aim to build the scientific foundations for managing the spatial development of the Russian Arctic zone and its constituent regions and for handling the challenges hindering such development.
Aleksey V. Grigorishchin, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, , , Dilmurad B. Yakhyaev, , Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration
Abstract:
The article provides a systematic analysis of the critical economic and legal factors affecting the current state of cargo flow in the Northern Sea Route in the convergence of the Asian and European markets. First of all, these are legal norms, environmental standards, economic efficiency and organizational and managerial motives, and the development of transport and port infrastructure along the route of the “historically developed national unified transport communication of Russia in the Arctic”. The authors pro-pose specific steps and recommendations to overcome obstacles that create an unfavorable barrier envi-ronment for logistics companies to strengthen cooperation and interaction on an equal and mutually beneficial basis with Russia and counterparty partners in the market. These include irregular deliveries due to the seasonal functioning of the transport route and ice conditions, a high level of tariffs due to low cargo flow, and the inability to transport return goods. Particular attention is paid to the need for international cooperation to implement large infrastructure projects for the development of the NSR and the industrial and economic development of the Arctic territories. The authors propose specific steps and recommendations to overcome obstacles that create an unfavorable barrier environment for logistics, stevedoring and insurance companies, infrastructure operators, ship-owners and regulatory authorities to enhance cooperation and interaction on Russia’s equal and mutually beneficial basis and counterparty partners in the international market.
, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Anastasiya S. Vasilyeva
Abstract:
The problem of differentiating indicators of economic development is relevant not only for the regions of Russia. One of the main indicators is the gross regional product. The work carried out a comparative analysis of its values for the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the United States and China, which revealed differences by tens, and sometimes hundreds of times. In most cases, this is due to the specifics of a particular region. The aim of the work is to assess the influence of regional factors on the gross regional product. The article presents an analysis of existing methods for solving this problem by modern domestic and foreign researchers. A brief overview of the key factors used in the proposed models is given. However, the trends in the development of the world and domestic economies, political events, restrictions imposed by the pandemic, regional peculiarities leave this issue relevant. The paper proposes a model for assessing the impact of objective and subjective factors on the gross regional product. The testing subject was the Arkhangelsk Oblast, located in the north of the European part of the Russian Federation. Seven indicators were selected as objective factors, which have a close correlation with the resulting indicator. A multiple regression equation was developed and the quality of the model was assessed. A forecast of the values of the gross regional product for the planning period was made. The influence of subjective factors was studied using the method of expert assessments through the analysis of ratings of influential agencies. A correction factor has been introduced into the model, with the help of which the values of the volume of the gross regional product have been corrected. The results of the study can be useful for state authorities and local self-government bodies that manage the regional development of territories, and can be used to develop a strategy for the development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences"
Abstract:
Organizing reliable and affordable energy supply for consumers in the Arctic area is an important and difficult task. An effective solution of this task requires taking into account many factors. This paper analyzes how various factors are taken into account in the state programs of the Arctic regions of the Rus-sian Federation, aimed at regional energy development. Natural resource, economic, social, technological, environmental, legal factors of energy supply are considered. The study is conducted on the example of four subjects of the Russian Federation, fully assigned to the Arctic zone (Murmansk Oblast, Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug). The main research method is content analysis of the relevant information sources. The role of regional government programs in regulation of regional energy development is specified. A review of the main state programs of the considered Arctic subjects of the Russian Federation is carried out. It was revealed that the tasks of energy supply development are unevenly distributed in the state programs of the constituent entities of the Federation, and program measures are differently detailed. The content of the analyzed state programs is compared with the factors of energy supply. It is shown that regional government programs are primarily compared with economic factors. As instruments of regional policy, the state programs of the regions act as legal factors. Factors of other groups are taken into account in state programs to a lesser extent.
Olga V. Gubina, Anna A. Provorova
Abstract:
The decline in the birth rate, the increase in migration outflows and the deterioration of the health of the Russian Arctic population make it necessary to find innovative solutions to these issues. The scientific problem is to reveal the mechanisms of the influence of innovations and methods of their imple-mentation in the sphere of the formation and realizing of the Arctic demographic potential. The aim of the article is to study the perception of innovation by the population of the Arctic territories when solving personal demographic issues and to assess the relationship between this perception with socio-demographic characteristics. The novelty of the study is in an attempt to link demographic and innovation processes in the Arctic. It was reflected in the substantiation of the theoretical model. The key element of the model is the zone of innovations perception by the population, formed on the basis of the interaction of demographic and innovation processes and combining the following directions of perception: population innovative activity, the desire to learn, the willingness to invest in innovations, the assessment of the innovations availability and willingness to use them, the inclusion of the population into the digital environment when solving demographic problems. The empirical basis was formed by the author's sociological survey of the Arctic municipalities population of the Arkhangelsk region, conducted in 2019. It was revealed that innovation perception is mainly influenced by the age and education and, to a lesser extent, by the level of their income. The results obtained can be used to develop a state regional policy for the demographic development of the Arctic territories based on the use of innovations.
Abstract:
The article discusses issues of the state of the agro-industrial complex of the region in connection with the need to fulfill the targets approved in January 2020 by the new edition of the Food Security Doctrine of Russia. The purpose of the study is to identify the problems of the northern region and to develop proposals for changing the situation for the successful implementation of the Doctrine. The scientific problem discussed in the article relates to the determination of the methodological foundations of the most relevant areas of agrarian policy for the current state, ensuring the implementation of the Food Security Doctrine of Russia and increasing the level of self-sufficiency of the region. The author's research develops the theory of determining the socio-economic role of effective interaction between authorities of different levels, scientific justification of the prospects for the further development of the agro-industrial complex due to the transformation of the industry development management system, innovative approach to training personnel for the agricultural sector, and introduction of new technological solutions as highly relevant. It has been established that such factors as the lack of effective interaction between the state and municipal authorities, and also the lack of young qualified personnel, whose competence meets the modern requirements, have a negative impact on the economy of agricultural production and food self-sufficiency of the region as a whole. The article draws attention to the underestimated opportunities for improving the situation in the agro-industrial complex due to a change in the scheme of interaction between the state and municipal authorities during the implementation of the program-targeted method of regulation and strategic planning, as well as the creation of a scientific and educational complex in the region for the training of competitive specialists for the agro-industrial complex. In order to improve the situation, it is necessary to consolidate the formation of a regional agricultural system on the basis of a set of similar systems developed by the municipalities themselves, based on the relevant climatic conditions, financial, material and labor resources of these areas. Besides, it is necessary to start the training of personnel for the agroindustrial complex system from school, applying new educational standards, based on scientific developments.
Asya A. Shchegolkova, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
The Yamal oil and gas province (OGP) is strategically important for the Russian gas industry. In the coming decade, gas production in Yamal is expected to grow to 180–200 billion cubic meters per year. The main goal of the article is to solve a scientific problem consisting in the study of the spatial organization of the development of gas resources, determination of the rational structure of reproduction of natural gas reserves in the Yamal oil-gas-bearing region in the context of the modernization of the Arctic gas industry complex. The article assessed the gas resources of Yamal, revealed trends in the economic development of natural gas fields, presented the characteristics of investment projects based on the fields being developed. An analysis was carried out that made it possible to differentiate the deposits by the degree of their prospects, and a strategy for expanding the hydrocarbon potential of Yamal was determined. It was revealed that the main areas of production in the Yamal oil-gas-bearing region are associated with the development of deposits with a high level of Cenomanian deposits. Such deposits are characterized by a higher increase in the capitalization and profitability of investment projects in real time compared to fields located in the northern and far eastern seas, including on the shelf of the Kara Sea. It was concluded that the strategy for the reproduction of hydrocarbon potential will be aimed at conducting prospecting and exploration in order to transfer forecast resources to industrial reserves of natural gas. The study applies a general scientific methodology providing for systemic and comprehensive approaches to justify the spatial organisation of gas resources development in the Yamal oil and gas bearing region. A significant body of factual material on the state of free gas and condensate reserves in Yamal has been analyzed. The results of the research were obtained with the use of comparative-analytical, statistical methods of economic analysis.
Abstract:
Since 2008, the European Union has unsuccessfully tried to obtain permanent observer status in the Arctic Council, the central cooperation forum in the Arctic. The analysis shows that the EU's failures in this area are connected both with its location mostly outside of the region and remoteness from the northern realities, as well as global geopolitical tensions. However, the EU has had de facto observer ad hoc status since 2013, allowing it to participate in almost all formats of interaction in the Arctic Council. Considering this fact, the permanent observer status has rather a symbolic meaning and is equivalent to joining a kind of “privileged Arctic club”. An analysis of the EU's functioning in its relations with the Arctic Council and its members shows that the EU is ready to adapt and listen to the opinion of the Arctic countries in order to become a legitimate Arctic actor. The Arctic Council is of uneven importance for the different EU member states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden are full members, several countries are permanent observers, but most EU countries are not interested in the Arctic issues. Because of this multifaceted nature, the collective EU is more of an extra-regional player on the platform, but one with serious Arctic claims. The EU is actively working on a common Arctic policy. It is represented in the Arctic Council by the Ambassador-at-Large for Arctic Affairs, introduced in 2017, who acts in coordination with the European Commission and the member states concerned. The EU's overall approach is not unsuccessful: it has managed to engage more member states on the Arctic vector, and European expertise and input on sustainable development issues is already becoming an integral part of the AC's work and promises to evolve further.
Abstract:
The paper presents an analysis of polar ecological policy actors. From this perspective, authors discuss in detail a role of state in conservation and development of marine and coastal ecosystems. Furthermore, they describe a green agenda for polar regions. At last, some ways for creating of ecological policies in the Arctic and the Antarctic regions, most especially on behalf of sea and marginal ecosystems conservation and evolution, are proposed. One of the most vital parts of such policies is staff training. The authors have attempted a comprehensive analysis of the Green Agenda at the global, national and local levels in terms of the effectiveness of its proposed mechanisms for the protection of biodiversity in polar areas. Researchers have also reviewed plans of Russia according to the new set of strategies for Arctic and Antarctic regions, which were adopted in 2020. The ideas proposed by the authors can be used in a real-case scenario both for strategies implementation and for public discussion on the global ecological problems.
Yury F. Lukin
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the present and past of the history of Alaska. Such a combination of times highlighted the most difficult problem of ambiguous attitude to the historical past in the USA from the standpoint of modernity. In the process of destroying monuments under the onslaught of the Black Lives Matter movement, the local Indian population accused the long-gone A. A. Baranov of racism, persecution of the indigenous population, enslavement of Tlingits and Aleuts for hunting fur-bearing ani-mals. On July 14, 2020, the Sitka town and district assembly supported these accusations and decided to move his monument from the town square to the local museum. The review article reveals the objective conditions of the historical process during the period of A.A. Baranov's activity in Alaska in 1790–1818, us-ing the methods of historicism, search and systematization of information, analysis and synthesis. The assessment of his personality is updated. The article shows the beginning of G.I. Shelikhov's and A.A. Baranov's activity in the North-Eastern Company, and then its transformation in 1799 into the Russian-American Company (RAC). The article examines the war with the Tlingit people of 1802–1804, the missionary work of Herman Alaskinskiy, three assessments of the nature of Russian colonization, N.P. Rezanov's plan for the modernization of RAC. The episode with Russia's sale of Alaska to the United States is also being clarified.
Abstract:
The Far North is the most important territory for Russia, which largely determines the pace and prospects of socio-economic development. This means that its development requires special attention. One of the main drivers for the development of the Far North is the system of general education, which meets the needs of the society and the economy of the macro region. The article considers it in two ways. First, a comparison is made between the Far North and the rest of the country of the dynamics of indicators that characterize the training of the most talented and motivated children. For this purpose, the number of winners and prize-winners of the all-Russian subject Olympiads since the academic year 2011/2012 is ana-lyzed. It is shown that their number is significantly lower than the national average. Second, the dynamics of number of educational institutions, children attending them, and teachers working there are considered. The conclusion is made about the significant deterioration of the indicators, which is associated primarily with unfavorable demographic dynamics. The problems faced by the education system are considered and measures aimed at improving the situation are proposed. The most important of them are the concentration of efforts on the development of the mass system of general education, preparing children for work and living in rural areas, and improving the information support of the implemented policy.
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