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Abstract:
In modern conditions, the issues of assessing the sustainability of regional development are of particular relevance. The complex problems of interrelation of economic growth, environmental pollution and population well-being require the development and use of new, simpler and more understandable ap-proaches for decision makers to assess, analyze, and predict sustainability at the regional level. The pur-pose of the article is to investigate the opportunities for sustainable development of the regions of the European North included in the Arctic zone, and to develop methods for forecasting their socio-environmental and economic development based on sustainability window assessment. The dynamics of changes in the relationship between environmental, social and economic indicators with the use of pollu-tion functions is analyzed. The main factors contributing to the reduction of environmental pollution and increase of the population's well-being are identified. It is shown that structural changes in the regional economy and environmental investments have the greatest effect. A methodology for calculating sustainability windows for the regional economy is presented. The possibility of using the method has been demonstrated using data from the Republic of Karelia. A scenario of sustainable development based on the restriction of economic growth for some regions and the requirements for the structure of the economy has been developed. The results obtained can be used as an informational and methodological basis for assessing and elaborating sustainable development policies in the Arctic regions.
Aleksandr N. Pilyasov,
Abstract:
The realities of the Russian Arctic in recent decades make it possible to determine a special phenomenon of corporate development risks, which can be structured into resource, institutional and ecosystem risks. The resource risk reflects the contradiction between the conjuncture of the global resource markets and the specific conditions for the development of unique deposits located in the Arctic zone; institutional risk — between federal norms and rules for the development of natural resource deposits and local specific conditions for the construction and operation of resource facilities in the Arctic; ecosystem risk reflects the contradiction between large-scale economic activity and the fragility of Arctic natural systems. As a result of a comparative assessment of the development risks of three Arctic corporations in Russia, it was found that the highest risk is typical for the facilities of Norilsk Nickel, the lowest — for NovaTEK, and Gaz-promneft is in the middle. Using the OLI paradigm of John Dunning, it can be argued that Arctic corpora-tions respond to the challenge of development risks by adapting their spatial, institutional and organiza-tional structure to the conditions for the development of resources and resource territories. The spatial factor is most efficiently used by Norilsk Nickel, then NovaTEK, in the strategy of adaptation to develop-ment risks, with the receipt of benefits from localization and the creation of a regional cluster, while Gaz-promneft is the least effective. The institutional factor is most effectively used by NovaTEK and Gazprom-neft, and the least by Norilsk Nickel. The organizational and structural factor as a tool for adapting to risks is most skillfully used by Gazpromneft, weaker — by NovaTEK and Norilsk Nickel. Integrally, the best positions in the strategy of adaptation to development risks are held by Gazpromneft, and the worst positions by Norilsk Nickel, which has the most significant contrast between the size of development risks and the means of adaptation to them. Strengthening the internal competencies of the company and its corporate innovation system is the most important way to successfully cope with the high risks of corporate development of resources and spaces of the Arctic.
Georgiy G. Sukhanov, Sergey G. Sukhanov
Abstract:
The article considers socio-economic and socio-biological aspects of the Russian Food Security Doctrine, approved on January 21, 2020. The need to monitor Russia's food security is due to significant changes in “the country's socio-economic development, the emergence of new risks and threats to food security caused by economic sanctions imposed in 2014 by a number of Western countries against our country, the openness of the national food market” in connection with the accession to the World Trade Organization, and the deepening integration within the EAEU. The article examines modern approaches to the definition of state food security. Certain provisions of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation are assessed, the analysis of food security in Russia in terms of self-sufficiency, economic and physical availability of food was carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia has been achieved for the main items of food products, which is confirmed by the results of the analysis performed. A similar positive trend in the development of our country is confirmed by the estimates of foreign researchers based on the results of the Global Food Security Index monitoring. A comparative analysis of the diet of the population of Russia and the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts is given. The work focuses on socio-biological risk factors for food security in the Arctic region of Russia.
Andrey V. Zagorskiy,
Abstract:
The article describes the politico-military situation in the Arctic, including the development of military capabilities of states in the region, the coastal infrastructure, the scales and the manner of military exercises, as well as the dynamics of the military landscape in the Arctic. The authors argue that the mili-tary capabilities in most parts of the Arctic remain moderate, primarily due to harsh climate restraints. However, military activity both of NATO member-states and Russia has increased considerably recently in the Euro-Arctic area adjacent to the North Atlantic, in particular in the waters of the Barents and the Nor-wegian seas. Mutual military deterrence in this area represents a "new old" normal that will shape the security situation in the Arctic in the long term. The article concludes by considering possible options for preventing escalation and minimizing the concerns of the sides by restoring a full, regular and institutionalized military dialogue between Russia and the rest of the Arctic states.
Abstract:
The article examines the settlement system of the Russian North, which was previously determined by decisions of ministries and departments, and now it is changing under the influence of resource corporations' activities. The focus is on small and medium-sized towns that are part of the supporting framework of settlement, ensuring connectivity of the northern territories. The authors analyze the dynamics of population, including urban one, and the population of small and medium-sized cities. The study identifies periods of upward and downward dynamics for each population group and settlements. If the country is drawing the population to the west, then in the North it is concentrated in the Asian part. The article shows that urban settlements were created multifunctional, with the monopoly of a city-forming enterprise, which, on the one hand, made them economically vulnerable, and on the other hand — more adaptable to external conditions. According to the author's methodology, small and medium towns are ranked according to the share of the population of these cities in the total population of the region. The authors have identified four groups of regions that have an insufficient, medium, high and excessive share of the population of small and medium towns; the optimal boundaries of this share are proposed. The authors have identified four groups of regions that have an insufficient, medium, high and excess share of the population of small and medium towns; the optimal boundaries of this share are proposed. The study revealed the similarity (concentration of the population in large cities) and the difference in the structure of settlements in the North (the share of the population living in small and medium urban settlements, is lower in the countryside). The research results will be applied in the development of strategic documents for the development of northern towns.
Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of plots associated with different stages of the movement of the soul, presented in a manuscript book and on drawn sheets. The book was written at the beginning of the 19th century in the Russian North in the Old Believers' environment. The manuscript is interesting in composition, content and unique in design. The text of the book is written on fifty-five sheets, collected in a notebook and bound into a book. The manuscript includes three works: an excerpt from the eighteenth chapter of "The Flower Garden of Dorotheus of Gaza" about the spiritual ladder, the vision of Monk Gregory about the walk of Blessed Theodora, a story about a meal from the teachings of Saint Niphon.The text is attached by four folding miniatures and several illustrations - images on the themes of the works of the manuscript, which interpret the literary text more fully. As a result of the research, it was found that this collection is not the only list. Collections, similar in composition and decoration, are contained in the archives of museums and libraries of the country. This indicates the book wealth of the Russian North, the artistic and genre diversity of the northern book.
, Mikhail V. Chicherov,
Abstract:
The Kola Superdeep Well (SG-3) is an outstanding achievement of Soviet science and technology, drilled in Precambrian crystalline rocks and reached a depth of 12262 m. It was one of a series of super deep wells planned within the framework of the program “Earth's Interior Exploration and Superdeep Drilling”. In order to achieve record depths, unique domestic drilling equipment and materials capable of working at high temperatures and pressures were created. A fundamentally new technology for drilling wells using hydraulic downhole motors was developed. Despite difficult drilling conditions and repeated acci-dents, SG-3 has fulfilled almost all the tasks assigned to it. The well was penetrated with full core sampling, which was subjected to comprehensive study. This made it possible to study the deep structure of the Earth's crust and to revise the interpretation of depth seismic data. It was found that changes in the physical properties of rocks at great depths had been erroneously interpreted as a change in their composition. It made it possible to assess the prospects of deep horizons of the Pechenga structure for copper-nickel mineralisation by uncovering a previously unknown body of ore-bearing hyperbasites. New information was obtained on the temperature gradient, which turned out to be significantly higher than expected, as well as on the vertical metamorphic zoning along the borehole section. The composition and physical properties of rocks in deep horizons were investigated. Tectonic fault zones and six types of ore mineralisation were identified in the borehole section. New data on ore formation processes at great depths have been obtained, which is an important contribution to the theory of mineral deposit formation
Yuriy N. Kvashnin
Abstract:
The article is devoted to the poorly studied problem of the origin of the name Yuraki, which the Russians, as well as the Enets and Nganasans, called the group of the Samoed-speaking population that wandered along the northern outskirts of Western Siberia in the 17th — first half of the 20th century. On the basis of published and unpublished archival materials, information from the works of Russian and foreign scientists, as well as dictionaries of the peoples of the North, we attempted to identify the ethnic composition of the Yuraks, the boundaries of their settlement, determine the chronological framework for the emergence and existence of this name and clarify its origin. The research has resulted in a number of reasonable conclusions and assumptions. The name Yuraki appeared in the 17th century, when the tax policy of the tsarist administration in the north of Western Siberia provoked active resistance of certain groups of the nomadic Samoyed population. Russians called the Yoraks / Yuraks nomadic in the deep tundra, who did not pay a permanent tax, tundra and forest Nenets and Enets, as well as a mixed Nenets-Enets group. This name comes from the Nenets word Yor meaning "depth". By the 19th century, the Nenets of the Yenisei province began to be called Yuraks, regardless of the tax system. In the Soviet household documents of the Dolgan-Nenets National District, this name appeared until the middle of the 20th century.
Roman V. Badylevich
Abstract:
The article examines foreign experience in implementing regional financial policy in relation to the Arctic territories. It assesses the experience of such sub-arctic countries as Canada, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the USA. The paper identifies two groups of financial instruments of territorial devel-opment: within the framework of general regional policy (instruments of fiscal capacity equalization, taxa-tion instruments, instruments to increase investment attractiveness) and within the framework of special policy for the development of Arctic territories (program-targeted instruments, special development funds, direct allocation of funds for current expenses and development). It is concluded that the Arctic countries apply different approaches and tools to the development of the regions located in the Arctic zone, the choice of which is determined by the type of state structure, the degree of financial independence of the regions in the sphere of financial regulation, the level of development of the northernmost subjects compared to the rest of the country. In the conditions of Russia, it is possible to use the best foreign experience in the sphere of financial regulation of development of the regions located in the Arctic zone. In particular, it is possible to use the experience of applying program-targeted development tools, the formation of special development funds, which are based on revenues from the use of natural resources of the Arctic, as well as the experience of creating favourable conditions to attract investors for the implementation of economically attractive projects.
Abstract:
The Far North is the most important territory for Russia, which largely determines the pace and prospects of socio-economic development. This means that its development requires special attention. One of the main drivers for the development of the Far North is the system of general education, which meets the needs of the society and the economy of the macro region. The article considers it in two ways. First, a comparison is made between the Far North and the rest of the country of the dynamics of indicators that characterize the training of the most talented and motivated children. For this purpose, the number of winners and prize-winners of the all-Russian subject Olympiads since the academic year 2011/2012 is ana-lyzed. It is shown that their number is significantly lower than the national average. Second, the dynamics of number of educational institutions, children attending them, and teachers working there are considered. The conclusion is made about the significant deterioration of the indicators, which is associated primarily with unfavorable demographic dynamics. The problems faced by the education system are considered and measures aimed at improving the situation are proposed. The most important of them are the concentration of efforts on the development of the mass system of general education, preparing children for work and living in rural areas, and improving the information support of the implemented policy.
Yanina A. Kuznetsova
Abstract:
Based on the analysis of All-Union Population Census of 1926 and a wide range of general and regional scientific research, the author studies the processes of demographic and economic development of territories located in the Russian North and conventionally designated by the author as regions of Euro-pean, Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern North. The paper identifies key trends and features of Northern re-gions' development in the 1920s, caused by the first Soviet reforms of the administrative-territorial struc-ture of the country, economic development and national state policy, which had an impact on the demo-graphic processes in the regions including population size, its composition and settlement structure. It is found that the economic development was the most active in the bordering areas, where intensive development of industry and transportation implied the need to strengthen national defense and expand trade and economic ties. This mainly concerned the regions of the European and Far Eastern North. The regions that were rich in natural resources, especially gold deposits, such as Yakutia, also developed more actively. Other regions of Ural and Siberian North developed in a more traditional way, based on growth of wood harvesting and fishing industry. Improving of living conditions of the indigenous peoples of the North, material support for their farms, medical care and legal assistance, introduction of education among the population in the 1920s had a positive impact on the economic and demographic development of the indigenous population.
Abstract:
The article discusses the pollution of marine environment with plastic waste, in particular, the accumulation of microplastics in the oceans, which is one of the most serious environmental problems both in the world and in the Russian Arctic. Alongside with other world oceans, the Arctic Ocean and the Barents Sea have become places of plastic accumulation, causing great harm to the fragile ecosystem of the Arctic region. Researchers have found microplastics not only in Arctic waters, but also in the ice of the Arctic seas. Plastic debris is carried by ocean currents from more densely populated areas of the planet. Local sources, such as fishing and other commercial activities, as well as waste water, are one more reason. Microplastics adversely affect living organisms in the ocean. In particular, plastic can cause physical harm and disrupt body formation of marine animals, as well as cause death by suffocation or ingestion of plastic. At the same time, plastics can accumulate persistent organic pollutants on their surface, which can poison marine animals, damaging the entire food chain.
Abstract:
In recent circumstances of world climate change, Arctic zone has become of great interest for those countries actively involved in its development. With the constant climate warming, deglaciation and increasing of sea-level, commercial transport ways through the Arctic Ocean become a possible economic solution for large exporting countries. Due to importance of north passage for China, Beijing proclaimed itself as a "near-circle State" to get advantages from the development of Northern Sea Route (NSR) that can provide direct access to the Arctic zone and its natural resources. Considering this, China has recently published its White Paper on Arctic Policy, where it announces "Ice Silk Road" to be the official Arctic strategy of China. This article underlines the major intentions and interests of China in its Arctic strategy. One of China's intentions is an enhancement of the Northern Sea Route, that still raises concerns from the specialists whether it can be applicable part of Arctic strategy of China. This article approves that according to Ice Silk Road's connotation Russia should play an indispensable role in China's advancement to the Arctic zone through NSR. Moreover, the author investigates the influence of "Ice Silk Road" on Sino-Russian relations. Both China and Russia appear to prioritize this strategy to ameliorate economic situation and infrastructure in less-developed regions of two countries. Though, economic development of Arctic coastal cities is one of the priorities of the Russian Federation, it remains to be attentive to the involvement of China in the development of the region, mainly out of fear that it will influence its legal position in the Arctic region. Meanwhile, it stays important that two governments come to a consensus concerning the legislative basis of NSR usage and have a deep assessment of advantages and disadvantages that come out as a result of their partnership.
, Elena S. Goryachevskaya
Abstract:
The analysis of methods for assessing the financial opportunities for increasing the economic efficiency of industrial enterprises using absolute and relative indicators and coefficients was carried out. A mechanism for determining financial possibilities for realizing innovative potential of northern mining enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy, based on the method of assessing the three-component coefficient, which allows choosing the most rational strategy of scientific and technological development, taking into account financial resources and features of production functioning in the northern regions of the Russian Federation, was developed. It is shown that the proposed methodology can be used with limited infor-mation in the accounting statements provided in public access. On the basis of objective indicators, the research of innovation activity of twenty industrial enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy directly operating in the North and the Arctic and included as subsidiaries and branches of seven largest corporations — PJSC MMC “Norilsk Nickel”, JSC “Mine Karalveem”, PJSC “Acron”, JSC “Mining company “Berelekh”, PJSC “Seligdar”, OJSC “Susumanzoloto”, JSC “Polymetal” for the period 2013–2019 was carried out. Studies showed the dependence of the innovation activity of northern enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy on the level of financial security revealed by the method of assessing the three-component coefficient. Scientifically substantiated possibility of developing and implementing a strategy of innovation development of enterprises for the medium and long term periods based on the level of financial security is shown. Enterprises with high financial security or in special cases (with additional investments with normal financial security) are able to generate innovation technologies. As the analysis has shown, the majority of northern enterprises have low financial security, which does not allow them to count on effective innovative development without attracting a significant amount of targeted investments.
Sergey S. Vopilovskiy, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
The study examines modern challenges affecting the development of the Arctic marine transport system and the economic situation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). The basic normative legal acts that determine the activities of economic organizations in the Arctic are presented. It was deter-mined that in the context of the world economy regression caused by geopolitical, economic, natural and other reasons, increasing the AZRF economic potential is a priority goal, and the implementation of tasks for the Arctic zone development and ensuring national security corresponds to the implementation of the Fundamentals of State Policy of Russia. The tendency of competitive struggle by the Arctic countries on the issues of economics and geopolitics is noted. The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is presented as the basis of the Arctic sea transport system, its economic potential, international importance, international integration with the People's Republic of China is shown. The main infrastructural projects of the Arctic for the development of the oil and gas complex, the construction of an icebreaker fleet, the construction of new and modernization of the existing ports of the NSR, etc. are presented to solve the problems of increasing cargo traffic along the Northern Sea Corridor. New projects for modernization of port infrastructure, transport development, etc. are considered. The purpose of the study is to assess the ongoing and planned infrastructure projects carried out by the state and business to increase the economic potential of the Arctic. Many of them are unique, which expresses firm confidence in the modern development of the Arctic zone, in ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation.
, Vladimir N. Bashkin
Abstract:
The article is devoted to the issues of geopolitical risks (GPR) in the hydrocarbon development of the Russian Arctic. The authors pay special attention to the analysis of modern geopolitical and geostrategic challenges of the Arctic region development. The article identifies the key geopolitical factors that affect the sustainable development of the Arctic and analyzes the similarities and differences in the geostrategic positions of the Arctic Five. One of the most important factors of the XXI century that determines the alignment and interaction of various geopolitical forces is the struggle for resources. In this regard, an increase in GPR in the Arctic, related to its resource potential, is inevitable. For oil and gas industry facilities, GPR can be transformed into opposite environmental factors in the form of additional opportunities or threats, which the authors identify in detail for each type of risk. The authors focus on such positions of the GPR, which are related to ensuring access and obtaining control rights over the Arctic's hydrocarbon resources from different countries, the uncertainty of the legal status of the Arctic region, and the use of geoecological risks (GER) as manipulative priorities of attention to Russia's actions in the Arctic.
, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", , Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
In the era of digital technologies, the issues of providing highly qualified personnel, the effective use of the intellectual potential of the territory and the creation of conditions for its reproduction are of particular importance. These problems are more acute in remote areas of the Russian Arctic. This is due, firstly, to the ultradispersity of the settlement system in the Arctic of the Russian Federation, and, secondly, to the imbalance between the demand and supply of labor resources in territorial and professional terms. Digitalization has become an integral component of education all over the world; therefore, the purpose of this article is to assess the availability of education in the regions of the Russian Arctic and to search for new targets for quality education in the context of digital transformation. The existing educational environment in the Arctic regions is analyzed in the article. The impact of urbanization degree on affordable education in remote Arctic regions is assessed. The financial capabilities of the population are investigated. Based on the analysis, a number of problems associated with the active dissemination of new technologies are identified. Recommendations for improving the educational process are given, taking into account the digitalization of society. The main stages of modernization of the educational process in remote regions of the Arctic are identified.
Aleksandr Yu. Tsvetkov
Abstract:
Weekend rest is an important part of a person's recreational cycle. Northerners need a good rest to maintain their health. The choice of a place for vacation is associated with restrictions on the time of movement, since its period should not be longer than 2–3 days. The purpose of the research is to select the most suitable transport areas for residents of the Arkhangelsk urban agglomeration, taking into account the landscape and tourist resources. Based on the study of vehicles and the geographical location of tourist services, three sectors were identified, limited by five–hour transport accessibility from the cities of the Arkhangelsk agglomeration. The most promising for priority development is the southern sector, the centers of which can be the villages of Kholmogory and Emetsk. Excursion, relaxation, ecological and sports tourism can be offered there at any time of the year. The transit position of the main roads of the region gives this sector the advantages of attracting tourists from other regions. The western and eastern sectors have significant recreational potential, but their use is constrained by poor transport accessibility. The western sector with the center in the city of Onega is promising for the development of seaside relaxation tourism in summer and sports tourism in winter. The eastern sector with two centers in the villages of Pinega and Karpogory is promising for ecological, sports and excursion tourism throughout the year.
, Mikhail Yu. Openkov, Larisa A. Zhgileva
Abstract:
Throughout all periods of development, the history of mankind has been closely intertwined with the sea. Craving for perception of the unknown has always been favored for humans. The interrelations between people and water element were actively considered by the representatives of natural, exact and engineering sciences. Humanitarian thought can also make a contribution to the study of the oceans. The authors propose substantiation for the formation of the methodology of subglacial oceans. The methodology refers to the theory of thought and action. Modern methodology is capable of constructing the ways of thinking that solve new issues and problems. Openness to criticism of methodological thinking is its strong and promising aspect. The study of the exploration techniques of the “second space”, starting with the first steps and up to the modern attempt to create an underwater prototype of the International Space Station, leads the authors to the conclusion about the possible equivalence of space and Arctic technologies. Exploration of the ice cosmic worlds of Pluto, Jupiter and Saturn may precede the study of the Arctic region. The Arctic has the potential to become a testing site for future space missions. The sterility of space technologies can, on the other hand, provide the development of the green economy in the Arctic.
Tatyana I. Troshina, Olga M. Morozova, Nadezhda A. Vorobyeva
Abstract:
One of the global challenges of our time is the conflict of man and human communities with the rapidly changing world order, which has an aspect lying at the intersection of culture and human physiology — the conformity of food behavior to lifestyle and the environment. The vitality and resilience of modern humans is subjected to special challenges. Comfortable conditions of existence in the modern world have a reverse side, expressed in diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, psychotraumatization, violation of the usual nutrition pattern. These changes are especially noticeable on the example of indigenous peoples of the North, who have lived in relative isolation for a long time, as well as on the example of migrants forced to work in unusual natural and climatic conditions and, in general, abruptly and for a relatively short period of time (which does not allow "launching" the adaptation mechanisms) to change the whole habitual way of life. These categories of population are of special interest for researchers, including in connection with the reactions of body to changes in the food model. The idea of optimal food for the human body, formed in the course of nutriological studies, often contradicts the food traditions of peoples living in conditions far from being favourable. Since the end of the 19th century, balanced consumption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates was perceived as a civilization sign of mature modern society, and any deviations were treated as primitive practices. Over time, the approach to studying the lifestyle of traditional societies evolved from the perspective of the mechanism of human adaptation to different habitats. Traditions, including eating habits, are regarded as an optimum point of survival with the highest level of food, fuel and other material resources available in a given habitat. In addition to the problems of traditional and modernized food supply, the article focuses on the painful conditions associated with the disruption of the habitual way of life, work and nutrition of various groups of northern residents — in historical retrospect and at the present stage. Archive and literary sources, results of modern medical and social research and own field material (ethnosociological and biomedical) were used for the analysis. As a result of the generalization of the data set, which includes the authors' own research, it has been concluded that, in addition to ensuring the supply of basic foodstuffs, preventive medicines and high-quality preventive medicine for permanent residents and temporary workers in the Arctic, it is advisable to take into account the survival practices of indigenous peoples that have been developed over the centuries, creating the conditions for new settlers for assimilation. The credibility of these traditions is given by their high viability and their focus on the ethnic survival of indigenous people in the North.
Anatoly M. Vasilyev,
Abstract:
The authors present the volume of Atlantic salmon farming in the world and in the Russian Arctic. It shows the reasons that hamper the development of salmonid mariculture in the Russian Arctic: the lack of own planting material adapted to Arctic waters, high-quality fodder, fish diseases and others. Objectives of the article: to show the peculiarities of natural and socio-economic conditions of mariculture development in the Russian Arctic and the impact of Atlantic salmon mariculture on import substitution. Relevance stems from the need to substantiate the sources of import substitution of salmon products. The most important results: the main factors that reduce the economic efficiency of growing and selling products were found; the possible causes of salmon diseases in the Russian Arctic and their impact on production processes were systematized, the possible impact of caged fish farming on the environment and on the population of salmon in the Arctic zone was shown. Practical significance: the article shows the influence of possible escapes of farmed salmon on the socio-economic conditions of the population of the Terskiy coast of the Murmansk region and the White Sea basin. It is proposed to introduce Atlantic GM salmon into the composition of genetically modified products. It is shown that import substitution is fully provided by Atlantic salmon mariculture and the supply of wild salmon from the Far East to the European part of Russia.
Tatyana P. Skufyina, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", , Sergey V. Baranov, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
The uniqueness of today's social processes triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic determines the lack of insights into the transformation of the socio-economic space of the Russian Arctic. The purpose of this article is to review the past, recent, and future conditions for development and management of the Russian Arctic, considered in the context of the unfolding crisis of a non–economic nature and its conse-quences. The methodological peculiarity of the review is presentation of the phenomenon of the current crisis in the context of interrelated fundamental problems of the development of the Russian Arctic, the new economic reality, which makes it difficult to reliably predict the future. This naturally led to the sub-stantiation of a series of contradictions and difficulties in implementing the declared development goals of the Russian Arctic, that are specifically reflected in the title of the article — "chimeras", which in biology means an organism consisting of genetically heterogeneous cells. A statistical description of the specifics of socio-economic development of the Arctic regions under the COVID-19 pandemic has been carried out in the context of review of the support measures, examination of the economic structure and the corresponding scale of "disconnection" of the regions' economies during the period of isolation and the subsequent recovery. It is revealed that the Arctic regions demonstrate greater economic resilience compared to the overall Russian situation, which is associated not so much with the strengthening of stabilization measures at the federal level with the support of the regional level, but with the fundamental reasons — the relative simplicity of the Arctic extractive economy, higher population incomes, low level of small and medium business development. Navigation on the risks and opportunities of governing the Russian Arctic has been carried out, linking the fundamentals and the practical implications of the study through the traditional rationale for navigating and considering the practice of managing an object, in our case, the Arctic, as well as routing, which is, choosing the path to follow. In particular, it makes a strong case that the pandemic has deepened the problems and risks that are also major management targets for the "precursor" period and creates a new hypothetical risk — the diminishing scale of the Arctic's social and economic development goals, including practices for securing conditions for increased standards of living and quality of life for its people.
, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
About a quarter of the world's natural gas and oil reserves are concentrated in the Arctic, which has led to increased interest of the world powers in this region in recent years. The Russian Federation has the greatest resource potential in this macro-region. This article examines the transformation of economic processes in the Russian Arctic. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that in order to achieve the main goals and implement the tasks of the modern state Arctic policy of Russia, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the features and patterns of economic processes taking place in this region. The author has analyzed the indicators characterizing some aspects of the economic development of the territories of the Russian Arctic in 1950–2018. According to the results of the analysis, three fundamentally different periods of the development of this region were identified: 1950–1990 — an intensive stage of economic development of the Arctic territories; 1990–1999 — the stage of market relations formation; from 2000 to the present — the stage of “redevelopment” of the Arctic. The main features of the economic development of the Arctic territories at each stage are shown. Conclusions concerning the tasks of the current stage of development are made. The assumption about the contemporary tendencies and the need to find new effective approaches to the management of the region is put forward.
Abstract:
The analytical review is devoted to the progress and results of the three-day business trip (March 17–19, 2021) of the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician A.M. Sergeev to the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as part of a large group of scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian branch. During this period, he visited more than 20 scientific and educational objects in Yakutsk and Tiksi village, met with their leaders, got acquainted with the main directions of their activities. The article reveals and analyzes numerous meetings of the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences with sci-entists, his speeches at conferences and round tables, where his key positions and assessments regarding the role of science in the development of Russia and Yakutia are outlined in the light of the requirements of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On measures to improve the efficiency of state scientific research and technical policy”. Special attention is paid to the results of meetings with the leadership of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Academy of Sciences of the republic, visits to the Federal Research Center “Yakutsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences" and its institutions, North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, scientific and educational laboratory "Agrokub", the Polar Geocosmophysical Observatory, the station of rocket sounding of the atmosphere and the wind-diesel complex. The article contains innovative material on a comprehensive development plan for the Tiksi village. Speaking about the importance of a business visit to the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the author notes that this trip took place in the Year of Science and Technology in Russia, on the eve of the Russian Federation's chairmanship in the Arctic Council, and thus emphasized the importance of the region in the Arctic state policy and gave a good impetus for further development of scientific organizations and science in Yakutia. According to the results of work in Yakutia, the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.M. Sergeev highly appreciated the scientific and technological potential of the region, noted the most promising areas of fundamental and applied research that can ensure breakthrough development of the region.
Abstract:
The article analyzes the cooperation between China and Russia in the field of Arctic shipping. The author compares the tasks of the Northern Sea Route development and the Ice Silk Road construction. This allows identifying the factors that promote and hinder cooperation. The author examines the specifics of the Sino-Russian format of comprehensive partnership and strategic interaction that helps to mitigate contradictions between the national interests of the two states. The author examines the current cooperation between Russia and China in the field of Arctic shipping, identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in key areas of interaction (SWOT analysis). The author concludes that differences between interests and status of the two states in the Arctic provides Russia a strategic advantage in its relations with the PRC. This balance may be maintained within the framework of a multilateral cooperation. At the same time, cooperation with China in the field of marine security is promising in case of keeping existing power balance. In conclusion, the author suggests areas for cooperation to increase the effectiveness of bilateral interaction in the field of Arctic shipping.
Konstantin S. Zaikov, Nikolay A. Kondratov
Abstract:
The Arctic region has long been at the center of world politics and economy. One of the reasons for the transformation of the global fringe into a center of attraction for the economic, geo-ecological and geopolitical interests of foreign countries is the Arctic is undergoing dynamic transformations. In the socio-political and scientific research agenda of the Arctic States, there are acute issues of accumulation and exchange of knowledge about changes taking place in the natural and socio-economic environment of a non-standard region from the point of view of management. The Arctic strategies of the Northern European States seek to fill the vacuum about the trends of environmental changes in the Arctic, the impact of natural transformations on the environment, socio-economic development, population security, and the use of natural resources by indigenous peoples. This task is planned to be solved through the development of research activities of universities located in the Far North and in the Arctic zone of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden, as well as Iceland. The article describes the scientific interests of the Northern European States in the Arctic. Using analytical and comparative methods, the goal is achieved — to characterize universities as one of the parts of their scientific and educational space in the Nordic countries. An attempt is made to answer the question: how does educational and research activities contribute to the implementation of state program documents for the development of natural resources in the Arctic and the use of its spaces? The further direction of scientific research may be to compare the educational and research activities of universities in Northern Europe and universities in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.
Aliaksei Patonia
Abstract:
Iceland — an independent republic — and Greenland — an autonomous country within Denmark — represent two nations with similar geographical, economic, and historical backgrounds. Isolated from the continents, both are significantly affected by an adverse climate, making their economies dependent on trade and import. Nevertheless, despite their similarities, their national energy patterns differ substantially. Specifically, Iceland covers most of its energy mix with local renewables, whereas Greenland meets most of the energy demand with imported hydrocarbons. This paper investigates the reasons for Greenland lagging behind Iceland in terms of developing renewable energy resources. It hypothesises that, apart from the commonly-mentioned geographical, institutional, and cultural factors, the difference in social capital level has significantly contributed to the countries’ divergent energy strategies. In this sense, Iceland’s higher social capital stock stimulates its renewable power progress, whereas Greenland’s lower social capital level hampers it. To examine this hypothesis, the article constructs a ‘social capital tripod’, which assumes specific geographical, institutional, and cultural factors to be linked to renewable energy development through social capital. The findings demonstrate that Greenland, being dependent on hydrocarbon import, has a significantly lower expected level of social capital than Iceland, which runs mostly on renewables, therefore generally aligning with the research hypothesis.
Julia Olsen, Marina V. Nenasheva, Grete K. Hovelsrud, Gjermund Wollan
Abstract:
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, local communities have been adapting to new political and socioeconomic realities. These changes have prompted dramatic outmigration among rural populations, especially in the Russian Arctic. Despite these changes, some communities remain viable, with some residents exploring new economic opportunities. This study uses findings from qualitative interviews to understand what factors shape community viability, interviewing residents and relevant regional stakeholders in two case areas in the Arkhangelsk oblast: the Solovetsky Archipelago in the White Sea and islands in the delta of the Northern Dvina River. The results indicate that community viability and the reluctance of community members to leave their traditional settlements are shaped by livelihoods, employment opportunities, and social capital. Social capital is characterized by such empirically identified factors as shared perceptions of change and a willingness to address changes, place attachment, and local values. We conclude that further development or enhancement of community viability and support for local livelihoods also depends on 1) bottom-up initiatives of engaged individuals and their access to economic support and 2) top-down investments that contribute to local value creation and employment opportunities.
Kirill A. Galustov, Igor A. Khodachek
Abstract:
The Russian Arctic is at the epicentre of economic, environmental, and social changes. At the same time, the peripheral character of the territory, its strong orientation on primary sector makes the region extremely volatile to suchlike shifts. The study concerns primary sector transformation in the Post-Soviet period when after 1991 significant changes in the economy were observed. The main aim of the paper is to identify the specifics, features and development prospects of the recent primary sector transfor-mation in the Russian Arctic. The statistical methods do not reflect the full picture of the transformation. Firstly, Russia has switched to UN national accounts system only in 1994. Secondly, the Arctic statistics after 2009 for regional level is unavailable. That is why the main method of the research is the expert survey method. The results of the study demonstrate the dominant role of the primary sector and the strong dependence of Russian Arctic regions on these activities. The study identifies the key factors and drivers of the transformation, a specific position of the oil and gas sector and the role of natural resources to be traditionally used in the primary sector. Despite the positive role of economic diversification in the long-term economic development, the corresponding effect for the Arctic regions is not fully expressed. The methodological novelty of the research is an unconventional research method of investigating primary sector transformation on the regional level in the Post-Soviet Russian Arctic, i.e. the expert survey. The method can be applied to other countries and industries.
Henna Longi, Sami Niemelä
Abstract:
In the northern periphery, actions are needed to support regional economic development. According to widely shared understanding, innovations are at the core of sustainable economic growth. The regional innovation system (RIS) approach is a framework that has been developed for the design and im-plementation of innovation-based regional policies. This concept implicates new roles for public and private actors in the system. The role of the public sector is related to generating and diffusing knowledge to the companies and industrial networks. On the other hand, companies have increased collaboration with other actors and utilization of external knowledge for innovation and commercial purposes. The case analysis in this study is based on data from experiments in Oulu region, Finland, which has a long history in developing public-private collaboration and innovation system. The focus of the analysis is on knowledge application and exploitation, and their implications for the public driven innovation system and activities. Operational tools and activities are divided into three different categories: company collaboration, business development, and competence development. The analysis also reveals some examples of the future prospects and challenges in the region.
Elena V. Nedoseka, Vladimir V. Kozlovskiy
Abstract:
The article analyzes the regional specifics of solid municipal waste management in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the topic is determined by the need to analyze the regional specifics of solid municipal waste management within the framework of the federal project "Integrated System of Solid Municipal Waste Management", included in the national project "Ecology". First of all, this request will allow us to achieve the most effective management decisions in the field of regulatory regulation and the introduction of mechanisms for economic regulation of MSW management activities, as well as to contribute the creation of an effective management system, and the development of infrastructure for MSW management. The statistical analysis of formation indicators, processing and utilization of MSW waste in the structure by region is presented in this paper. The factors determining the specificity of MSW handling in the Arctic regions are defined. The expert survey made it possible to identify the main problems of implementing the garbage reform in the Arctic in general and in inner regions in particular. The main methods in this study were: semi-formal telephone interviews with representatives of environmental organizations and associations (18 informants), as well as collecting and analysis of statistical indicators of the MSW handling in the Arctic regions.
Andreas Raspotnik, Svein V. Rottem, Andreas Østhagen
Abstract:
In the Arctic, the concept of the blue economy is increasingly dominating discussions on regional development. This entails utilising the region’s ocean-based resources in a sustainable way – both from a global and local level, as well as from an environmental and economic perspective. A crucial aspect in this development is how blue activities are regulated. The UNCLOS-regime plays a vital part in providing the mechanisms and procedures for states to manage marine resources more broadly. However, the predominant mode of governance for Arctic maritime activities will remain unilateral management by each of the coastal states. Thus, the national and local legal and political framework needs to be mapped. In this article we will explore and explain how aqua/-mariculture is governed in the United States (Alaska) and Norway (North Norway). This will be done by examining how parameters for blue economic projects are defined and determined at the international, regional, national and local governance level. Thus, our article will illustrate the complexity behind the blue economy. There is no such thing as one blue economy and no such thing as one Arctic, but it is still possible to find common ground and avenues for knowledge and best practice exchange. By this we will bring the academic and political discussions about the blue economy on the right track.
Juha Saunavaara, Antti Laine
Abstract:
The global data center industry is a huge and rapidly growing sector. This growth has resulted in the development of significant data center clusters in various northern regions. Furthermore, the desire to attract new data center investments has been incorporated into regional development plans and strategies in different parts of the Circumpolar North. Although the policy-makers seem to have great expectations, they and the general public often know little about the industry, which consumes huge amounts of electricity and plays an immense role in the digitalization process that the world is experiencing. This article attempts to increase awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these matters among all relevant stakeholders by introducing data center-related research and development activities and education in the Arctic and the North, as well as research concerning the development of the data center industry in the cold, northern environment. After all, it is often argued that these particular conditions offer advantageous circumstances for the construction of environmentally friendly and sustainable data centers.
Valery P. Zhuravel
Abstract:
In the article based on the report of the Chairman of the Committee of Senior Officials in the Arctic Council, Einar Gunnarsson «Together on the road to a sustainable Arctic: one year in 2019-2021 of the presidency of Iceland», the first year of Iceland’s Arctic Council presidency is reviewed by the Senior Officials Committee. Key priorities for action are identified, which are protecting the Arctic marine envi-ronment, combating ocean acidification; sustainable development of the fisheries sector; reducing ocean pollution; combating marine debris; combating climate change and introducing green energy; ensuring the sustainable development of the indigenous community of the Arctic; continuing to strengthen and enhance the role of the Arctic Council in maintaining peace, international cooperation and political stability in the Arctic region. Also, the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the Icelandic presidency and the development of Arctic cooperation are being considered. Of interest is the analysis of measures taken to counter the pandemic among the small indigenous communities of the North, Siberia and the Russian Far East. Iceland’s plans for the second year of its chairmanship of the Arctic Council are indicated. The author also discusses Russian-Icelandic cooperation at the current stage in the economic field and in the sphere of interregional relations. It is noted that our countries share a common memory of the joint struggle against fascism, and Russia remembers with gratitude Iceland’s contribution to the formation and support of polar convoys.
Diana S. Timoshenko
Abstract:
The study deals with the issues of tourism destinations branding, as well as tourism multidimensionality and tourism destination identity in the Russian Arctic. The factors determining the promotion and branding of tourist destinations in the Russian Arctic are considered in correlation with the fundamental principles of sustainability in Arctic tourism. The relationship between state policy and socio-economic development of the Arctic regions of Russia is considered, in particular, in the aspects of Arctic tourism development. Dialectical, logical, theoretical and empirical methods were conducted for this research. The article defines the conditions for increasing the competitiveness of the domestic tourism product in the Arctic, lists tourism facilities, territories and tourism products that are of the most expressed interest to Russian and foreign tourists. The factors affecting the competitiveness of the tourism product in the Russian Arctic are identified. The article presents the components of the tourist destinations image in the Russian Arctic, which may become the basis for the formation of a strategy for branding tourism in the Arctic regions. The conclusion is drawn about the need for an umbrella brand creation for the Russian Arctic. The necessity of creating conditions for the professional implementation of tourist personnel in the Arctic regions of Russia and the influx of labor resources from urbanized and oversaturated territories to the Arctic with the aim of the integrated development of tourism is substantiated.
Katrine Katrine
Abstract:
This paper contributes to filling a knowledge gap by presenting new research within the practical field of road transport. It takes the buyers of road transport services as its point of entry and seeks to answer the follow question: How can buyers of road transport services contribute to safe road transport in northern Norway? A qualitative approach was selected for this study, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with six different buyers of road transport services. By using a modified version of The Pentagon Model, different aspects were analyzed in order to identify organizational characteristics and qualities that will improve the possibility for buyers of road transport to contribute to a safer road transport in Northern Norway and thereby contribute to fewer accidents and near-misses. The following characteristics and qualities were identified: 1) the importance of developing a detailed formal contract with the provider of road transport; 2) being aware of the possibilities with new technologies; 3) understanding that the decision criteria for ordering transport can influence road transport safety; 4) seeing the importance of good communication with both the transport organization and the authorities; 5) recognizing that knowledge of and trust in a transport organization is important but could also affect judgement regarding revisions and controls. This study suggests that buyers of road transport services can contribute to a safer road transport in northern Norway by emphasizing these five characteristics and qualities.
Vladimir P. Starostin
Abstract:
In this article, the author shares the results of his research on the history of the city of Verkhoyansk — one of the oldest cities in the Far North of Russia. The city was founded by the Russian Cossack Postnik Ivanov in 1638. The school, which was opened two and a half centuries later, has its own history, as interesting as the city itself: it reflects almost all the events that took place in such a distant time in the Arctic coast of the Arctic, in Yakutia, in Russia. Despite the fact that the city is one of the smallest for its population, however, the founders of the school, its teachers and alumni were involved in many historical events, facts that made the fame and pride of place, has contributed to the development of their region, their country. Today we will get acquainted with the earliest period — the time of the Foundation and creation of the school as one of the main points of enlightenment of the vast territory lying to the North of the Verkhoyansk ridges. As it turned out, despite the long-standing interest in this place on the part of domestic and foreign historians, sociologists, and ethnographers, this period still remains a blank spot in history: we still do not know many participants in these events, there is no reliable data about some facts. The author has to be content with fragmentary information, give his own interpretation and explanation.
Olga Høegh-Guldberg, Sabrina Seeler
Abstract:
The urgent global need to decrease the dependence on natural resource extraction and find solutions for a sustainable future is also reflected in policies prioritized by the Norwegian government. Among others, tourism has been defined as a promising alternative for future economic development. Tourism in Norway has not remained unaffected by the global growth in international tourist arrivals. This growth is often neither geographically nor temporally equally apportioned, which hampers tourism’s transformative power of generating year-round and well-distributed income. Further, tourists are no longer purely driven by hedonic and relaxation needs: they also want to challenge themselves and deeply immerse themselves in foreign nature, culture, and other types of experiences. We argue that better integration of national identity can draw the needs of tourists and hosting communities nearer to each other and, thus, become a driver of tourism development. Based on a comprehensive literature, this conceptual paper explores the core elements of the Norwegian identity, including political and cultural values, national characteristics, interests, and lifestyles, and their integration by the tourism industry. We find that only some of these elements have been used by the industry and have often been commodified for economic gain. We discuss a few examples of how national identity can be translated into unique selling points that could generate sustainable development. This, however, requires strong governance, and coordinated and integrative destination management that involves stakeholders from within tourism and beyond, particularly local communities.
Alexandra Middleton
Abstract:
Increasing business opportunities in the Arctic in the spheres of tourism, transport, mining, oil and gas and creative industries require efficient connectivity. Arctic territories offer an attractive place for data servers running on green energy. The subsea fiber cable connecting European High North territories with the US and Asia is an opportunity to improve connectivity in the Arctic. The opening of the Arctic sea creates preconditions for such a project. In this paper, I study existing Arctic institutions that deal with connectivity issues in the Arctic. As theoretical frameworks, I use Gaventa’s (1982) framework of power and powerlessness and stakeholder participation model. The power and powerlessness and modes of participation of stakeholders at the national and regional levels are investigated. I use secondary data, such as the EU and regional policies, statistical data on the topic of connectivity in the Arctic. The study contributes to the understanding of power structure and citizen participation in the Arctic institutions by using an example of connectivity in the Arctic. The findings suggest that Arctic institutions have very limited citizen participation opportunities due to their composition, working formats, and governance structures. Several suggestions for opening-up closed spaces to be inclusive of Arctic citizens perspectives are suggested.
Natalya Dyadik, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies, Anastasiya Chapargina
Abstract:
The growing interest in environmental problems on the part of society leads to the fact that more and more attention is paid to the activities of enterprises, and the criteria for the greening of their production are becoming more stringent. With the growth of industrial production, the scale of the negative impact on the environment increases, so simply discussing environmental problems becomes insufficient. There is a need for a comprehensive accounting of the environmental performance of organizations and the development of measures to compensate for the resulting environmental damage. The article examines the issues of environmental and economic relations between business and government in the Russian Arctic. The purpose of this study is to form a theoretical approach to solving the problem of greening the Arctic regions based on the analysis of the ecological and economic relations between government and business. Legal and economic instruments for regulating environmental protection in Russia, as well as strategic documents for the development of the Russian Arctic in the field of ecology are analyzed. An assessment of the environmental and economic responsibility of companies operating in the Russian Arctic is carried out on the basis of non-financial reporting data. The results of the analysis show that the presented non-financial information is not transparent enough, and the level of business responsibility is rather low. To solve the problem posed, the authors propose a theoretical approach to building a "green" partnership, which allows finding a compromise between the interests of the state and business. The formation of an integrated ecological and economic approach in the state regulation of environmental protection activities will allow reaching a point of bifurcation in the relationship between government and business and thereby leveling the anthropogenic load on the ecosystem of the territory.
Maria Pitukhina
Abstract:
Nowadays, the potential for international cooperation in the Arctic is concentrated within the framework of such an influential international structure as the Arctic Council, where Russia is presiding over soon in 2021–2023. The article is devoted to international cooperation evaluation of 15 Arctic universities from 7 Arctic Council member-states with a student contingent of at least 3,600 people (2 in the USA, 1 in Iceland, 5 in Russia, 2 in Finland, 2 in Sweden, 2 in Norway, 1 in Canada). It seems possible to evaluate international cooperation potential between Arctic universities through the prism of 10 quantitative indicators, including the number of international students admitted to the university; number of courses taught in English; number of educational programs for international students; a number of foreign scientists invited to the university, etc. We can evaluate both academic mobility within the Arctic universities and vocational education internationalization due to accumulated statistical data.
Nikolay Egorov, Grigoriy Kovrov
Abstract:
The paper deals with the assessment of the level of innovative development of the Northern regions. Based on the data of the annual rating of innovative economies, performed by Bloomberg, a comparative analysis of the rating of innovative economies in the Nordic countries is presented. It is noted that Russia has been consistently ranked 25–27 in the last four years, although in 2016, it was in the 12th place. An overview analysis of methodological approaches and methods for assessing the level of innovative de-velopment of a region in Russia is carried out. On the basis of statistical data on the composite integral index, a comparative assessment of the level of innovative development of 17 regions of the Far North of the Russian Federation for 2017 is carried out, and the corresponding ranks are analyzed separately for 5 sub-indices of thematic blocks: socio-economic conditions, scientific and technical potential, innovation activity, export activity and the quality of regional innovation policy. The study shows a significant difference between the regions of the Far North of the Russian Federation in terms of the level of innovative development. In five subjects of the Far North of the Russian Federation, the values of the composite innovation index are higher than the average for the Russian Federation. Different positions occupied by regions are also observed in the rankings for individual sub-indices. The results of such ratings make it possible to assess the comparative advantages and disadvantages of specific regions for further consideration in the program documents on their innovative development.
Pavel Gudev
Abstract:
The second part of the paper shows that the regime of navigation in the Arctic, particularly on the NSR, defended by Russia today, is much more liberal than that which existed in the Soviet years: up to the Gorbachev’s 1987 Murmansk speech the Soviet Arctic was a closed sea region for foreign navigation. Per-missive order of passage established today at the level of Russian national legislation applies only to civil ships, and in the framework of the 1982 Convention, measures to protect the marine environment from pollution from ships cannot be applied to warships, military auxiliary ships, and ships on the state non-commercial service. However, the presence on the Northern Sea routes of water areas with the status of internal historical waters, including several Arctic straits, plus the special legal status of the Arctic, which is not limited exclusively to the 1982 Convention, allows Russia to insist on the applicability of the permit regime also to foreign warships. This approach is based mainly on the two states’ practice with the longest coastline in the Arctic: the USSR and Canada. Navigation along the NSR in today’s ice conditions is not yet possible without passing through the waters of the Russian Arctic Straits, whose waters are classified by the USSR as internal on historical legal grounds. Although under the 1982 Convention, they can be conditionally regarded as international, the lack of permanent transit through them makes it possible not to recognize them as such. However, the Russian Federation’s task to turn the NSR into an international shipping route may lead to a weakening of the current legal position. A similar situation may arise concerning the enforcement of Article 234 “Ice Covered Areas” of the 1982 Convention, which gives the Arctic countries additional rights in the field of navigation control. Lack of ice cover in the Arctic during most of the year can significantly strengthen the position of Russia’s opponents, who insist on a too broad interpretation of this article on our part. Finally, climatic changes may lead to the NSR becoming more latitudinal, and then the Russian Federation will lose any legal grounds to regulate navigation.
Irina Suvorova, Petrozavodsk state university
Abstract:
The study aims to identify the hierarchy of value dominants in the axiosphere of the Karelian Arctic residents, which has developed under the influence of natural, social, economic, and cultural-historical factors. The methodology used is complex and includes sociological, economic questionnaires, focus groups, and in-depth interviews. The study’s cameral stage is based on an analysis of the empirical stage results conducted during a comprehensive scientific expedition of scientists of Petrozavodsk State University to two Arctic regions of Karelia in the summer of 2019. The most important in the study is the cross-cultural approach, based on comparing the results of a survey of respondents - the Karelian Arctic residents with the “general cultural profile” of S. Schwartz and identifying the level of validity of the applied psychological methodology. During the study, the author’s hypothesis about features in the axiological preferences of the inhabitants of the Arctic zone at the level of dominant indicators is confirmed. At the stage of analysis and synthesis of the empirical stage results, the relationship of preserving human capital in the Arctic regions of Karelia with the identified value dominants of residents’ health and safety is established. Special attention is paid to the influence of the current socio-cultural situation on the formation of the axiosphere of the inhabitants of the Arctic zone, and the conclusion is also made about the need for an integrated scientific approach in determining the prospects for the development of society in the Arctic regions.
Tatiana Skufina, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies, Marina Mitroshina
Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to review scientific ideas about the transformation of the Russian Arctic's socio-economic space in the context of geopolitics, macroeconomics, and intraregional factors of development. This review's significance is determined by the fundamental problems that accompany the development of the Russian Arctic, the growing importance of this territory for the national economy. These contradictions' objectivity is confirmed, which naturally indicated the shortcomings of economic theory, which does not allow us to solve these contradictions. For example, the contradiction between the high costs of functioning of the economy, social sphere and the need to raise the level of socio-economic development of the Russian Arctic; between the tasks of increasing the exploitation of resources and the requirements of the environment, etc., that is, what objectively makes it challenging to solve the problem of sustainable development of the Arctic. However, the numerous scientific studies considered, correlated with transformations in politics, economy, and demography, allowed us to assert that ideas have their driving force, influence, and provide transformational processes in the Arctic. The specificity and the strong influence of geopolitics on socio-economic transformations in the Russian Arctic are identified, but at the same time, the significance of the manifestation of expansionism as an internal human need for settlement, fame, and wealth is emphasized, which also ensures the development of the Arctic. Systemic changes are identified, socio-economic trends in the Russian Arctic are presented, which allowed us to establish the positive impact of modern policy on the development of the Russian Arctic, which marks a trend of reducing demographic losses. The prospects for the socio-economic development of the Russian Arctic are considered, taking into account the current situation of the coronary crisis, internal transformation processes, the influence of politics.
Elena Tereshchenko, Murmansk Arctic State University
Abstract:
The article discusses several social aspects of the colonization of Eastern Murman (everyday life, daily work, religious beliefs, schooling, leisure). The historiographic analysis made it possible to identify the specifics of the local (everyday) history of the Kola Peninsula colonization. In the works of A.P. Engelhardt, A.G. Slezskinsky, S.Yu. Witte, S.O. Makarov, V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko, K.K. Sluchevsky, D.N. Ostrovsky, A.K. Engelmeyer, V.I. Manotskov, A.K. Sidensner, N.V. Romanov, “Materials on the statistical study of Murman” and other sources provide facts from personal and family biography, the circumstances of resettlement to the Murmansk coast, living conditions, home furnishings, especially the education and upbringing of children. The descriptions of the migrants’ lifestyle recorded in the materials of expeditions and travel notes allow us to conclude that the colonists’ socio-cultural adaptation in Eastern Murman, the creation of a human habitat, was primarily associated with the development of the institution of the family. In general, the history of colonization is a unique experience in the development of the Arctic — one of the most productive in world history, which is vital for understanding the Russian North’s geography.
Aliaksei Patonia, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
Abstract:
Iceland — an independent republic — and Greenland — an autonomous country within Denmark — represent two nations with similar geographical, economic, and historical backgrounds. Isolated from the continents, both are significantly affected by an adverse climate, making their economies dependent on trade and import. Nevertheless, despite their similarities, their national energy patterns differ substantially. Specifically, Iceland covers most of its energy mix with local renewables, whereas Greenland meets most of the energy demand with imported hydrocarbons. This paper investigates the reasons for Greenland lagging behind Iceland in terms of developing renewable energy resources. It hypothesises that, apart from the commonly-mentioned geographical, institutional, and cultural factors, the difference in social capital level has significantly contributed to the countries’ divergent energy strategies. In this sense, Iceland’s higher social capital stock stimulates its renewable power progress, whereas Greenland’s lower social capital level hampers it. To examine this hypothesis, the article constructs a ‘social capital tripod’, which assumes specific geographical, institutional, and cultural factors to be linked to renewable energy development through social capital. The findings demonstrate that Greenland, being dependent on hydrocarbon import, has a significantly lower expected level of social capital than Iceland, which runs mostly on renewables, therefore generally aligning with the research hypothesis.
Natalya Rodnina, Arctic State Agrotechnological University
Abstract:
The transformations taking place in Russia since the 90s have changed both the political and economic and social systems of the country. Privatization led to a loss of manageability of all agriculture, but significantly negatively affected the traditional agricultural sectors of Yakutia. The transformation of organizational and legal forms and the transition to small-scale production negatively affected animal husbandry as the main occupation of the republic's indigenous population. Despite government support for traditional industries, there has been no positive change. Of particular concern is the implementation of large indus-trial projects in the Arctic. The subject of the study is factors and trends affecting the socio-economic situation and the development of traditional industries. The goal is to determine the features and patterns of the development of traditional industries and assess the impact of ongoing transformations in the Arctic on their condition. The research hypothesis is the assumption of insufficient state regulation measures and mutually beneficial economic relations with business in the industrial development of the Arctic. The results of the studies showed the need to increase the attention of all levels of government in deciding on the development of a particular territory of the Arctic and identifying such rules and mechanisms for companies that should not only ensure the preservation of agricultural industries, but also improve the quality and standard of living of the population. The research methodology is based on system analysis using economic and statistical methods, analytical and computational algorithms for processing information on the development of agro-industrial complex and changing dynamics, including content analysis.
Boris Krasnopolskiy
Abstract:
Mechanisms for coordinating the activities of international interstate and macro-regional organizations of the North-Arctic regions, the implementation of which may be directly related to the program of the Russian Federation’s Presidency of the International Arctic Council in 2021-2023, are proposed. Among these organizations, primarily the Arctic Council is an international forum, which operates on the basis of interstate government agreements of the highest level between the Arctic countries. But in recent years, the Arctic territories’ activities at the macro-regional and regional levels, their regional and local govern-ments have increased. How are the efforts of these top-level intergovernmental and regional communities and societies coordinated? For example, how is the interaction of the Arctic Council with the established sufficiently effective Barents / Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC) or the Northern Forum regulated and the newly created Bering / Pacific-Arctic Council (BPAC)? Do we need clear and well-coordinated mechanisms for this interaction and who should do it? The analysis concludes that a special task force is needed within the Arctic Council structure to develop mechanisms for coordinating its activities with similar macro-regional structures to make the process a coherent and focused one to address the priorities of the Arctic basin in the coming decades. The duration of this task force will depend on the outcome of the task at hand. This proposal is very timely, as it is possible to implement it during the presidency of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Council in 2021–2023.
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