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Published: 14 April 2021
Societies, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/soc11020035

Abstract:
Using the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of an existential threat, we conducted a nationwide survey in March 2020 asking 445 Americans about their hopes and fears, their opinions about the coronavirus pandemic, and their attitudes for getting through the public health crisis. In the present research, we examine the coronavirus pandemic as a complex problem and explore its effects on respondents’ levels of optimism to resolve the public health crisis. While much existing research examines the influence of risk perception on optimism, we specifically measure how respondents’ levels of empathy and trust affect social resilience and relate to hopes and fears for their personal health and public health in the United States. Specifically, we examine respondents’ levels of trust in government and their neighbors as well as their levels of empathy, alienation, and social isolation. Our research confirmed the importance of empathy to counter the spread of the virus while preventing economic collapse. In addition, we found that relational factors such as alienation and trust affect individuals’ levels of optimism or pessimism for getting through the public health crisis.
Published: 14 April 2021
Vaccines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines9040382

Abstract:
Vaccine hesitancy is a major threat to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1020) expressing a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was conducted between February and March 2021 and aimed to assess (i) the general trust in different types of vaccines, (ii) the level of acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines already in use in Poland (BNT162b2 by BioNTech/Pfizer, mRNA-1273 by Moderna and AZD1222 by Oxford/AstraZeneca) as well as eight vaccines approved outside European Union (EU) or in advanced stages of clinical trials, (iii) level of fear of vaccination against COVID-19, and (iv) main sources of information on COVID-19 vaccination. Among all major vaccine technology, the highest level of trust was observed for the mRNA platform, with a considerable number of surveyed (>20%) not aware of the existence of vaccines produced using the traditional approach (inactivated and live attenuated vaccines). The age of participants was the main factor differentiating the level of trust in a particular vaccine type. Both BNT162b and mRNA-1273 received a high level of acceptance, contrary to AZD1222. From eight vaccines unauthorized in the EU at the moment of study, the CVnCoV (mRNA; CureVac) was met with the highest level of trust, followed by Ad26.COV2.S (vector; Janssen/Johnson&Johnson) and NVX-CoV2373 (protein; Novavax). Sputnik V (vector; Gamaleya Research Institute) was decidedly the least trusted vaccine. The median level of fear (measured by the 10-point Likert-type scale) in the studied group was 4.0, mostly related to the risk of serious allergic reactions, other severe adverse events and unknown long-term effects of vaccination. Female, individuals with a lower level of education and those not seeking any information on the COVID-19 vaccines revealed a higher fear of vaccination. Experts’ materials were the major source of information on COVID-19 vaccines in the studied group. The study shows the level of trust in COVID-19 vaccines can vary much across the producers while the mRNA vaccines are received with a high level of acceptance. It also emphasizes the need for effective and continuous science communication when fighting the pandemic as it may be an ideal time to increase the general awareness of vaccines.
Published: 14 April 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13084353

Abstract:
In light of the coronavirus pandemic, we invite readers to a reflection over the aim and use of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the determination of the new biodiversity targets in relation to health issues. Starting with a brief overview of the initiatives to consider health and the environment in the international arena before the adoption of SDGs, we show how the pandemic shed a new light on the need for research on the interlinkages of human and animal health and environmental changes. We examine underlying elements of the dialogue between science and policy, then we suggest considering SDGs as tool for the service of the environment, wellbeing and justice. We advocate for the translation of planetary health principles into action, together with the consideration of planetary boundaries, to redefine an adaptive environmental law for the sake of social justice and the health of the planet.
Published: 14 April 2021
Cells, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/cells10040897

Abstract:
Macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses of organ systems, including the lungs, to particles and pathogens. Cumulative results show that macrophages contribute to the development and progression of acute or chronic inflammatory responses through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the activation of transcription factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, such as acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ARDS related to COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)), allergic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This review summarizes the functions of macrophages and their associated underlying mechanisms in the development of ALI, ARDS, COVID-19-related ARDS, allergic asthma, COPD, and IPF and briefly introduces the acute and chronic experimental animal models. Thus, this review suggests an effective therapeutic approach that focuses on the regulation of macrophage function in the context of inflammatory lung diseases.
Published: 14 April 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13084348

Abstract:
The effects of green marketing orientations for increasing the competitive advantage and improving the sustainability of the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 pandemic are receiving more attention. As the hospitality industry attempts to assimilate green marketing and move in the path of sustainable development, administrators need to expand their efforts for improving natural environmental orientation (NEO), market orientation, resource orientation, and brand orientation by applying their green marketing orientations to hospitality’s strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only few studies have examined the improvement of green marketing orientations. The objective of the research is to address this issue, applying the methods of fuzzy mixture MCDM (multiple criteria decision-making), with fuzzy decision-making trials and an evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), and fuzzy DEMATEL-based ANP (fuzzy DANP) to inspect the feedback and interdependent issues among numerous elements/dimensions of green marketing orientations. In an uncertain environment, an empirical case study of the hospitality industry is shown to demonstrate the recommended combined approaches and, finally, to state the best enhancement approaches for administrators. This result shows that the natural environmental orientation is the most important factor.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18084137

Abstract:
This study established a two-stage dynamic game strategy to analyze how the planned quota and price of masks were set and why mask manufacturing firms on the national mask team (NMT) in Taiwan evaded the plan. Plan evasion occurred when the NMT decided to produce less than the quota set by the government, even though they were incentivized and able to produce more. Taiwan’s experience shows that through the collection of masks and the Name-Based Mask Rationing System, the people’s right to procure masks can be guaranteed; however, to promote market transaction efficiency, the government should adopt a lower quota for the collection of masks and allow firms to freely sell them in the market after they complete their plans. The self-interest of the government played a key role in inducing plan evasion.
Published: 14 April 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13041294

Abstract:
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (COVID-19) has hit older adults harder due to a combination of age-related immunological and metabolic alterations. The aim of this review was to analyze the COVID-19 literature with respect to nutritional status and nutrition management in older adults. No studies only on people aged 65+ years were found, and documentation on those 80+ was rare. Age was found to be strongly associated with worse outcomes, and with poor nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition was high among severely and critically ill patients. The studies found a need for nutrition screening and management, and for nutrition support as part of follow-up after a hospital stay. Most tested screening tools showed high sensitivity in identifying nutritional risk, but none were recognized as best for screening older adults with COVID-19. For diagnosing malnutrition, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria are recommended but were not used in the studies found. Documentation of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in relation to nutritional status is missing in older adults. Other COVID-19-associated factors with a possible impact on nutritional status are poor appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Vitamin D is the nutrient that has attracted the most interest. However, evidence for supplementation of COVID-19 patients is still limited and inconclusive.
Published: 14 April 2021
Biomedicines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/biomedicines9040424

Abstract:
Preventive measures have proven to be the most effective strategy to counteract the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Among these, disinfection is strongly suggested by international health organizations’ official guidelines. As a consequence, the increase of disinfectants handling is going to expose people to the risk of eyes, mouth, nose, and mucous membranes accidental irritation. To assess mucosal irritation, previous studies employed the snail Arion lusitanicus as the mucosal model in Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) assay. The obtained results confirmed snails as a suitable experimental model for their anatomical characteristics superimposable to the human mucosae and the different easily observed readouts. Another terrestrial gastropod, Limacus flavus, also known as “ Yellow slug “, due to its larger size and greater longevity, has already been proposed as an SMI assay alternative model. In this study, for the first time, in addition to the standard parameters recorded in the SMI test, the production of yellow pigment in response to irritants, unique to the snail L. flavus, was evaluated. Our results showed that this species would be a promising model for mucosal irritation studies. The study conducted testing among all those chemical solutions most commonly recommended against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Published: 14 April 2021
Pharmaceutics, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13040545

Abstract:
Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious new worldwide public health crisis with significant morbidity and mortality, effective therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. Drug repurposing is an efficient and cost-effective strategy with minimum risk for identifying novel potential treatment options by repositioning therapies that were previously approved for other clinical outcomes. Here, we used an integrated network-based pharmacologic and transcriptomic approach to screen drug candidates novel for COVID-19 treatment. Network-based proximity scores were calculated to identify the drug–disease pharmacological effect between drug–target relationship modules and COVID-19 related genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was then performed to determine whether drug candidates influence the expression of COVID-19 related genes and examine the sensitivity of the repurposing drug treatment to peripheral immune cell types. Moreover, we used the complementary exposure model to recommend potential synergistic drug combinations. We identified 18 individual drug candidates including nicardipine, orantinib, tipifarnib and promethazine which have not previously been proposed as possible treatments for COVID-19. Additionally, 30 synergistic drug pairs were ultimately recommended including fostamatinib plus tretinoin and orantinib plus valproic acid. Differential expression genes of most repurposing drugs were enriched significantly in B cells. The findings may potentially accelerate the discovery and establishment of an effective therapeutic treatment plan for COVID-19 patients.
Published: 14 April 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13084343

Abstract:
The implementation of sustainability practices in the tourism system requires the participation of a variety of actors. While much research has focused on supply-side issues associated with sustainable tourism, there has been less focus on supply-side issues associated with consumer behaviour and business-related travel. This paper addresses the behaviours this significant market segment. As behavioural change is seen as a key mechanism for achieving emission reduction, this paper focuses on behaviours of business travels from four countries: Canada, Switzerland, Russia and the U.S., using values-attitudes-behaviour (VAB) theory. We employ Principal Components Analysis to reduce the variables down to four factors and related factor scores. Stepwise multiple linear regression was then used to measure causal associations. The findings show how national cultures, demographics and values influence (although at different levels) the sustainable attitudes and behaviour of business travellers. These results have implications for future corporate travel policy. The recent impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic is also addressed.
Published: 14 April 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13084356

Abstract:
COVID-19 has led to the biggest tourism crisis in modern Spanish history. Although its borders were opened in June 2020, incoming international tourism to Spain was very low. Tourist behavior, however, has been very diverse between types of tourism. Data from credit card transactions showing tourist behavior in 33 destinations representative of various types of tourism were analyzed. Results show that differences in tourist behavior between destinations can be explained by risk perception and the proximity of the destination to home, which favors natural areas and charming coastal cities. This study contributes to the academic literature by studying the effective behavior of international tourists in the time of COVID-19.
Published: 14 April 2021
Vaccines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines9040383

Abstract:
While the scientific community has been focusing on combating novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, we also want to draw your attention to this Special Issue of Vaccines entitled “Influenza Virus and Vaccine Development”
Published: 14 April 2021
Symmetry, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/sym13040676

Abstract:
Background: The main purpose of this research is to describe the mathematical asymmetric patterns of susceptible, infectious, or recovered (SIR) model equation application in the light of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) skewness patterns worldwide. Methods: The research modeled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) spreading and dissemination patterns sensitivity by redesigning time series data extraction of daily new cases in terms of deviation consistency concerning variables that sustain COVID-19 transmission. The approach opened a new scenario where seasonality forcing behavior was introduced to understand SARS-COV-2 non-linear dynamics due to heterogeneity and confounding epidemics scenarios. Results: The main research results are the elucidation of three birth- and death-forced seasonality persistence phases that can explain COVID-19 skew patterns worldwide. They are presented in the following order: (1) the environmental variables (Earth seasons and atmospheric conditions); (2) health policies and adult learning education (HPALE) interventions; (3) urban spaces (local indoor and outdoor spaces for transit and social-cultural interactions, public or private, with natural physical features (river, lake, terrain). Conclusions: Three forced seasonality phases (positive to negative skew) phases were pointed out as a theoretical framework to explain uncertainty found in the predictive SIR model equations that might diverge in outcomes expected to express the disease’s behaviour.
Published: 14 April 2021
Medicina, Volume 57; doi:10.3390/medicina57040377

Abstract:
About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes and approximately one-third of them have a major risk factor for diabetic foot ulcers, including poor sensation in their feet from peripheral neuropathy and/or poor perfusion to their feet from peripheral artery disease. The current healthcare ecosystem, which is centered on the treatment of established foot disease, often fails to adequately control key reversible risk factors to prevent diabetic foot ulcers leading to unacceptable high foot disease amputation rate, 40% recurrence of ulcers rate in the first year, and high hospital admissions. Thus, the latest diabetic foot ulcer guidelines emphasize that a paradigm shift in research priority from siloed hospital treatments to innovative integrated community prevention is now critical to address the high diabetic foot ulcer burden. The widespread uptake and acceptance of wearable and digital health technologies provide a means to timely monitor major risk factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer, empower patients in self-care, and effectively deliver the remote monitoring and multi-disciplinary prevention needed for those at-risk people and address the health care access disadvantage that people living in remote areas. This narrative review paper summarizes some of the latest innovations in three specific areas, including technologies supporting triaging high-risk patients, technologies supporting care in place, and technologies empowering self-care. While many of these technologies are still in infancy, we anticipate that in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic and current unmet needs to decentralize care for people with foot disease, we will see a new wave of innovations in the area of digital health, smart wearables, telehealth technologies, and “hospital-at-home” care delivery model. These technologies will be quickly adopted at scale to improve remote management of diabetic foot ulcers, smartly triaging those who need to be seen in outpatient or inpatient clinics, and supporting acute or subacute care at home.
, Giorgia Venutolo, Meritxell Pujolassos Tanyà, Matteo Delli Carri, Annamaria Landolfi, Alessio Fasano
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1406-1418; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1406

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been described in a conspicuous percentage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This clinical evidence is supported by the detection of viral RNA in stool, which also supports the hypothesis of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. The involvement of GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is corroborated by the theoretical assumption that angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is a SARS-CoV-2 target receptor, is present along the GI tract. Studies have pointed out that gut dysbiosis may occur in COVID-19 patients, with a possible correlation with disease severity and with complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. However, the question to be addressed is whether dysbiosis is a consequence or a contributing cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In such a scenario, pharmacological therapies aimed at decreasing GI permeability may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients. Considering the possibility of a fecal-oral transmission route, water and environmental sanitation play a crucial role for COVID-19 containment, especially in developing countries.
Published: 14 April 2021
Diagnostics, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/diagnostics11040698

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic created an unprecedented public health emergency. Early recognition of an infected person and disruption of the transmission pathway are the keys to controlling this major public health threat around the world. The scientifically reliable screening method is an RT-PCR test that is performed on an ororhinopharyngeal swab in the laboratory. In the current severe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is necessary to identify devices for rapid diagnosis to reduce the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the recognition of specific antigens of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The device was built by assembling commercially available and custom-made semi-finished products. The method was performed in environments outside the laboratory, i.e., “patient side,” with an immediate chemocolorimetric response or with a digital reader using an ELISA method.
Published: 14 April 2021
Diseases, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/diseases9020030

Abstract:
Exaggerated oxidative stress and hyper-inflammation are essential features of oxidative/inflammatory diseases. Simultaneously, both processes may be the cause or consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction, thus establishing a vicious cycle among these three factors. However, several natural substances, including melatonin and micronutrients, may prevent or attenuate mitochondrial damage and may preserve an optimal state of health by managing the general oxidative and inflammatory status. This review aims to describe the crucial role of mitochondria in the development and progression of multiple diseases as well as the close relationship among mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cytokine storm. Likewise, it attempts to summarize the main findings related to the powerful effects of melatonin and some micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), which may be useful (alone or in combination) as therapeutic agents in the treatment of several examples of oxidative/inflammatory pathologies, including sepsis, as well as cardiovascular, renal, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Volume 14; doi:10.3390/jrfm14040181

Abstract:
Cancellation of the events offered by cultural institutions was caused by the restrictions introduced by the government and, at a critical moment, a national lockdown. The COVID-19 pandemic forced cultural institutions to adapt to the new reality. The aim of this article was to present the impact of the pandemic on the activities of cultural institutions, as well as to identify and systematize the activities of such institutions during the pandemic. The following classification, dividing the activities into three groups, has been proposed: virtualization of existing activities, expansion of activities with additional initiatives, and implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The greatest challenge was the virtualization of the existing activities and finding new customer markets. The pandemic has contributed to a significant deterioration in the financial situation of cultural institutions because of the reduced income. Long-term effects on cultural institutions may be difficult to predict and losses may be difficult to rebuild.
Published: 14 April 2021
Micromachines, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/mi12040433

Abstract:
A rapid, sensitive and simple microflow cytometry-based agglutination immunoassay (MCIA) was developed for point-of-care (POC) quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies. The antibody concentration was determined by using the transit time of beads aggregates. A linear relationship was established between the average transit time and the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG by the MCIA measurement are 0.06 mg/L and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The 10 µL sample consumption, 30 min assay time and the compact setup make this technique suitable for POC quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
, Priya Ambilkar, Angappa Gunasekaran, Priyanka Verma
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management; doi:10.1108/ijpdlm-12-2020-0450

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Aksh Agrawal, , Purushottam Sharma, Saket Mishra
Recent Advances in Computational Mechanics and Simulations pp 775-784; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-9956-9_75

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
D. Kollias, Y. Vlaxos, M. Seferis, I. Kollia, L. Sukissian, J. Wingate
Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency XV pp 251-267; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-73959-1_22

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Nigel James, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Sara Ahmed, Hamza Meghari, Kirsty Kaiser, Carel Ijsselmuiden, Marcel Tanner
Global Health Research and Policy, Volume 6, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s41256-021-00195-2

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic is considerably the biggest global health challenge of this modern era. Spreading across all regions of the world, this corona virus disease has disrupted even some of the most advanced economies and healthcare systems. With an increasing global death toll and no near end in sight, questions on the efficacy of global response mechanisms, including the role and relevancy of global health institutions, have emerged. Using a reflexive content analytic approach, this study sheds light on some of these questions, underscoring the disconnect between science, policymaking, and society. Global health funding approaches; politicization of the pandemic, including political blame gaming; mistrust of government and other institutions; and a lack of robust accountability measures are some of the pandemic response obstacles. However, COVID-19 has also presented an opportunity for a collaboration that may potentially solidify global solidarity. A pandemic response built on strategic global health diplomacy, vaccine diplomacy, and science diplomacy can spur both political and economic benefits, advancing development, health security, and justice. The virus thrives and flourishes in face of political divisions and lack of cooperation. While the current global crisis has exacerbated the existing social injustices in societies, national unity and global solidarity is essential to winning the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.
, Mauro Doga, Stefano Frara,
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s11154-021-09655-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Eman Alshdaifat, Amer Sindiani, Wasim Khasawneh, Omar Abu-Azzam, Aref Qarqash, Hassan Abushukair, Nail Obeidat
BMC Medical Education, Volume 21, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s12909-021-02655-2

Abstract:
Background Residency programs have been impacted by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study we aim to investigate and evaluate the impact of the pandemic on residents as well as residency training programs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including a survey of 43 questions prepared on Google forms and electronically distributed among a convenience sample of residents training at a tertiary center in North Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the period between October 30th and November 8th of 2020. The survey included questions that addressed the impact of the pandemic on residents’ health as well as training programs. The study participants included residents in training at KAUH in 2020 and were stratified according to the type of residency program (surgical residents (SRs) and non-surgical residents (NSRs)). Statistical methods included descriptive analysis, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, Mann Whitney U test, and Cramer’s V and r statistics as measures of effect sizes. Results Of all 430 residents, 255 (59%) responded to the survey. A total of 17 (7%) of residents reported being infected with COVID-19 and a significant difference was reported between SRs and NSRs (10% vs 4%, V = .124 “small effect” (95% CI; .017–.229), p = 0.048). Approximately, 106 (42%) reported a decrease in the number of staff working at the clinic and 164 (64%) reported limited access to personal protective equipment during the pandemic. On a 4-point Likert scale for the feeling of anxiety, the median was 2 (2–3 IQR) in the NSRs group, vs 2 (1–2 IQR) in the SRs groups, with the NSRs being more likely to feel anxious (r = 0.13 “small effect” (95% CI; 0.007–0.249), p = .044). Similarly, the proportion of residents who reported feeling anxious about an inadequacy of protective equipment in the work area was significantly greater in the NSRs group (90.3% vs 75.2%; V = .201 “small effect” (95% CI; .078–.313), p = .001), as well as the proportion of residents who reported feeling increased stress and anxiety between colleagues being also significantly higher in the NSRs group (88.1% vs 76%; V = .158 “small effect” (95% CI; .032–.279), p = .012). Conclusion The burden of the ongoing pandemic on the mental health status of residents is very alarming and so providing residents with psychological counseling and support is needed. Also, critical implications on the flow of residency training programs have been noticed. This necessitates adapting and adopting smart educational techniques to compensate for such limitations.
, Cameron Goldbeck, Fred Hertlein, Isaac Turner, Jeffrey D. Klausner
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health; doi:10.3961/jpmph.21.126

, Gaelle Rached, Jeffrey Geller
Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, Volume 209, pp 311-319; doi:10.1097/nmd.0000000000001338

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Luthfi Abdurrahman
Published: 13 April 2021
Abstract:
Saat ini keadaan Indonesia mengalami kondisi tidak baik yang disebabkan oleh virus Covid-19 yang berasal dari Wuhan Cina. (WHO, 2020) menyatakan bahwa virus ini penularannya sangat cepat dan dapat menyebabkan kematian. Virus ini menyerang infeksi saluran pernapasan seperti batuk dan pilek namun sifatnya lebih mematikan. Berdasarkan data (Worldometer, 2020) Coronavirus Casses menyatakan 2.176.744 Pasien yang terpapar virus ini dan beberapa meninggal dunia sehingga wabah penyebaran virus ini disebut dengan pandemi Covid-19 dunia. Penyebaran virus ini bisa ditempat umum atau kerumunan, Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit (CDC) Amerika Serikat mengatakan penyebaran virus ini melalui kontak fisik seperti berjabat tangan maka dianjurkan agar mencuci tangan dengan benar dan baik sesuai langkah serta menggunakan masker jika keluar rumah untuk pencegahan penyebaran Corona Virus. Akibat dari pandemi Covid-19 membuat pemerintah mengeluarkan kebijakan baru demi menghentikan pemencaran Covid-19 yaitu mengimplementasikan ajakan masyarakat untuk melaksanakan Physical Distancing atau memberi jarak dengan orang lain sejauh satu meter dan menghindari kerumunan dan berbagai acara pertemuan yang menimbulkan perkumpulan (Covid-19, 2020). Selain itu pemerintah menerapkan kebijakan untuk Dirumah Saja seperti kerja dirumah atau Work From Home (WFH) dan kegiatan apapun yang berhubungan dengan perkumpulan atau pertemuan ditiadakan dan diganti dengan media online. (Kemendikbud, 2020) mengeluarkan Surat Edaran tentang Pembelajaran secara Daring dan Bekerja dari Rumah dalam Rangka Pencegahan Penyebaran Covid-19. Pembelajaran daring di Indonesia sebenarnya sudah diterapkan oleh beberapa pendidik sebelum pemberlakuan social distancing oleh pemerintah. Namun istilah pembelajaran daring semakin populer setelah social distancing. Pembelajaran daring yang diterapkan lebih cenderung pada bentuk penugasan via aplikasi. Siswa diberikan tugas- tugas untuk diselesaikan kemudian dikoreksi oleh guru sebagai bentuk penilaian dan diberikan komentar sebagai bentuk evaluasi (Syarifudin, 2020). Minat memiliki banyak efek positif pada proses dan hasil pembelajaran (Krapp, 2002), tingkat minat yang tinggi akan menyebabkan tingkat perhatian dan tingkat kesiapan siswa terlibat dalam objek pembelajaran sehingga menimbulkan kemungkinan keberhasilan dalam pembelajaran (Krapp, 1999).
, David B. Menkes
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.664778

Abstract:
In his recent JAMA Psychiatry article “Managing Virtual Hybrid Psychiatrist-Patient Relationships in a Digital World,” Shore (1) makes a convincing case for psychiatrists to be familiar with developing technologies as they affect both the doctor-patient relationship and clinical outcomes. His scope usefully identifies administrative, operational, and clinical domains relevant to the use of various technologies, including email, text message, videoconferencing, web-based patient portals, and social networks. Conspicuously absent from Shore's argument is any consideration of research governance vital to the ethical development and application of these new technologies. He also neglects to mention another clinically promising technology; virtual reality (VR) has been studied in several psychiatric conditions (2) and is distinct in that it places patients completely within a digital, multi-modality, three-dimensional space, and enables direct interaction with that virtual environment. Clinicians need to know that VR is primarily accessed through head-mounted displays and that patient movements within the virtual space can measured by external or internal device sensors; hand-held controllers allow direct manipulation of the virtual environment which can also be measured and analyzed to provide data relevant to treatment optimization (2). The more recent availability of consumer-focused VR-devices has led to a flurry of interest and research. In psychiatry this research has thus far primarily focused on virtual versions of established therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy (ET). These have been usefully applied to specific phobias (3) and eating disorders (4) and, more recently, trialed in schizophrenia (5). VR could also provide students and clinicians of various disciplines the opportunity to experience psychiatric patients' pathological symptoms, such as auditory and visual hallucinations. Beyond psychiatry there are important use-cases ranging from clinical use in pain detection (6) to enhanced training of various healthcare professionals (7). Extending the framework proposed by Shore, we suggest that the following considerations should apply to the developing use of VR in psychiatry. Administrative concerns include the licensing of platforms and software, and how data are collected, stored, and analyzed. Operational aspects are often more complicated; significant resources and technical expertise required to set up and effectively apply the technology, and to troubleshoot problems. Clinical evidence of VR's usefulness is accumulating with, for example, VR-exposure therapy (VR-ET) producing comparable results to conventional ET; an important advantage of VR is that it provides both therapists and patients greater control in the design and application of therapeutic environments (3). In addition to the above suggested expansion of Shore's administrative domain (1), and considering the key role research governance plays in the ethical development and application of digital technology, we propose this be regarded as a separate domain. Furthermore, trials conducted for several digital technologies are often tested on non-clinical populations and the literature therefore contains many gaps regarding effects on, for example, clinical depression, and anxiety (2). While this might be due, in part, to ethical challenges associated with testing on severe mental disorders, a focus on clinical populations will be essential to determine the therapeutic place of these technologies. It would also be important to ensure inclusion of a range of disorders and demographics in the research; otherwise clinical advances may be difficult to realize, as has occurred with the difficulties in identifying and treating female patients with autism spectrum disorder as a result of criteria being developed around male patients (8). It is therefore important that clear development, testing and reporting guidelines are developed for VR and other digital technologies used in mental health and early work by expert groups has begun to provide such guidance (9). The current reliance on proprietary software and platforms and consequent lack of open source alternatives in VR research is an important governance limitation that constrains progress in the development and application of this technology. As with other developing technologies, it is important to consider potential conflicts of interest in the promotion and use of proprietary software and hardware. Finally, as with other emerging therapeutic modalities, there is limited knowledge of the potential adverse effects associated with immersive VR interventions for mental health, and those designing clinical trials should be alert to a range of possible outcomes and considering this when reporting results. This is particularly important when considering that psychological interventions have a particularly poor track record for reporting adverse events (10). New technologies such as VR may offer a further advantage in light of current concerns about the risk of infection from face-to-face interactions and provide some relief to healthcare organizations and clinicians that have scrambled during the COVID-19 pandemic to offer virtual consultations (11). Mental health clinicians should learn from this and make sure organizations can seamlessly adapt virtual alternatives when necessary; VR can be of particular advantage due to how readily it can be adapted to automated treatment and data collection and the location where treatment is delivered (12). Ethical research governance also represents an important challenge, particularly as new technologies pose new risks in terms of privacy and confidentiality. On the other hand, new technologies can be exceptionally useful, for example allowing new data sources (such as changes in patterns of mobile phone use and geographical data and activity from smart home sensors) that can detect...
Wei Bai, Hai-Tao Xi, Qianqian Zhu, Zhiwen Wang, Lin Han, Pan Chen, Hong Cai, Yan-Jie Zhao, Li Chen, Zong-Mei Ge, et al.
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657021

Abstract:
Background: Health professionals including nurses have experienced heavy workload and great physical and mental health challenges during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may affect nursing students' career choices. This study examined the changes in nursing students' career choices after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: This study was conducted in five University nursing schools in China between September 14, 2020 and October 7, 2020. Career choices before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were collected and analyzed. Results: In total, 1,070 nursing students participated in the study. The reported choice of nursing as future career increased from 50.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 47.9–53.9%] before the COVID-19 pandemic to 62.7% (95%CI: 59.8–65.6%) after the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Students who chose nursing as their future career following the COVID-19 outbreak had less severe depression and anxiety compared to those who did not choose nursing, but the associations of depression and anxiety with career choice disappeared in multivariable analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.91], rural residence (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.17–2.00), fourth year students (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.35–0.72), negative experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.47–0.92), and good health (OR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.78–11.87) were significantly associated with the choice of nursing as future career after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have a positive influence on the career choice of nursing among Chinese nursing students.
Published: 13 April 2021
Viruses, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/v13040668

Abstract:
RNA viruses cause a wide range of human diseases that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. In the past decades, the rise of genetic-based screening methods and high-throughput sequencing approaches allowed the uncovering of unique and elusive aspects of RNA virus replication and pathogenesis at an unprecedented scale. However, viruses often hijack critical host functions or trigger pathological dysfunctions, perturbing cellular proteostasis, macromolecular complex organization or stoichiometry, and post-translational modifications. Such effects require the monitoring of proteins and proteoforms both on a global scale and at the structural level. Mass spectrometry (MS) has recently emerged as an important component of the RNA virus biology toolbox, with its potential to shed light on critical aspects of virus–host perturbations and streamline the identification of antiviral targets. Moreover, multiple novel MS tools are available to study the structure of large protein complexes, providing detailed information on the exact stoichiometry of cellular and viral protein complexes and critical mechanistic insights into their functions. Here, we review top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry-based approaches in RNA virus biology with a special focus on the most recent developments in characterizing host responses, and their translational implications to identify novel tractable antiviral targets.
Published: 13 April 2021
Viruses, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/v13040667

Abstract:
The emergence or re-emergence of viruses with epidemic and/or pandemic potential, such as Ebola, Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 and 2 (SARS and SARS-CoV-2) viruses, or new strains of influenza represents significant human health threats due to the absence of available treatments. Vaccines represent a key answer to control these viruses. However, in the case of a public health emergency, vaccine development, safety, and partial efficacy concerns may hinder their prompt deployment. Thus, developing broad-spectrum antiviral molecules for a fast response is essential to face an outbreak crisis as well as for bioweapon countermeasures. So far, broad-spectrum antivirals include two main categories: the family of drugs targeting the host-cell machinery essential for virus infection and replication, and the family of drugs directly targeting viruses. Among the molecules directly targeting viruses, nucleoside analogues form an essential class of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. In this review, we will discuss the interest for broad-spectrum antiviral strategies and their limitations, with an emphasis on virus-targeted, broad-spectrum, antiviral nucleoside analogues and their mechanisms of action.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18084083

Abstract:
Secondary or high school (HS) educational professionals expressed concerns about dealing with environmental and occupational health and safety protocols due to COVID-19. Concerns related to fall 2020 school re-opening and getting back into in-person teaching—whether full-time, part-time or some other approved hybrid model—plus ongoing uncertainty with how the state and federal government will be handling matters about mandates for virtual learning, rapid testing, vaccine distribution, etc. These concerns were related to both their experience as educational professionals and genuine interest in personal and student well-being. This study was a cross-sectional online survey in early fall from mid-September–early October 2020. Of a possible maximum participation of 740 New Jersey (NJ) supervisory-level HS teachers and administrators (e.g., department chairs, district and school principals), 100 confirmed unique respondents (13.5%) consented and completed the survey. Of 100 experienced (mean 18 years teaching) participants, 70% responded to the gender identity question (overall, 61% female, 39% male; by NJ region, gender ratios were similar). There were statistically significant differences (using Fischer’s exact test) between NJ regions regarding provision of online counseling and support services for teachers (p < 0.001); for resources and equipment for teachers to mediate online learning (p = 0.02); for assistive video technology tools (p = 0.03) and accessibility to structured online learning and professional development (p = 0.002); concerning learning aids to engage students in online instruction, online counseling, and support services for students and their families (p = 0.006); appropriate protocol is clean and disinfect areas used by a person with COVID-19 (p = 0.002); and, immediately separate staff and students who screen positive for COVID-19 (p = 0.03). There were few statistical differences by gender. This study reported what participants wanted regarding the development of future policies then implemented as reopening practices. Data can inform recommendations in NJ and elsewhere at federal, state, and local levels. Data provide new insights and valuable information to inform the consideration of acceptability of various policy measures among HS education professionals.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18084087

Abstract:
The COVID-19 lockdown was imposed in a context of notable inequalities in the distribution of the social determinants of health. It is possible that the housing conditions in which children and their families experienced the confinement, and the adoption of healthy behaviors, may have followed unequal patterns. The aim was to describe social inequalities in housing conditions and in health-related behaviors among children during the lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study was based on data from an online survey collecting information on the child population (3–12 years) living in Spain (n = 10,765). The outcome variables used were several housing conditions and health-related behaviors. The socioeconomic variables used were financial difficulties and parents’ educational level. Crude prevalence and prevalence ratios estimated using Poisson models were calculated. During lockdown, children from families with low educational levels and financial difficulties not only tended to live in poor housing conditions, but were also exposed to negative health determinants such as noise and tobacco smoke; they took less physical exercise, had a poorer diet, spent more time in front of screens and had less social contact. A notable social gradient was found in most of the variables analyzed. The results point to the need to incorporate the perspective of equity in the adoption of policies in order to avoid the increase of pre-existing social inequalities in the context of a pandemic.
Published: 13 April 2021
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10081666

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 2.26 million deaths for almost 104 million confirmed cases worldwide, as of 4 February 2021 (WHO). Risk factors include pre-existing conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Although several vaccines have been deployed, there are few alternative anti-viral treatments available in the case of reduced or non-existent vaccine protection. Adopting a long-term holistic approach to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic appears critical with the emergence of novel and more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our objective was to identify comorbidity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), potentially conferring increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection using a computational meta-analysis approach. SNP datasets were downloaded from a publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) catalog for 141 of 258 candidate COVID-19 comorbidities. Gene-level SNP analysis was performed to identify significant pathways by using the program MAGMA. An SNP annotation program was used to analyze MAGMA-identified genes. Differential gene expression was determined for significant genes across 30 general tissue types using the Functional and Annotation Mapping of GWAS online tool GENE2FUNC. COVID-19 comorbidities (n = 22) from six disease categories were found to have significant associated pathways, validated by Q–Q plots (p < 0.05). Protein–protein interactions of significant (p < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were visualized with the STRING program. Gene interaction networks were found to be relevant to SARS and influenza pathogenesis. In conclusion, we were able to identify the pathways potentially affected by or affecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in underlying medical conditions likely to confer susceptibility and/or the severity of COVID-19. Our findings have implications in future COVID-19 experimental research and treatment development.
Published: 13 April 2021
Vaccines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines9040378

Abstract:
In March 2021, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic still poses a threat to the global population, and is a public health challenge that needs to be overcome. Now more than ever, action is needed to tackle vaccine hesitancy, especially in light of the availability of effective and safe vaccines. A cross-sectional online survey was carried out on a representative random sample of 1011 citizens from the Emilia-Romagna region, in Italy, in January 2021. The questionnaire collected information on socio-demographics, comorbidities, past vaccination refusal, COVID-19-related experiences, risk perception of infection, and likelihood to accept COVID-19 vaccination. Multiple logistic regression analyses and classification tree analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy and to distinguish groups with different levels of hesitancy. Overall, 31.1% of the sample reported hesitancy. Past vaccination refusal was the key discriminating variable followed by perceived risk of infection. Other significant predictors of hesitancy were: ages between 35 and 54 years, female gender, low educational level, low income, and absence of comorbidities. The most common concerns about the COVID-19 vaccine involved safety (54%) and efficacy (27%). Studying the main determinants of vaccine hesitancy can help with targeting vaccination strategies, in order to gain widespread acceptance—a key path to ensure a rapid way out of the current pandemic emergency.
Published: 13 April 2021
Vaccines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines9040379

Abstract:
The success of mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns rests on widespread uptake. However, although vaccinations provide good protection, they do not offer full immunity and while they likely reduce transmission of the virus to others, the extent of this remains uncertain. This produces a dilemma for communicators who wish to be transparent about benefits and harms and encourage continued caution in vaccinated individuals but not undermine confidence in an important public health measure. In two large pre-registered experimental studies on quota-sampled UK public participants we investigate the effects of providing transparent communication—including uncertainty—about vaccination effectiveness on decision-making. In Study 1 (n = 2097) we report that detailed information about COVID-19 vaccines, including results of clinical trials, does not have a significant impact on beliefs about the efficacy of such vaccines, concerns over side effects, or intentions to receive a vaccine. Study 2 (n = 2217) addressed concerns that highlighting the need to maintain protective behaviours (e.g., social distancing) post-vaccination may lower perceptions of vaccine efficacy and willingness to receive a vaccine. We do not find evidence of this: transparent messages did not significantly reduce perceptions of vaccine efficacy, and in some cases increased perceptions of efficacy. We again report no main effect of messages on intentions to receive a vaccine. The results of both studies suggest that transparently informing people of the limitations of vaccinations does not reduce intentions to be vaccinated but neither does it increase intentions to engage in protective behaviours post-vaccination.
Published: 13 April 2021
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10081656

Abstract:
Background: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, increases in high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) have been reported to be associated with worse outcomes. In the critically ill, the prognostic value of hs-cTnT, however, remains to be assessed given that most previous studies have involved a case mix of non- and severely ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted, from March to May 2020, in three French intensive care units (ICUs), a multicenter retrospective cohort study to assess in-hospital mortality predictability of hs-cTnT levels in COVID-19 patients. Results: 111 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients (68% of male, median age 67 (58–75) years old) were included. At ICU admission, the median Charlson Index, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, and PaO2/FiO2 were at 3 (2–5), 37 (27–48), and 140 (98–154), respectively, and the median hs-cTnT serum levels were at 16.0 (10.1–31.9) ng/L. Seventy-five patients (68%) were mechanically ventilated, 41 (37%) were treated with norepinephrine, and 17 (15%) underwent renal replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was 29% (32/111) and was independently associated with lower PaO2/FiO2 and higher hs-cTnT serum levels. Conclusions: At ICU admission, besides PaO2/FiO2, hs-cTnT levels may allow early risk stratification and triage in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Published: 13 April 2021
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13084323

Abstract:
Global health emergencies such as Covid-19 have highlighted the importance of access to nature and open spaces in our cities for social, physical, and mental health. However, there continues to be a disconnect between our need for nature and our daily lived experience. Recent research indicates that our connectedness and relationship with nature, and in particular biophilic design, may be key for improving both health and quality of life. Rather than relying on abstract universal ideas of “nature”, using evidence-based biophilic design and policy at a building, neighborhood, and city scale, to link our daily lives with biodiversity, may encourage sense of place and make environmental action more meaningful. Then, improving our natural capital in the urban built environment might help address the current climate and disease crisis, as well as improving our physical and mental health. Drawing from emerging research and innovative practice, the paper describes key research and design paradigms that influence the way we understand the benefits of nature for different environments, including the workplace, neighborhood, and city, and explains where biophilic design theory sits in this field. Examples from recent research carried out in London and Chicago are provided, aiming at demonstrating what kind of research can be functional to what context, followed by a detailed analysis of its application supporting both human and ecological health. The study concludes indicating key policy and design lessons learned around regenerative design and biophilia as well as new directions for action, particularly with regard to climate change, sense of place, and well-being.
Elías Ballesteros-Suárez, Erwin I. Marín-Pardo, Mónica Heredia-Montaño, Cheryl Z. Díaz-Barrientos
Published: 13 April 2021
William Outhwaite
Political Identification in Europe: Community in Crisis? pp 5-20; doi:10.1108/978-1-83982-124-020211003

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Gabriele Ciminelli, Sílvia Garcia-Mandicó
OECD Economics Department Working Papers; doi:10.1787/095b5d62-en

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Anjana Ashok, P. T. Gopika, Ganta Charishma, Vismaya Balakrishnan,
Recent Advances in Computational Mechanics and Simulations pp 435-446; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-9956-9_45

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Jonathan D. Rosen
The U.S. War on Drugs at Home and Abroad pp 45-74; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71734-6_3

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Ananda Dharmawan Kustia Dewa
Published: 13 April 2021
Abstract:
Akibat Covid-19 ini seorang peneliti Jabin B. Deguma dan rekannya, memandang covid-19 sebagai masalah social gereja, sehingga dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan teologis pembebasan dari Gustavo Gutierez, membangun pandangan realistis yang dikaitkan dengan apa yang seharusnya gereja lakukan dengan situasi gereja di Indonesia saat ini. Thalia Yusuf menggunakan metode pendekatan Mazmur 91:1-16, seperti halnya untuk membangun iman demi menghadapi fenomena Covid-19 ini, pada dasarnya gereja saat ini dengan dua hal umum, berdasarkan kepada pencobaan dan ujian, bahkan dibarengi dengan fakta tentang semakin dekatnya kepada akhir zaman atau kesempatan untuk melihat pertolongan Tuhan, titik temu gereja pada situasi ini, banyak orang-orang Kristen yang mengharapkan keadaan ini biar cepat berlalu, sehingga sangat penting gereja semakin terlatih untuk menghadapi situasi misteri yang masih terbungkus dan tersimpan di dalam ruang misteri ilahi, maka disini terlihatlah bahwa gereja harus menjadi jawaban atas umat Tuhan
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