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Arjen Boin, , Paul ‘T Hart
Governing the Pandemic pp 43-64; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-72680-5_3

Abstract:
This chapter reviews the main governance challenges policymakers faced during the COVID-19 crisis. It examines how governments mobilized institutional capacity to tackle these challenges. We focus on attempts to centralize crisis decision-making and discuss whether centralization contributed to government effectiveness and legitimacy.
E. Forés, S. Bofill-Mas, M. Itarte, S. Martínez-Puchol, A. Hundesa, M. Calvo, C.M. Borrego, L.L. Corominas, R. Girones,
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 768, pp 144786-144786; doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144786

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yuan Li, Fuhao Chu, Ping Li, , Tao Li, Yan Wang, Rongxian An, Dantong Wu, Jiena Chen, Zeqi Su, et al.
Published: 10 May 2021
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 271, pp 113854-113854; doi:10.1016/j.jep.2021.113854

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Koya Hatakeyama, Junko Ota, Yoshiko Takahashi, Saki Kawamitsu,
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 768; doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145176

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Luke Oluwaseye Joel, , Babu Sena Paul
Soft Computing Applications for Group Decision-making and Consensus Modeling pp 243-265; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-70111-6_12

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Soft Computing Applications for Group Decision-making and Consensus Modeling pp 41-64; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-70111-6_3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Siyuan Su, Jianfeng Chen, Ying Wang, Lilly M. Wong, Zhichuan Zhu, Guochun Jiang, Pengda Liu
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, Volume 6, pp 1-4; doi:10.1038/s41392-021-00608-1

Published: 10 May 2021
Abstract:
The current ongoing coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2/covid-19/novel coronavirus is an acute infectious communicable disease spreading mainly via respiratory, eye, mouth and other possible routes from person to person as well as through contact with infected non living objects. Added to previous global burden of NCDs (non communicable diseases) & other communicable diseases this new pandemic burden of covid-19 pandemic have put a stress on already overstressed health system of India particularly poor states like Bihar. The delivery of health services is of utmost importance and prime concern in India particularly poor states like Bihar due to high population load with limited resources, poor infrastructure and huge demand on healthcare system. The Healthcare workers (HCWs) are particularly vulnerable group hence this topic needs essential attention and protection. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had presented a challenge even for developed healthcare systems around the world. A sense of fear gripped the whole world due to pandemic and India is not an exception. The scarce healthcare resources including manpower, infrastructure, transportation (ambulance services) etc. have been largely deployed to tackle the situation of pandemic of Covid-19. This shift & covid-19 pandemic has tremendous and detrimental effects on HCWs. The healthcare workers of India as well as Bihar are getting frequently infected leading to death of thousands of healthcare workers till date. Although there are several guidelines issued for precaution and safety at workplace by WHO (world Health Organization) & several accredited organizations but a protective and supportive approach from local management and governance is need of the hour. It seems that there is failure of protective and preventive measures at workplace documented and evidenced by several deaths of healthcare workers. Consequently it is apparent from above scenario to ensure the health and safety of healthcare workers in order to control the outbreak and decrease panic and fear among healthcare workers. In this article I am sharing methods and various ways for protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) while having hospital duties as well as policy makers and management people can also find this article useful while making policies for protecting and safeguarding HCWs. This article aims to reduce incidence/prevalence as well as mortality and morbidity of HCWs in Bihar by suggesting important precautions, preventive measures and other facts to be adopted by healthcare workers at workplace as well as drawing attention of policy maker, important stakeholders and management people to provide protection to HCWs.
Salvatore Carta, , Luca Piras, , Diego Reforgiato Recupero
Published: 10 May 2021
by PeerJ
PeerJ Computer Science, Volume 7; doi:10.7717/peerj-cs.438

Abstract:
In the current age of overwhelming information and massive production of textual data on the Web, Event Detection has become an increasingly important task in various application domains. Several research branches have been developed to tackle the problem from different perspectives, including Natural Language Processing and Big Data analysis, with the goal of providing valuable resources to support decision-making in a wide variety of fields. In this paper, we propose a real-time domain-specific clustering-based event-detection approach that integrates textual information coming, on one hand, from traditional newswires and, on the other hand, from microblogging platforms. The goal of the implemented pipeline is twofold: (i) providing insights to the user about the relevant events that are reported in the press on a daily basis; (ii) alerting the user about potentially important and impactful events, referred to as hot events, for some specific tasks or domains of interest. The algorithm identifies clusters of related news stories published by globally renowned press sources, which guarantee authoritative, noise-free information about current affairs; subsequently, the content extracted from microblogs is associated to the clusters in order to gain an assessment of the relevance of the event in the public opinion. To identify the events of a day d we create the lexicon by looking at news articles and stock data of previous days up to d−1 Although the approach can be extended to a variety of domains (e.g. politics, economy, sports), we hereby present a specific implementation in the financial sector. We validated our solution through a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, performed on the Dow Jones’ Data, News and Analytics dataset, on a stream of messages extracted from the microblogging platform Stocktwits, and on the Standard & Poor’s 500 index time-series. The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal in extracting meaningful information from real-world events and in spotting hot events in the financial sphere. An added value of the evaluation is given by the visual inspection of a selected number of significant real-world events, starting from the Brexit Referendum and reaching until the recent outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020.
Vivat Academia pp 107-122; doi:10.15178/va.2021.154.e1309

Abstract:
La presente investigación presenta un estudio cuantitativo de la información difundida por los principales medios de comunicación españoles en sus perfiles de redes sociales durante la etapa de inicio de la pandemia en España hasta la conclusión del primer Estado de alarma decretado por el Gobierno español, analizando sus principales ratios. En este sentido, los resultados expuestos evidencian el grado de interés por parte de los ciudadanos en la información relativa a la COVID-19 durante el marco temporal establecido y en qué canales sociales han tenido mayor interacción y aceptación estos mensajes, siendo Instagram la red social con mejor aceptación para mensajes de carácter social. Asimismo, la investigación ha posibilitado obtener datos precisos sobre qué redes sociales responden mejor dependiendo el tipo de mensajes y contenidos difundidos. Además, el diseño metodológico de la investigación ha propiciado obtener resultados acerca de otros temas sociales de interés y actualidad que no guardan relación con la pandemia y que los medios de comunicación también generaban en su discurso durante los meses establecidos.
Gabriela Rodríguez-Hernández, Karla Patricia Cruz Calderón, Mariana Ramírez Hernández
Vivat Academia pp 89-106; doi:10.15178/va.2021.154.e1297

Abstract:
El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la expresión y experiencia emocional de la pandemia COVID- 19, a través de un perfil de Facebook de universitarios mexicanos. En este estudio de caso se utilizó el método etnográfico virtual con la intensión de realizar un estudio detallado y avanzar en el conocimiento teórico del fenómeno en cuestión. La recuperación y análisis de la información se efectuó durante los meses de marzo a julio de 2020. Se capturaron un total de 113 memes de los cuales 55 (48.7%) expresaban emociones vinculadas con la pandemia. De los resultados se advierte que el meme es un sistema complejo en el que intervienen procesos cognitivos y juegos de lenguaje propios de la cultura donde se usan, favoreciendo la expresividad y las formas de compartir y ser afectuoso durante la pandemia. Prevalece la expresión de emociones negativas como el pesimismo, la desesperación, el miedo y la soledad; también se expresan emociones positivas como el asombro, el optimismo y la serenidad. Los resultados encaminan a comprobar parcialmente el supuesto de investigación en el entendido que las emociones que predominaron, si bien, son negativas, no son las emociones que se han identificado como parte de las premisas histórico-socio-culturales de la expresión emocional en los mexicanos. Se discute sobre la función edificadora de los memes para delinear pautas expresivas de valoración y planificación de la nueva realidad al constituirse en referentes que operan como unidades culturales que articularon actos comunicativos para proveer de sentido e identidad a los usuarios.
, A.J. Durán‐Romero, J.C. Hernández‐Rodríguez, M. Sendín‐Martin, J. Conejo‐Mir
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology; doi:10.1111/ced.14729

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Gough G. Au, Sarah Riddell, Daniel Layton, Nagendrakumar B. Singanallur, Rachel Layton, Jean Payne, , Hannah Bender, et al.
npj Vaccines, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41541-021-00315-6

Abstract:
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are likely to be critical in the management of the ongoing pandemic. A number of candidates are in Phase III human clinical trials, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate. In preclinical trials, the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2 challenge was evaluated in a ferret model of infection. Groups of ferrets received either prime-only or prime-boost administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 via the intramuscular or intranasal route. All ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration combinations resulted in significant reductions in viral loads in nasal-wash and oral swab samples. No vaccine-associated adverse events were observed associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 candidate, with the data from this study suggesting it could be an effective and safe vaccine against COVID-19. Our study also indicates the potential for intranasal administration as a way to further improve the efficacy of this leading vaccine candidate.
Ahmet Tahra, Murat Dinçer, Rahmi Onur
Published: 10 May 2021
Abstract:
Objective The Coronavirus pandemic has affected urological practice worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate functional urology practice including outpatient clinic visits, routine examinations, diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions with an online survey. Method We conducted an online survey to evaluate Turkish urologists’ functional urology practices before and during the pandemic. In this survey, we asked questions about the respondents’ place of work, being part of a dedicated pandemic center, involvement with the pandemic and an interest in functional urology. We also examined outpatient clinics, routine examinations, diagnostic methods, and surgical practice before and during the pandemic. Results A total of 152 urologists completed the survey. The majority of the participants, (79.6%) were in tertiary centers. Nearly one-third of respondents (32.2%) stated that more than 50% of their routine practice is related to functional urology. In brief, 80.9% of the participants declared a decrease in the number of outpatient visits for functional urology. 68.4% of the participants declared a decrease in uroflowmetry practice, and 81.3% of had a decrease in urodynamic studies performed. According to respondents, 92.1% stated a decrease in botulinum injections for the bladder, and 93.4% of the participants declared a decrease in anti-incontinence surgery. Eighty-five percent of the participants declared a decrease in prolapse surgery. One-hundred and twenty-eight participants (84.2%) declared a decrease in surgery for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Only 28.9% of the participants responded that they diagnosed their neuro-urology patients as they did prior to the pandemic. Conclusions The daily practice of urology changed, and functional urology was one of the most affected field. The large backlog of functional urology patients is challenging and although conditions, diagnostic tools and surgeries were classed as “benign”, we will have to face the effects of patients’ Quality of life in the near future.
Paula Iruzubieta, Tatiana Fernández-Lanas, Laura Rasines, Lorena Cayon, Ana Álvarez-Cancelo, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Agustín García-Blanco, Soraya Curiel-Olmo, Joaquín Cabezas, Reinhard Wallmann, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-89236-x

Abstract:
The simplicity and low cost of rapid point-of-care tests greatly facilitate large-scale population testing, which can contribute to controlling the spread of the COVID-19 virus. We evaluated the applicability of a self-testing strategy for SARS-CoV2 in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Cantabria, Spain, between April and May 2020. For the self-testing strategy, participants received the necessary material for the self-collection of blood and performance of a rapid antibody test using lateral flow immunoassay at home without the supervision of healthcare personnel. A total of 1,022 participants were enrolled. Most participants correctly performed the COVID-19 self-test the first time (91.3% [95% CI 89.4–92.9]). Only a minority of the participants (0.7%) needed the help of healthcare personnel, while 6.9% required a second kit delivery, for a total valid test result in 96.9% of the participants. Incorrect use of the self-test was not associated with the educational level, age over 65, or housing area. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV2 for subjects with a valid rapid test result was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2–4.4), similar to the seroprevalence result obtained using a conventional approach carried out by healthcare professionals. In conclusion, COVID-19 self-testing should be considered as a screening tool.
Guillermo León, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Mauricio Arguedas, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Aarón Gómez, Gabriela Solano, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar, , et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-89242-z

Abstract:
In the current global emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, passive immunotherapy emerges as a promising treatment for COVID-19. Among animal-derived products, equine formulations are still the cornerstone therapy for treating envenomations due to animal bites and stings. Therefore, drawing upon decades of experience in manufacturing snake antivenom, we developed and preclinically evaluated two anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal equine formulations as potential alternative therapy for COVID-19. We immunized two groups of horses with either S1 (anti-S1) or a mixture of S1, N, and SEM mosaic (anti-Mix) viral recombinant proteins. Horses reached a maximum anti-viral antibody level at 7 weeks following priming, and showed no major adverse acute or chronic clinical alterations. Two whole-IgG formulations were prepared via hyperimmune plasma precipitation with caprylic acid and then formulated for parenteral use. Both preparations had similar physicochemical and microbiological quality and showed ELISA immunoreactivity towards S1 protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD). The anti-Mix formulation also presented immunoreactivity against N protein. Due to high anti-S1 and anti-RBD antibody content, final products exhibited high in vitro neutralizing capacity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 80 times higher than a pool of human convalescent plasma. Pre-clinical quality profiles were similar among both products, but clinical efficacy and safety must be tested in clinical trials. The technological strategy we describe here can be adapted by other producers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
Marie Kanstrup, , Katarina E. Göransson, Beau Gamble, Rod S. Taylor, Lalitha Iyadurai, Michelle L. Moulds, Emily A. Holmes
BMC Research Notes, Volume 14, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s13104-021-05572-1

Abstract:
Objective This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to investigate the effects of a simple cognitive task intervention on intrusive memories ("flashbacks") and associated symptoms following a traumatic event. Patients presenting to a Swedish emergency department (ED) soon after a traumatic event were randomly allocated (1:1) to the simple cognitive task intervention (memory cue + mental rotation instructions + computer game "Tetris" for at least 20 min) or control (podcast, similar time). We planned follow-ups at one-week, 1-month, and where possible, 3- and 6-months post-trauma. Anticipated enrolment was N = 148. Results The RCT was terminated prematurely after recruiting N = 16 participants. The COVID-19 pandemic prevented recruitment/testing in the ED because: (i) the study required face-to-face contact between participants, psychology researchers, ED staff, and patients, incurring risk of virus transmission; (ii) the host ED site received COVID-19 patients; and (iii) reduced flow of patients otherwise presenting to the ED in non-pandemic conditions (e.g. after trauma). We report on delivery of study procedures, recruitment, treatment adherence, outcome completion (primary outcome: number of intrusive memories during week 5), attrition, and limitations. The information presented and limitations may enable our group and others to learn from this terminated study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04185155 (04-12-2019)
The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s40299-021-00568-8

Abstract:
This paper presents a case study of the experiences of a special educator named Ms. Montes (pseudonym) teaching standards-based mathematics during Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) during spring 2020. Ms. Montes was interviewed twice during this period; data were analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. Pre-COVID, Ms. Montes provided her students daily opportunities to tackle challenging mathematical problems and taught self-regulation strategies for students to better understand themselves as learners. After the shift to ERT, Ms. Montes described “the wall between us” as various barriers that made teaching mathematics online far more challenging. Challenges included supporting students with productive struggle when not physically present with them and supporting student self-regulation during mathematical problem-solving. Supporting students with disabilities to learn mathematics during ERT and distance learning will require considering emotional and affective dimensions of learning. Coaching students and families in self-regulation strategies could support student engagement in mathematical problem-solving in online learning.
Anastasia Gangaev, Steven L. C. Ketelaars, , Sanne Patiwael, Anna Dopler, Kelly Hoefakker, , , Cristina Mussini, , et al.
Nature Communications, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22811-y

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a continuous challenge worldwide, and there is an urgent need to map the landscape of immunogenic and immunodominant epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells. Here, we analyze samples from 31 patients with COVID-19 for CD8+ T cell recognition of 500 peptide-HLA class I complexes, restricted by 10 common HLA alleles. We identify 18 CD8+ T cell recognized SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, including an epitope with immunodominant features derived from ORF1ab and restricted by HLA-A*01:01. In-depth characterization of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses of patients with acute critical and severe disease reveals high expression of NKG2A, lack of cytokine production and a gene expression profile inhibiting T cell re-activation and migration while sustaining survival. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses are detectable up to 5 months after recovery from critical and severe disease, and these responses convert from dysfunctional effector to functional memory CD8+ T cells during convalescence.
, Esther Lee, Robert Parks, David R. Martinez, Dapeng Li, Haiyan Chen, , , Maggie Barr, Katayoun Mansouri, et al.
Nature pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03594-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
K. Lindqvist, C. Wallmofeldt, E. Holmén, A. Hammarberg,
Harm Reduction Journal, Volume 18, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s12954-021-00499-z

Abstract:
Background and aims People who inject drugs may be particularly vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to underlying health problems, stigma and social vulnerabilities. Harm reduction services, including needle exchange programs (NEP), have been subjected to varying degrees of disruption in the world, especially in the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Compared to responses in other countries, Sweden’s initial strategy toward limiting the spread and impact of COVID-19 was less restrictive to its citizens with no imposed general societal lockdown. In this study, we investigate changes in drug use patterns, utilization of NEP associated health services, COVID-19 health literacy and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among NEP clients in Stockholm during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods NEP visits and services provided (needles/syringes, HIV and hepatitis C tests and treatment, naloxone distributed) and overall mortality among NEP clients between January 1 and October 31, 2020, were used for trend analyses in comparison with corresponding 2019 data. Between July 27 and October 2, 2020, NEP clients (n = 232) responded to a 27 item COVID-19 Health Literacy Questionnaire. SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody tests (n = 779) were performed between June 15 and October 31, 2020. Results During the COVID-19 pandemic number of clients, client visits, naloxone distribution and HCV tests remained stable compared to 2019, while distribution of needles/syringes increased (p < 0.0001); number of HIV tests and HCV treatments decreased (p < 0.05); and mortality decreased (< 0.01). Overall, the level of health literacy concerning transmission routes and protective measures was high. SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was 5.4% (95% CI 4.0–7.2). Conclusions The Stockholm NEP managed to maintain a high level of clients and services during the pandemic. In general, COVID-19 health literacy was adequate and the overall SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was low compared to the general population, which highlights a need for prioritized and targeted COVID-19 vaccination among PWID.
npj Genomic Medicine, Volume 6, pp 1-4; doi:10.1038/s41525-021-00194-9

Abstract:
Genetic variants that influence susceptibility to COVID-19 have recently been identified. In this manuscript, we identify and discuss some of the ethical and practical issues raised by these studies. We first outline the ethical case for providing COVID-19 susceptibility testing to healthcare workers, as well as highlighting risks associated with privacy and discrimination. We then argue that the existence of genetically susceptible individuals has implications for the ethical conduct of COVID-19 human challenge trials. Finally, we discuss the ethical issues that could arise from other COVID-19 host–genome interactions, including the prospect of personalized vaccines.
Francisco Correa-Araneda, Alfredo Ulloa-Yáñez, Daniela Núñez, Luz Boyero, Alan M. Tonin, Aydeé Cornejo, Mauricio A. Urbina, María Elisa Díaz, Guillermo Figueroa-Muñoz, Carlos Esse
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-89213-4

Abstract:
Several studies have examined the transmission dynamics of the novel COVID-19 disease in different parts of the world. Some have reported relationships with various environmental variables, suggesting that spread of the disease is enhanced in colder and drier climates. However, evidence is still scarce and mostly limited to a few countries, particularly from Asia. We examined the potential role of multiple environmental variables in COVID-19 infection rate [measured as mean relative infection rate = (number of infected inhabitants per week / total population) × 100.000) from February 23 to August 16, 2020 across 360 cities of Chile. Chile has a large climatic gradient (≈ 40º of latitude, ≈ 4000 m of altitude and 5 climatic zones, from desert to tundra), but all cities share their social behaviour patterns and regulations. Our results indicated that COVID-19 transmission in Chile was mostly related to three main climatic factors (minimum temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity). Transmission was greater in colder and drier cities and when atmospheric pressure was lower. The results of this study support some previous findings about the main climatic determinants of COVID-19 transmission, which may be useful for decision-making and management of the disease.
, Guro Strøm Solli, Rune Kjøsen Talsnes, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s42978-021-00113-5

Abstract:
At the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, the XC skiing, biathlon and nordic combined events will be held at altitudes of ~ 1700 m above sea level, possibly in cold environmental conditions and while requiring adjustment to several time zones. However, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may lead to sub-optimal preparations. The current commentary provides the following evidence-based recommendations for the Olympic preparations: make sure to have extensive experience of training (> 60 days annually) and competition at or above the altitude of competition (~ 1700 m), to optimize and individualize your strategies for acclimatization and competition. In preparing for the Olympics, 10–14 days at ~ 1700 m seems to optimize performance at this altitude effectively. An alternative strategy involves two–three weeks of training at > 2000 m, followed by 7–10 days of tapering off at ~ 1700 m. During each of the last 3 or 4 days prior to departure, shift your sleeping and eating schedule by 0.5–1 h towards the time zone in Beijing. In addition, we recommend that you arrive in Beijing one day earlier for each hour change in time zone, followed by appropriate timing of exposure to daylight, meals, social contacts, and naps, in combination with a gradual increase in training load. Optimize your own individual procedures for warming-up, as well as for maintaining body temperature during the period between the warm-up and competition, effective treatment of asthma (if necessary) and pacing at ~ 1700 m with cold ambient temperatures. Although we hope that these recommendations will be helpful in preparing for the Beijing Olympics in 2022, there is a clear need for more solid evidence gained through new sophisticated experiments and observational studies.
Whitley J Stone, Kayla M Baker
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities; doi:10.1177/17446295211009655

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Kiseol Yang, Jiyoung Kim
Journal of Vacation Marketing; doi:10.1177/13567667211014932

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Padmore Adusei Amoah, , , Angela Chiu Yin Poon, Henry Hoi-Yee Tong, Wai-I Ng, Xiang Li, Eliza Mi Ling Wong, Patrick Pui Kin Kor,
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health; doi:10.1177/10105395211012230

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Juliane Hannemann, Paul Balfanz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Bojan Hartmann, Johanna Ule, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Edgar Dahl, Michael Dreher, Nikolaus Marx, Rainer Böger
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-89180-w

Abstract:
COVID-19 is a disease with a variable clinical course ranging from mild symptoms to critical illness, organ failure, and death. Prospective biomarkers may help to predict the severity of an individual’s clinical course and mortality risk. We analyzed asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in blood samples from 31 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. We calculated associations of ADMA and SDMA with mortality and organ failure, and we developed a predictive algorithm based upon these biomarkers to predict mortality risk. Nine patients (29%) experienced in-hospital death. SDMA and ADMA serum concentrations were significantly higher at admission in COVID-19 patients who died than in survivors. Cut-offs of 0.90 µmol/L for SDMA (AUC, 0.904, p = 0.0005) and 0.66 µmol/L for ADMA (AUC, 0.874, p = 0.0013) were found in ROC analyses to best discriminate both subgroups of patients. Hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality was 12.2 (95% CI: 2.2–31.2) for SDMA and 6.3 (1.1–14.7) for ADMA above cut-off. Sequential analysis of both biomarkers allowed discriminating a high-risk group (87.5% mortality) from an intermediate-risk group (25% mortality) and a low-risk group (0% mortality). Elevated circulating concentrations of SDMA and ADMA may help to better identify COVID-19 patients with a high risk of in-hospital mortality.
, Errol D’Souza
The Indian Economic Journal; doi:10.1177/00194662211013233

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 10 May 2021
by Wiley
British Journal of Social Psychology; doi:10.1111/bjso.12457

Abstract:
The role of shared identity in predicting both ingroup helping behaviour and adherence to protective norms during COVID‐19 has been extensively theorized, but remains largely under‐investigated. We build upon previous Social Identity research into community resilience by testing the role of pre‐existing local community (or ‘neighbourhood’) identity as a predictor of these outcomes, via the mediator of perceived social support. Community residents in the UK completed a longitudinal online survey four months before lockdown (T1; N = 253), one month before lockdown (T2; N = 217), and two months into lockdown (T3; N = 149). The cross‐lagged panel analysis shows that T1 community identification predicts T3 giving and receiving of pandemic‐related support, and that these effects occur via the perception of community support at the second time point (while the alternative pathway from T1 support via T2 identification is non‐significant). Moreover, we show that T1 community identification also directly predicts lockdown adherence at T3. Our findings point to the pivotal role played by community identity in effective behavioural responses to the pandemic, and the need to support and foster community development to facilitate local community resilience as the crisis continues to unfold.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries; doi:10.1002/hfm.20908

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Wendi Wang, Wei Lei, Lina Jiang, Siqi Gao, Shijun Hu, Zi-Gang Zhao, Chun-Yu Niu, Zhen-Ao Zhao
Journal of Translational Medicine, Volume 19, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02862-x

Abstract:
The mortality rate of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is 30.9% to 46.1%. The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has become a global issue with raising dire concerns. Patients with severe Covid-19 may progress toward ARDS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord, adipose tissue and so on. The easy accessibility and low immunogenicity enable MSCs for allogeneic administration, and thus they were widely used in animal and clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell infusion can ameliorate ARDS. However, the underlying mechanisms of MSCs need to be discussed. Recent studies showed MSCs can modulate immune/inflammatory cells, attenuate endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inhibit pulmonary fibrosis. The paracrine cytokines and exosomes may account for these beneficial effects. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in ARDS, analyzed the most recent animal experiments and Covid-19 clinical trial results, discussed the adverse effects and prospects in the recent studies, and highlight the potential roles of MSC therapy for Covid-19 patients with ARDS.
Ting Xue, Weikun Wu, Ning Guo, Chengyong Wu, Jian Huang, Lipeng Lai, Hong Liu, Yalun Li, ,
RSC Advances, Volume 11, pp 14737-14745; doi:10.1039/d1ra00426c

Abstract:
The RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S (spike) protein mediates viral cell attachment and serves as a promising target for therapeutics development.
Yamini Pathak, Amaresh Mishra, Gourav Choudhir, Anuj Kumar,
Pharmacological Reports pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00228-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Shama Siddiqui, Farid Nait-Abdesselam, Anwar Ahmed Khan, Shamsul Arfin Qasmi, Indrakshi Dey
Abstract:
The ubiquity of sensor technology and the Internet of Things prompted us to propose to develop an end-to-end communication architecture for real-time digital dashboards to visualize the anxiety risks of a population during a pandemic, as in the case of COVID-19. Such an architecture can be regarded as the next-generation anxiety risk classification mean for the healthcare industry 4.0 as it will be capable of generating automated and quick actions through the use of analytics on the collected data and predefined thresholds. Based on Internet of Things and wearable healthcare sensors, the proposed end-to-end communication architecture is capable of detecting physiological data related to heart rate, blood pressure, and SPO2, and communicate them to remote cloud servers. Based on this collected data, the centralized dashboard will classify in real time the patients of each geographic region involved according to a specific attribute, namely: normal, mild, moderate, high, severe, or extreme. In addition, we also propose to incorporate the emerging technologies of Space Time Frequency Spreading (STFS) and Space-Time Spreading-Aided Indexed Modulation (STS-IM) for the design of the communication links. It has been found that the integration of STFS and STS-IM promises to reduce the likelihood of data disruption for the proposed architecture.
Babak Pourakbari, , Yasmine Mahmoudieh, Hamid Eshaghi, Amene Navaeian, Maryam Rostamyan,
Published: 10 May 2021
by Wiley
Journal of Medical Virology; doi:10.1002/jmv.27065

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, Evandro Morais Peixoto, Josemberg Moura de Andrade, Lucia Tramonte
Published: 10 May 2021
Frontiers in Sociology, Volume 6; doi:10.3389/fsoc.2021.615232

Abstract:
The experience of the pandemic caused by the Coronavirus and the consequent disease triggered by it (COVID-19) brought to light fragilities that have been long overlooked by the scientific community and by various political and social institutions. The pandemic also brought to the fore certain social practices resulting from individual behaviors, such as wearing a mask and practicing social isolation. It demonstrated the need for social commitment and pro-social behaviors if societies are to respond successfully. The purpose of this article is to evaluate psychological and sociodemographic characteristics associated with compliance or noncompliance of individuals with these practices in two different phases of the pandemic experience in Brazil: in the first month and after three months. Participants for the first phase of the study were recruited through advertisements in the media and social networks. 1,914 individuals aged between 14 and 81 years agreed to participate, 78.2% of these were women, from 25 Federative Units in Brazil. In the second phase, 761 individuals who participated in the first phase, were reassessed. The authors used the following instruments for data collection: a standardized questionnaire collecting information of sociodemographic characteristics and dynamics of social isolation; the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; the Life Satisfaction Scale; the Positive and Negative Affections Scale; and the Reduced Personality Markers and Stress Mindset Scale. All instruments used presented evidence of validity and adequate reliability indexes. The comparison of categorical exploratory variables with motives for following social isolation protocols was performed using Pearson’s Chi-square, and the comparison of continuous exploratory variables was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. Covariance Analysis was performed using as covariates those that showed significance/effect on isolation in previous analyses. The results showed that respondents practicing social isolation to comply with governmental recommendations had lower scores on the scales of neuroticism and conscientiousness. They reported also less stress, anxiety, and depression, and less general distress. Overall, these respondents also displayed more positive affect, and tended to reframe stress in a more positive way than others. These preliminary results describe the psychological characteristics of individuals and their associations with social behaviors in a period of collective stress and high social risk.
, Hayyan Ul Haq, Raden Roro Mega Utami, Sevina Susilia
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.612994

Abstract:
Objectives: Indonesia responded the COVID-19 pandemic slowly these last months. The recent reports shown that the rate performance of Indonesian government in handling COVID-19 posits at the 4th worst all over the world. Meanwhile, through responsive, strict, and strategic policy, some Asia countries pushed the elimination case by doing lockdown. This paper questioned how government respond this pandemic, tried to track down the unresponsive and slow decisions, and analyze them comprehensively trough policy system framework. Moreover, we also considered a few feasible and strategic recommendations to accelerate the pandemic responding. Methods: To visualize the anatomy of problems in handling these pandemic responses, this work applied Easton's black box analysis in formulating and introducing public policy. The black box analysis would help us to portray and understood the interests, rationalities, and priorities behind introducing public policies which was implemented to handle this health problem. Besides, the policy triangle framework was used to analyze how environment influenced key actor in making decision. Results: This analysis study discovered the conflict interests in formulating and implementing public policy in handling COVID-19. The public policies are negotiated, discussed, and formulated under black box that ignore transparency, and other good governance principles. Consequently, the substance of public policy represents a certain interest of policy makers, that may conflict with the others and often contradict to the constitutional-based public interests, that is public health. It was impacted the emergence of messy and uncoordinated institutions that implement the conflicted policies. Undeniably, this situation may spark counter-productive ways, attitudes, and actions of people in responding those ambiguous policies. Therefore, this work recommended revising the coherences norms and public policies; reforming the ministry of health in public health's paradigm context; and improving the integration and coordination of cross related institutions, creating a single data on public health, and changing a new paradigm of people, including improving collective awareness in responding and handling COVID-19 appropriately.
Khurin In Noviarani, Umi Chotijah
Briliant: Jurnal Riset dan Konseptual, Volume 6, pp 232-244; doi:10.28926/briliant.v6i2.598

Abstract:
Tulisan ini memuat gambaran penggunaan data mining model klasifikasi dengan teknik decision tree untuk membantu proses validasi identitas calon penerima bantuan secara cepat dan akurat, sehingga dapat membantu memudahkan pemangku kepentingan dalam hal ini Pemerintah Kabupaten Gresik untuk mengambil keputusan dalam melakukan penyaluran subsidi Jaring Pengaman Sosial (JPS) dampak pandemi COVID-19 secara merata dan tepat sasaran sesuai dengan kebijakan yang dibuat. Proses validasi dimulai dengan memeriksa data apakah Nomor Induk Kependudukan (NIK) kosong atau tidak, dilanjutkan setiap cabangnya menunjukkan kemungkinan skenario dari keputusan yang diambil dan hasil akhirnya adalah data tersebut statusnya valid atau statusnya tidak valid. Penggunaan data mining model klasifikasi dengan teknik decision tree dalam tulisan ini membuktikan bahwa penggunaan tehnik tersebut dapat menghemat 50% usaha / effort yang dilakukan dan mempercepat proses sebesar 31 Jam atau 89,84702093% dari proses semula yang membutuhkan 34,5 jam kerja. Otomatisasi system menggunakan data mining model klasifikasi dengan teknik decicion tree sangat membantu mempermudah, mengefisienkan waktu dan meminimalkan human error dalam pekerjaan validasi identitas calon penerima bantuan JPS di Kabupaten Gresik.
Vivat Academia pp 107-122; doi:10.15178/va.2021..e1309

Abstract:
La presente investigación presenta un estudio cuantitativo de la información difundida por los principales medios de comunicación españoles en sus perfiles de redes sociales durante la etapa de inicio de la pandemia en España hasta la conclusión del primer Estado de alarma decretado por el Gobierno español, analizando sus principales ratios. En este sentido, los resultados expuestos evidencian el grado de interés por parte de los ciudadanos en la información relativa a la COVID-19 durante el marco temporal establecido y en qué canales sociales han tenido mayor interacción y aceptación estos mensajes, siendo Instagram la red social con mejor aceptación para mensajes de carácter social. Asimismo, la investigación ha posibilitado obtener datos precisos sobre qué redes sociales responden mejor dependiendo el tipo de mensajes y contenidos difundidos. Además, el diseño metodológico de la investigación ha propiciado obtener resultados acerca de otros temas sociales de interés y actualidad que no guardan relación con la pandemia y que los medios de comunicación también generaban en su discurso durante los meses establecidos.
Gabriela Rodríguez-Hernández, Karla Patricia Cruz Calderón, Mariana Ramírez Hernández
Vivat Academia pp 89-106; doi:10.15178/va.2021..e1297

Abstract:
El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la expresión y experiencia emocional de la pandemia COVID- 19, a través de un perfil de Facebook de universitarios mexicanos. En este estudio de caso se utilizó el método etnográfico virtual con la intensión de realizar un estudio detallado y avanzar en el conocimiento teórico del fenómeno en cuestión. La recuperación y análisis de la información se efectuó durante los meses de marzo a julio de 2020. Se capturaron un total de 113 memes de los cuales 55 (48.7%) expresaban emociones vinculadas con la pandemia. De los resultados se advierte que el meme es un sistema complejo en el que intervienen procesos cognitivos y juegos de lenguaje propios de la cultura donde se usan, favoreciendo la expresividad y las formas de compartir y ser afectuoso durante la pandemia. Prevalece la expresión de emociones negativas como el pesimismo, la desesperación, el miedo y la soledad; también se expresan emociones positivas como el asombro, el optimismo y la serenidad. Los resultados encaminan a comprobar parcialmente el supuesto de investigación en el entendido que las emociones que predominaron, si bien, son negativas, no son las emociones que se han identificado como parte de las premisas histórico-socio-culturales de la expresión emocional en los mexicanos. Se discute sobre la función edificadora de los memes para delinear pautas expresivas de valoración y planificación de la nueva realidad al constituirse en referentes que operan como unidades culturales que articularon actos comunicativos para proveer de sentido e identidad a los usuarios.
, Ariel L. Babierra, Christian Alvin H. Buhat, Destiny S. Lutero, Kemuel M. Quindala, Jomar F. Rabajante
Published: 10 May 2021
Abstract:
Background: Responses of subnational government units are crucial in the containment of the spread of pathogens in a country. To mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Philippine national government through its Inter-Agency Task Force on Emerging Infectious Diseases outlined different quarantine measures wherein each level has a corresponding degree of rigidity from keeping only the essential businesses open to allowing all establishments tooperate at a certain capacity. Other measures also involve prohibiting individuals at a certain age bracket from going outside of their homes. The local government units (LGUs){municipalities and provinces{can adopt any of these measures depending on the extent of the pandemic in their locality. The purpose is to keep the number of infections and mortality at bay while minimizing the economic impact of the pandemic. Some LGUs have demonstrated a remarkable response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to identify notable non-pharmaceutical interventions of these outlying LGUs in the country using quantitative methods.Methods: Data come from public databases such as Philippine Department of Health, Philippine Statistics Authority Census, and Google Community Mobility Reports. These are normalized using Z-transform. For each locality, infection and mortality data (dataset Y ) are compared to the economic, health, and demographic data (dataset X) using Euclidean metric d = (x - y)2, where x ∈ X and y ∈ Y . If a data pair (x; y) exceeds, by two standard deviations, themean of the Euclidean metric values between the sets X and Y , the pair is assumed to be a 'good' outlier.Results: Our results showed that cluster of cities and provinces in Central Luzon (Region III), CALABARZON (Region IV-A), the National Capital Region (NCR), and Central Visayas (Region VII) are the 'good' outliers with respect to factors such as working population, population density, ICU beds, doctors on quarantine, number of frontliners and gross regional domestic product. Among metropolitan cities, Davao was a 'good' outlier with respect to demographic factors. Conclusions: Strict border control, early implementation of lockdowns, establishment of quarantine facilities, effective communication to the public, and monitoring efforts were the defining factors that helped these LGUs curtail the harm that was brought by the pandemic. If these policies are to be standardized, it would help any country's preparedness for future health emergencies.
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2021-0067

Abstract:
Recently, members of the World Kidney Day (WKD) Steering Committee1 described a set of actions to be developed by everyone who is part of the care network for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), with the aim of achieving patient-centered wellness. With the theme "Living Well with Kidney Disease", the WKD 2021 focuses on promoting the empowerment of patients with CKD, so they have effective participation in their daily lives.
Rasheed Ali Rashid, Ameer A. Alaqeedy,
Published: 10 May 2021
Abstract:
Although parosmia is a common problem in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies assessed the demographic and clinical aspects of this debilitating symptom. We aimed to evaluate the socio-clinical characteristics and outcome of various options of treatment of individuals with parosmia due to COVID-19 infection. The study was conducted at two main Hospitals in the Ramadi and Tikrit cities, Iraq, on patients with a chief complaint of parosmia due to COVID-19 disease. The study involved 7 months (August 2020-February 2021). Detailed demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment options with their outcome were recorded and analyzed. Out of 268 patients with parosmia, there were 197 (73.5%) females. The majority were from age group ≤ 30 years (n = 188, 70.1%), housewives (n = 150, 56%), non-smokers (n = 222, 82.8%), and associated with dysgeusia (n = 207, 77.2%) but not associated with nasal symptoms (n = 266, 99.3%). All patients have complained of anosmia (89.9%) or hyposmia (10.1%). Troposmia was reported in the majority of participants. The majority of the patients were suffering from severe parosmia (65.7%). Around 3 quarters of the cases were presented in ≤ 4 months. Altered quality of life (AQL) was presented in 91.8% of subjects, and there was a significant association with the presence of dysgeusia and type and severity of parosmia. The smoking habit didn't show a significant association with AQL, the severity of parosmia, and the recovery rate. Most of the odor group was the most triggering stimuli eliciting parosmia, while, the sewage was the response odor in above 50% of the cases. The recovery rate was poor with olfactory training plus either tonics or local and systemic steroids. Parosmia due to COVID-19 infection is a common problem with poor results in the short-term treatment and follow-up. The AQL was seen in a greater proportion of patients and strongly associated with the presence of dysgeusia, type, and severity of parosmia.
Braiden M. Heaps, Jeffrey R. Dugas, Orr Limpisvasti
HSS Journal®: The Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery; doi:10.1177/15563316211012006

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a wide-reaching impact. Graduate medical education of orthopedic surgeons was not spared from the jarring changes. Purpose: We sought to survey fellowship program directors in the field of orthopedic surgery about how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the education of the 2019 to 2020 and 2020 to 2021 fellowship classes and the future of their programs. Methods: In October 2020, an 18-item survey was distributed by an official of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) to the specialty societies that govern fellowship training. Each specialty society then distributed the survey to its respective program directors. A reminder email was sent during the enrollment period. Each respondent was able to complete the survey once. Survey questions were grouped into 3 sections: general information about the fellowship training programs, the impact of COVID-19 on the 2019 to 2020 fellowship class, and the future impact of COVID-19 on the fellowship training programs. Results: Of the 564 accredited orthopedic surgery fellowship programs in the United States, 190 directors responded. Of these, 73.59% reported COVID-19 had a negative impact on the 2019 to 2020 fellowship class. A normal distribution of responses was found regarding didactic and academic learning, research, and mentorship opportunities. A majority of respondents said they believe that there will be no negative impact on patient care the fellows provide in the years to come. Conclusion: Orthopedic surgery fellowship program directors acknowledged that while there were negative effects to training in the pandemic, they did not think these would negatively affect patient care provided by 2019 to 2020 fellows in the short and medium term. They also reported positive outcomes from the experience of the pandemic, including new ways to educate fellows.
Alexis R. Demonbreun, Thomas W. McDade, Lorenzo L. Pesce, Lauren A. Vaught, Nina L. Reiser, , Matthew P. Velez, Ryan R. Hsieh, Lacy M. Simons, Rana Saber, et al.
JCI Insight, Volume 6; doi:10.1172/jci.insight.146148

Abstract:
Background: Estimates of seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 vary widely and may influence vaccination response. We ascertained IgG levels across a single US metropolitan site, Chicago, from June 2020 through December 2020. Methods: Participants (n=7935) were recruited through electronic advertising and received materials for a self-sampled dried blood spot assay through the mail or a minimal contact in person method. IgG to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 was measured using an established highly sensitive and highly specific assay. Results: Overall seroprevalence was 17.9%, with no significant difference between method of contact. Only 2.5% of participants reported having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on virus detection, consistent with a 7-fold greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 measured by serology than detected by viral testing. The range of IgG level observed in seropositive participants from this community survey overlapped with the range of IgG levels associated with COVID-19 cases having a documented positive PCR positive test. From a subset of those who participated in repeat testing, half of seropositive individuals retained detectable antibodies for 3-4 months. Conclusions: Quantitative IgG measurements with a highly specific and sensitive assay indicate more widespread exposure to SARS-CoV-2 than observed by viral testing. The range of IgG concentration produced from these asymptomatic exposures is similar to IgG levels occurring after documented non-hospitalized COVID-19, which is considerably lower than that produced from hospitalized COVID-19 cases. The differing ranges of IgG response, coupled with the rate of decay of antibodies, may influence response to subsequent viral exposure and vaccine.
Mayara Garcia De Mattos Barbosa, Hui Liu, Daniel Huynh, Greg Shelley, , , Emily J. Sherman, , Andrew A. Kennedy, , et al.
JCI Insight, Volume 6; doi:10.1172/jci.insight.147386

Abstract:
Antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, are thought to provide the most immediate and effective treatment for those severely afflicted by this virus. Because coronavirus potentially diversifies by mutation, broadly neutralizing antibodies are especially sought. Here we report a novel approach to rapid generation of potent broadly neutralizing human anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-specific memory B cells by panning from the blood of convalescent human subjects after infection with SARS-CoV-2, sequenced and expressed Ig genes from individual B cells as human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). All of 43 human mAbs generated in this way neutralized SARS-CoV-2. Eighteen of the 43 human mAbs exhibited half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50s) of 6.7 x10-12 M to 6.7x10-15 M for spike pseudotyped virus. Seven of the human mAbs also neutralized with IC50<6.7 x10-12 M viruses pseudotyped with mutant spike proteins (including receptor binding domain mutants and the S1 C-terminal D614G mutant). Neutralization of the Wuhan Hu-1 founder strain and of some variants decreased when coding sequences were reverted to germline, suggesting that potency of neutralization was acquired by somatic hypermutation and selection of B cells. The results indicate that infection with SARS-CoV-2 evokes high affinity B cell responses, some products of which are broadly neutralizing and others highly strain-specific. We also identify variants that would potentially resist immunity evoked by infection with the Wuhan Hu-1 founder strain or by vaccines developed with products of that strain, suggesting evolutionary courses SARS-CoV-2 could take.
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