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Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 127-144; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_6

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Oliver Geffen Obregon
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 273-290; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_12

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Millie Søndergaard Jensen, Arisa Shollo
Handbook of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare pp 169-198; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-83620-7_7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 43-64; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Sonja Blum, Michael Boecher, Kathrin Loer
Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13412-021-00737-7

Abstract:
This is a response to the commentary by Robert C. Schmidt in this journal, in which the author suggests that for specific problems such as climate change or the current pandemic, decisions on policies should be made by scientific experts rather than by politicians. We argue that such ideas, which were brought up in the late 1960s and reconsidered more recently, do not take sufficient account of the nature of science politics, and their interaction. Furthermore, problem structures and resulting challenges for science and politics are not similar, but essentially different between climate change and the pandemic. Therefore, different solutions to the problems are required. There is a need to improve politics’ reliable recourse to scientific evidence in many cases. Yet, giving scientific experts such a strong position in decision-making ignores that most decisions, even if based on the state of scientific evidence (if there is such an uncontroversial state of evidence), ultimately require genuinely political choices about trade-offs of interests and normative issues that neither can nor should be made by scientists. Therefore, putting Schmidt’s proposal into practice would not solve the existing problems but instead create new problems.
Virginia Comolli
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 245-271; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_11

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Rahmadi Sunoko, Asep Saefuddin, Marthin Nanere,
Published: 27 November 2021
Entrepreneurial Innovation pp 141-150; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-4795-6_13

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Emilie Taylor-Pirie
Published: 27 November 2021
Empire Under the Microscope pp 247-258; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84717-3_7

Abstract:
In this epilogue, Taylor-Pirie analyses the ‘heroic biography’ mode that still characterises popular histories of medicine as a legacy of the collision of science and empire at the fin de siècle. After considering the challenges inherent in writing contextual histories of science, and the human penchant for linear story-telling, she broadens her view to take into account political discourses surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic. Taylor-Pirie argues that stories of science and stories of empire shaped each other in ways that are contingent on this historical moment but that continue to inflect and occlude our self-knowledge. She contends that by paying attention to cultural encounters between medicine and the humanities in the past, we gain important insights into the relationship between science and society in the present.
Somda S.M.A., Dabone E.B.A., Doulougou M., Bationo C.S., Galboni K.T.M.
African Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Studies, Volume 4, pp 145-156; https://doi.org/10.52589/ajmss-y8nxo02c

Abstract:
In this article, we propose a Bayesian approach for estimating and predicting the magnitude of the coronavirus epidemic in Burkina Faso in its early stage. Our approach is inspired by the work of Wang et al. but adapted to the Burkinabe context. Two models are presented: a simple Bayesian SIR approach and another Bayesian SIR which takes into account the public health measures undertaken by the government of Burkina Faso. The approach was implemented at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Burkina Faso, covering the period from March 9 to April 30, 2020. The results of the analyses will allow a good prediction of COVID-19 infections and deaths in the early days of the epidemic, considering government policies.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound and lasting consequences since 2019. Although vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and approved under emergency use authorization, various adverse events have also been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. This review was undertaken to help clinicians recognize the possible manifestations and systemic pathogenesis, especially those related to the eye, after receiving COVID-19 vaccination. A systemic search was performed on 22 August 2021 through Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library for publications on ocular manifestations after COVID-19 vaccination. Two case-control studies/retrospective cohort studies, one cross-sectional study, three case series, sixteen case reports, two images, and seven letters were included. Ocular manifestations after receiving COVID-19 vaccines may appear on the eyelid, cornea and ocular surface, retina, uvea, nerve, and vessel. The ocular manifestations occurred up to forty-two days after vaccination, and vaccine-induced immunologic responses may be responsible. Although the incidence rate of ocular symptoms is considerably lower in the vaccinated subjects than in COVID-19 patients, physicians should be aware of the possible associations between COVID-19 vaccines and ocular symptoms for the early diagnosis and treatment of vision problems or life-threatening complications.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
(1) Background: In many infections, antibodies play a crucial role in controlling infection. In COVID-19, the dynamics of the immune system response to SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood. (2) Methods: The study was conducted on 120 healthcare workers from Dr. Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz, between June and December 2020. In all participants, IgA and IgG antibody serum concentrations were measured using the semi-quantitative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA test (Euroimmun). After vaccination, in January and February 2021, antibody levels were examined using the quantitative IgG Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Quantivac ELISA test (Euroimmun). (3) Results: During the whole study period, the SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 29 (24.2%) participants. In all infected participants, IgA and IgG antibodies were detectable after infection by semi-quantitative serological tests. Levels of antibodies were higher one month after the first dose in the convalescents than in the non-previously infected participants. In this second group, the level of antibodies increased significantly after the second dose of vaccines compared to the first dose. (4) Conclusions: The level of antibodies after the first dose of vaccine in the convalescents’ group is higher than in the SARS-CoV-2 non-infected group, but the differences disappear after the second vaccination.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Background: End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) is unreliable for monitoring PaCO2 in several conditions because of the unpredictable value of the PaCO2–PetCO2 gradient. We hypothesised that increasing both the end-inspiratory pause and the expiratory time would reduce this gradient in patients ventilated for COVID-19 with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and in patients anaesthetised for surgery. Methods: On the occasion of an arterial blood gas sample, an extension in inspiratory pause was carried out either by recruitment manoeuvre or by extending the end-inspiratory pause to 10 s. The end-expired PCO2 was measured (expiratory time: 4 s) after this manoeuvre (PACO2) in comparison with the PetCO2 measured by the monitor. We analysed 67 Δ(a-et)CO2, Δ(a-A)CO2 pairs for 7 patients in the COVID group and for 27 patients in the anaesthesia group. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Prolongation of the inspiratory pause significantly reduced PaCO2–PetCO2 gradients from 11 ± 5.7 and 5.7 ± 3.4 mm Hg (p< 0.001) to PaCO2–PACO2 gradients of −1.2 ± 3.3 (p = 0.043) and −1.9 ± 3.3 mm Hg (p < 0.003) in the COVID and anaesthesia groups, respectively. In the COVID group, PACO2 showed the lowest dispersion (−7 to +6 mm Hg) and better correlation with PaCO2 (R2 = 0.92). The PACO2 had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.93 for identifying hypercapnic patients (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg). Conclusions: Measuring end-tidal PCO2 after prolonged inspiratory time reduced the PaCO2–PetCO2 gradient to the point of obtaining values close to PaCO2. This measure identified hypercapnic patients in both intensive care and during anaesthesia.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Objectives: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have diminished the effectiveness of vaccines and are associated with a rebound in the number of COVID-19 cases globally. These variants contain mutations at the spike (S) protein receptor binding site (RBD), which affect antibody binding. Current commercially available antibody assays were developed before the VOCs emerged. It is unclear whether the levels of these commercially available antibody assays can predict the neutralizing antibody titers against the VOCs. In this study, we sought to determine the correlation between the binding antibody concentration and microneutralization antibody titer against the beta variant. Methods: This study included 58 COVID-19 patients. The concentrations of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD and nucleocapsid (N) protein were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay and the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, respectively. The neutralization antibody titer against the wild type lineage A SARS-CoV-2 and against the beta variant (B.1.351) was determined using a conventional live virus neutralization test. Results: The geometric mean MN titer (GMT) against the beta variant was significantly lower than that against the wild type lineage A virus (5.6 vs. 47.3, P<0.0001). The anti-RBD IgG had a better correlation with the neutralizing antibody titer than that of the anti-N IgG assay against the wild type lineage A virus (Spearman rho, 0.5901 vs. 0.3827). However, the correlation between the anti-RBD or the anti-N IgG and the MN titer against the beta variant was poor. Conclusions: Currently available commercial antibody assays may not predict the level of neutralizing antibodies against the variants. A new generation of antibody tests specific for variants are required.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312491

Abstract:
This study aimed to explore cross-country differences in the characteristics and determinations of self–other risk perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We distinguished perceived risk to self from perceived risk to others and subdivided risk perceptions into three levels: personal, group, and societal. We focused on the differential impact of multiple communication channels (i.e., interpersonal communication, traditional media exposure, and new media exposure) on risk perceptions at the three levels. A sample of 790 college students completed self-report online questionnaires from May to June 2020, including 498 in China and 292 in the United States. The results showed an “ascending pattern,” revealing that participants perceived higher levels of risk to others than to themselves. In addition, U.S. college students perceived higher risks of COVID-19 than Chinese college students at all levels. As for the relations between communication and risk perceptions, the results revealed that interpersonal communication and traditional media exposure were more effective with Chinese participants, whereas new media exposure was more effective with U.S. participants. Specifically, interpersonal communication was positively associated with risk perceptions at three levels, and the magnitude of the effect was higher in the Chinese group than in the U.S. group. Traditional media exposure increased societal risk perception only for Chinese college students, and new media exposure increased societal risk perception only for U.S. college students. Our findings provide theoretical implications for the characteristics and forming mechanisms of risk perceptions and also provide practical implications for policymakers in the two countries to implement effective measures to foster individuals’ risk perceptions in relation to preventive behaviors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312509

Abstract:
Little is known about the relative influence of age-differentiated leadership on healthy aging at work. Likewise, the age-conditional influence of age-differentiated leadership is understudied, and especially so in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a three-wave longitudinal study, we examined the role that age-differentiated leadership plays in the prediction of work ability, as measured three times over six months (n = 1130) during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany (i.e., December 2019, March 2020, and June 2020). The results suggest that although there were no systematic changes in work ability on average, there was notable within-person variability in work ability over time. Additionally, we find that a balanced approach to age-differentiated leadership that considers the needs of both older and younger employees matters most and complements the positive influence of leader–member exchange for predicting within-person variability in work ability. We also find that older employees’ work ability benefits from an approach to age-differentiated leadership that considers older employee’s needs, whereas younger employees’ work ability especially benefits from leader–member exchange and a balanced approach to age-differentiated leadership. Overall, these results provide initial support for the idea that an age-differentiated approach to leadership is important when considering healthy aging at work.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124286

Abstract:
A strong sociocultural context could affect an individual’s aesthetic standards. In order to achieve a socially recognized ideal appearance, obligatory exercisers might increase dieting behavior when exercise actions are disturbed, thereby placing the individual at risk of eating disorders. The current study mainly examined the relationship between obligatory exercise and eating attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and considered the mediating role of externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance between the two. A total of 342 participants (175 females, 167 males) from various regions of China were invited to fill out the questionnaires including the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, and the Eating Attitudes Test. In total, 51.5% of the participants presented symptoms of an obligatory exercise behavior. Among them, males, young adults, and the participants with lower BMI had higher OEQ scores, whereas females and young adults had higher EAT-26 scores. Meanwhile, 9.4% of the participants might have had an eating disorder. The OEQ score was positively correlated with the EAT-26 total score as well as SATAQ-3 ‘Pressures’ and ‘Information’ subscales. In addition, the EAT-26 total score was positively correlated with the SATAQ-3 ‘Pressures’ and ‘Information’ subscales. Externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance served as a mediator between obligatory exercise behavior and eating attitudes, and the mediation effect accounted for 56.82% of the total effect. Obligatory exercise behavior may have an indirect effect on eating attitudes through sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Given the sociocultural information and pressures, in order to maintain or pursue an ideal appearance, many people tend to keep a pathological diet. Thus, forming a positive and healthy social aesthetic orientation is beneficial in helping obligatory exercisers to develop reasonable eating habits.
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 27 November 2021
Infection, Genetics and Evolution; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105162

Abstract:
The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Delta (i.e., B.1.617.2) variants challenges the pandemic control. Our analysis showed that in the United Kingdom, case fatality ratio (CFR) decreased from May to July 2021 for non-Delta variant, whereas the decreasing trend of the CFR of Delta variant was weak and insignificant. The association between vaccine coverage and CFR appears stratified by different circulating variants. Due to the limitation of ecological study design, the interpretation of our results should be treated with caution.
Nathalie Hoppe, Felix Häfner,
Handbook of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare pp 331-356; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-83620-7_14

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 291-295; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_13

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Lewis Herrington
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 215-243; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_10

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312489

Abstract:
Some occupational sectors, such as human health and care, food service, cultural and sport activities, have been associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than other sectors. To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, it is preferable to apply targeted non-pharmaceutical interventions on selected economic sectors, rather than a full lockdown. However, the effect of these general and sector-specific interventions on the virus circulation has only been sparsely studied. We assess the COVID-19 incidence under different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions per economic activity during the autumn 2020 wave in Belgium. The 14-day incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases per the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE–BEL) sector is modelled by a longitudinal Gaussian-Gaussian two-stage approach. This is based on exhaustive data on all employees in all sectors. In the presence of sanitary protocols and minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions, many sectors with close contact with others show considerably higher COVID-19 14-day incidences than other sectors. The effect of stricter non-pharmaceutical interventions in the general population and non-essential sectors is seen in the timing of the peak incidence and the width and height of the post-peak incidence. In most sectors incidences returned to higher levels after the peak than before and this decrease took longer for the health and care sector. Sanitary protocols for close proximity occupations may be sufficient during periods of low-level virus circulation, but progressively less with increasing circulation. Stricter general and sector-specific non-pharmaceutical interventions adequately decrease COVID-19 incidences, even in close proximity in essential sectors under solely sanitary protocols.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312488

Abstract:
This work evaluates the prevalence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), among members of the Czech Dental Chamber. The assessment was based on an online questionnaire filled out by 2716 participants, representing 24.3% of all chamber members. Overall, 25.4% of the participants admitted they were diagnosed with COVID-19 by 30 June 2021, with no statistical differences between the sexes. While in the age groups under 50 the reported prevalence was around 30%, with increasing age, it gradually decreased to 15.2% in the group over 70 years. The work environment was identified as a place of contagion by 38.4% of the respondents. The total COVID-19 PCR-verified positivity was 13.9%, revealing a statistically lower prevalence (p = 0.0180) compared with the Czech general population, in which the COVID-19 PCR-verified positivity was ~15.6% (fourth highest rank in the world). The total infection–hospitalization ratio (IHR) was 2.8%, and the median age group of hospitalized individuals was 60–70 years. For respondents older than 60 years, the IHR was 8.7%, and for those under 40 years, it was 0%. Of the respondents, 37.7% admitted that another team member was diagnosed with COVID-19, of which the most frequently mentioned profession was a nurse/dental assistant (81.2%). The results indicate that although the dentist profession is associated with a high occupational risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, well-chosen antiepidemic measures adopted by dental professionals may outweigh it.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Micromachines, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12121464

Abstract:
The deleterious effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic urged the development of diagnostic tools to manage the spread of disease. Currently, the “gold standard” involves the use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Even though it is sensitive, specific and applicable for large batches of samples, qRT-PCR is labour-intensive, time-consuming, requires trained personnel and is not available in remote settings. This review summarizes and compares the available strategies for COVID-19: serological testing, Point-of-Care Testing, nanotechnology-based approaches and biosensors. Last but not least, we address the advantages and limitations of these methods as well as perspectives in COVID-19 diagnostics. The effort is constantly focused on understanding the quickly changing landscape of available diagnostic testing of COVID-19 at the clinical levels and introducing reliable and rapid screening point of care testing. The last approach is key to aid the clinical decision-making process for infection control, enhancing an appropriate treatment strategy and prompt isolation of asymptomatic/mild cases. As a viable alternative, Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) is typically low-cost and user-friendly, hence harbouring tremendous potential for rapid COVID-19 diagnosis.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Gun violence drastically increased in urban cities following the ease of shutdown restrictions associated with the Coronavirus Pandemic. The association of gun violence and COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of taking a public health perspective, particularly as it relates to impacts on the Black community. In this article we discuss macro-level factors and community traumas in the city of New Orleans, an area that has had longstanding issues related to gun violence. Community structural issues, traumatic stress from disasters, and recommendations to address disparities in social determinants of health are discussed.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235578

Abstract:
Health professionals (HPs), especially those working in the front line, have been one of the groups most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study is to identify the best available scientific evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of out-of-hospital HPs in terms of stress, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy. A living systematic review of the literature was designed, consulting the electronic online versions of the CINHAL, Cochrane Library, Cuiden, IBECS, JBI, LILACS, Medline PyscoDoc, PsycoINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases in November 2021. Original research was selected, published in either English, Spanish, French, Italian, or Portuguese. In total, 2082 publications were identified, of which 16 were included in this review. The mental health of out-of-hospital HPs was affected. Being a woman or having direct contact with patients showing suspicious signs of COVID-19 or confirmed cases were the factors related to a greater risk of developing high levels of stress and anxiety; in the case of depressive symptoms, it was having a clinical history of illnesses that could weaken their defenses against infection. Stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts was the coping strategy most frequently used by these HPs.
Alexandre Vautravers
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 171-186; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Emil Boc,
International Trends in Participatory Budgeting pp 187-204; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79930-4_10

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Yasamin Khoshnavaz, Mustafa Tuzen,
Published: 27 November 2021
Microchimica Acta, Volume 188, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-05107-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11120163

Abstract:
This article explores how after almost two years of government-imposed work from home (WFH) for the purpose of curbing the spread of COVID-19, South Korean managers’ general attitudes towards WFH may have been reconstructed and if this change influenced their expectations that WFH would persist for the long run. Before COVID-19, WFH was rare, and the country was well known for having one of the most hierarchical and rigid work cultures, with long hours at the office being the norm. The results of this study are based on survey responses from 229 South Korean managers and executives. Using means comparisons and hierarchical linear multiple regression models to answer three research questions, the present study evaluates theorized predictors of WFH take-up, general attitudes towards WFH, and the likelihood that WFH will continue post-COVID-19. The results indicate that forced WFH adoption during COVID-19 had statistically significant positive effects on the attitudes of South Korean managers and their intentions to continue working from home in the future. This study has practical implications for companies and governments that are interested in taking advantage of WFH and implementing it more permanently. It provides interesting findings on how managers from a country with minimal WFH prior to COVID-19 perceive the benefits of WFH and how they respond to its mandated adoption.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124288

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a 12-month period following the emergence of COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 35) received a personalized dietary, sleep, and physical activity program over a 17-week period. The control group (n = 37) received no intervention. Measurements for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) via an electronic survey, and objective measures of body mass and blood pressure were taken at baseline and at 12 months. Significant interactions for group × time from baseline to 12-months were found for all outcome measures (p< 0.001). Body mass and mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p< 0.001). Outcome measures for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p< 0.001). Results provide preliminary evidence that a brief three-component healthy sleep, diet and physical activity intervention can elicit and sustain long-term improvements in body mass and blood pressure management, health behaviors, and perceived subjective health in pilots and may support quality of life during an unprecedented global pandemic.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Viruses, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122379

Abstract:
Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.
, , Simon Chadwick, Guilherme Guimarães, Varid Aeron
Published: 27 November 2021
Entrepreneurial Innovation pp 25-42; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-4795-6_3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Wei Zhe Ng, Aaron Anthony Obon, Chin Loong Lee, Yi Hui Ong, Wail Gourich, Kireshwen Maran, Dennis Boon Yong Tang, Cher Pin Song,
Published: 27 November 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ayensu S.N., Acquah E.O., Annan J.F.
British Journal of Contemporary Education, Volume 1, pp 84-98; https://doi.org/10.52589/bjce-rhwnfhlw

Abstract:
The Department of Music Education, University of Education Winneba (UEW), trains students to acquire the skill of playing some Western instruments such as the keyboard, guitar, winds and orchestral strings. Furthermore, students also receive training in playing Ghanaian traditional instruments such as the atenteben and the various traditional drums of the existing ensembles. This practical teaching also include singing, dancing and ensemble making to allow all students perform their instruments in an ensemble. Unexpectedly, training in these instruments and ensembles was despaired by measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 pandemic. While theory courses in music were conducted via platforms such as Moodle, Google Classroom, the University’s Virtual Class (VClass) and Zoom, the exploratory case study design was used to seek technological means to conduct practical lessons which almost came to a halt as a result of its face-to-face teaching nature. Reviewing literature on technologies for teaching and Covid-19, the study which was based on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (T-PACK) model unearthed means to conduct practical lessons. Lecturers, instructors, technicians and students of the Department were interviewed to organize their opinions on how to conduct practical lessons amidst Covid-19 restrictions. The study divulged innovative technological means to situate software programmes and applications such as Zoom, Google Classroom, Moodle, Microsoft Meet, Team Viewer, WhatsApp and Facebook for practical lessons.
, Casmir Chukwuka Mbaegbu
Global Security in Times of Covid-19 pp 91-126; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82230-9_5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Teiji Nakamura
Published: 27 November 2021
Japan Nutrition pp 163-178; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6316-1_10

Abstract:
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) under the 17 goals, 169 targets and 232 indicators were set out by the United Nations in 2015. Sustainable development is defined as promoting sustainable, inclusive and equitable economic growth by providing opportunities for all. These are emphasized that in order for everyone to live a healthy and happy life on this planet without being left behind, all areas must be related, coordinated and harmonized in order to solve their respective challenges. It is widely recognized that malnutrition has a negative impact on hunger, poverty, health, medicine and well-being、and nutrition affects a wide range of other areas, including education, labor economy, gender, discrimination, climate change and the environment. “Nutrition for Growth Summit: Fighting Hunger through Business and Science” held in London in 2013, and the “Tokyo Nutrition Summit 2021” in Tokyo. In 2000, Dr. Paul Crutzen described the present as the “anthropocene”. This is a new era in which humans are influencing the global environment, ecosystems, and climate, rather than an era in which humans were influenced by nature. And this new era is putting the earth in a critical situation which we are now facing. In 2019, the Lancet shocked the world with its report “Food in the Anthropocene: The EAT Lancet Commission on Healthy Eating through Sustainable Food Systems”. The suggested changes in food intake include reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods, reducing as much as possible the consumption of meat, which has a high environmental impact. The WHO proposed 16 guiding principles for a “sustainable healthy diet”, comprising “health aspects”, “environmental impacts” and “social and cultural aspects”. Recently, due to the spread of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), people were forced to leave their homes as in an evacuation, and faced the same nutritional problems as during disasters. In recent years, many natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and torrential rains have occurred in Japan, and many people have been affected by these disasters and forced to live in shelters or temporary housing. Disasters are caused by a combination of hazards and vulnerabilities, so it is necessary to establish a system during normal times to reduce community vulnerability from becoming apparent. The Japan Dietetic Association-Disaster Assistance Team (JDA-DAT) is a team of experts in the event of a large-scale natural disaster. JDA-DAT set up in the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011.
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