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Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary, Raman Krishnan
Published: 1 June 2016
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 45-46; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.2.6

Abstract:
Flunarizine is one the cerebroselective calcium channel blocker, commonly prescribed for migraine prophylaxis in neurology clinic. It is considered as non inferior to propranolol and amytriptyline to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. Here we report a case flunarizine induced extrapyramidal syndrome and depression. A 37 year old female on tablet flunarzine 15 mg daily for her migraine signs of depression and restlessness, propensity to bend, slow reactions and mask face. Depression was rated using patient health questionnaire and extrapyramidal syndrome was diagnosed by modified simpson agnus scale and Barnes akathisia rating scale. Considering nil organic lesion and improvment of all symptoms with the cessation of flunrarizine, case was diagnosed as flunarizine induced depression and extrapyramidal disorder.
, Darpesh Gohel, Manish V. Patel
Published: 1 June 2016
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.2.4

Abstract:
Introduction: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of single cells treated with immunomodulators can be done by FACS. T cells, B cells and NK cells, designated as CD cells, are the immunological biomarkers of various haematological conditions which are attributed to prognosis and diagnosis of related disorders. Azathioprine and Cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive agents, having different mode of action and classification which are been used clinically. Here, we have compared the dose of Azathioprine and Cyclophosphamide in CD-1 ® mice through lymhocytes’ enumeration by FACS to compare the potency of immunosuppression. Methods: Randomly divided male and female mice were treated with AZA 20, AZA 50 and CPM 20 for four days, Body weight and feed consumption was taken on day 1 and 5. Collected blood samples were mixed with antibodies. Samples were lysed by lysing solution. Repeated washing and centrifugation yields leucocytes in each tube for estimation. Lymhocytes’ enumeration was performed for CD3, CD4, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD19 and CD45 and percent population of CD markers were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: All the animals were normal throughout treatment. No significant change in body weight, percent body weight change and food consumption was observed. No gross lesions were observed. Total lymhocytes’ counts were decreased. Double negative tregs of CD4- and CD8- in female mice showed potent immunosuppressive effects and sensitivity towards female gender. Azathioprine was less immunosuppressive than Cyclophosphamide at 20 mg/ kg body weight.
Damal Kandadai Sriram, Govindaraj Gowri, Melvin George
Published: 1 June 2016
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.2.1

Upinder Kaur, Manish Bansal, Ajit Kumar, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Dinesh Kumar,
Published: 23 December 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 22-23; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.1.6

Srishti Shukla, Ambati Anusha, Katta Archana, Dommati Anand Kumar, Amtul Zehra, Yellu Narsimha Reddy,
Published: 23 December 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.1.4

, Lim Ee Wen, Khor Ming Zhen, Chin Kean Hean, Aaseer Thamby Sam
Published: 23 December 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 2, pp 06-10; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2016.1.2

, Sundar Hemalatha, Wong Chui Ting, Maniam Yoshita, Balasubramanian Ganesh Pandian, Abdul Nazer Ali, Kasi Marimuthu,
Published: 26 August 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 111-120; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.3.4

Published: 26 August 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 98-103; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.3.2

Abstract:
Our gut is home to over a trillion of microbes existing in a symbiotic relationship with its host organ. The enzymes synthesized by gut Microflora have been long known to influence our health, but their role in the metabolism of drugs has not been studied to that extent. Similar to drug metabolizing enzymes in liver and intestine, gut Microbiota can modulate the metabolism of drugs in a number of ways including but not limited to hydrolysis, reduction, or degradation of a drug molecule. The role of liver and intestine has been extensively studied during early drug discovery for its influence on drug metabolism but very less emphasis is given to metabolism of drugs by gut Microbiota . This review paper discusses the role of gut Microflora and its role to alter drug metabolism and advocate the inclusion of microbial metabolism screening during drug development.
Sumeet Prakash Mirgh, Jehangir Soli Sorabjee
Published: 26 August 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 121-123; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.3.5

Abstract:
Isoniazid (INH) is a crucial drug in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. INH is commonly known to cause derangements in liver function tests and peripheral neuropathy due to pyridoxine deficiency in slow acetylators. However, in toxic doses it is known to cause severe neurologic manifestations and acute metabolic acidosis. INH toxicity is characterized by the clinical triad of repetitive seizures unresponsive to the usual anticonvulsants, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and coma. Hence, the diagnosis of INH overdose should be considered in any patient who presents to Emergency medical services (EMS) with the triad. Though accidental overdose of anti-tuberculosis drugs have been reported in children and adults, acute toxicity is rare. When recognized, intravenous pyridoxine and correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate and supportive treatment is effective. The condition is easily treated with intravenous pyridoxine but if not treated in time could prove fatal. Unlike other poisonings, serum INH levels do not co-relate with either symptomatology or liver injury.
Arpit Navinchandra Shah, Jaykumar Jashvantrai Sejpal, Jigar Ravindrabhai Katwala, Anil Jagdish Jaiswal, Azadar Husain Khan
Published: 22 May 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 41-49; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.2.2

Kondalkar Avinash, Sharma Rahul, Patle Shikhar, Srivastava Rajnish, Patle Shiker
Published: 22 May 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 50-54; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.2.3

Ramakrishnan Prakash, Rajulu Dheeraj, Palayan Muralidharan, Krishnan Karthickeyan, Raji Vijayakumar, Thiraviam Purushoth Prabu
Published: 22 May 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 62-68; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.2.5

Roshana Poudyal, Priyata Agrawal, Ashish Shrestha, Mamta Dali, Tarakant Bhagat, Asish Choudhary
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 14-16; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.5

Yerramalli Roja Ramani, Bandana Rath, Uma Shankar Mishra, Himanshu Bhusan Sahu
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 35-36; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.10

Hosseinian Amiri Aref, Abedi Siavash, Yazdanian Maryam
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 17-19; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.6

Jagadish Babu Dasari, Cristiano Ialongo, Aruna Chandranath Kondakundhi, Sri Harsha Munnamgi, Syed Juied
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 10-13; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.4

Daswani Bharti Ramchand, Naik Shilpa, Palewar Meghana, Ghongane Balasaheb, Sambarey Pradeep, Bharadwaj Renu
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.9

Sireesha Paruchuri, Ganesh Pandian Balasubramanian, Parashuram Nagula
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.8

Anjula Sachan, Sarvesh Kumar, Hemant Singh, Pratap Shankar, Dheeraj Kumar, Amod Kumar Sachan, Rakesh Kumar Dixit
Published: 27 April 2015
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 1, pp 20-23; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.1.1.7

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Anhar Alyousef, Mohammed Mominul Islam, Maha Hussein Almadany, Fatimah Abdaziz Almana, Nora Saeed Alsolami
Published: 21 July 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 57-68; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.8

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Anhar Alyousef, Mohammed Mominul Islam, Nahed Rashid Alyami, Maha Hussein Almadany, Fatimah Abdaziz Almana
Published: 21 July 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 77-83; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.10

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Anhar Alyousef, Mohammed Mominul Islam, Maha Hussein Almadany, Fatimah Abdaziz Almana, Ebtissam Mohammad Badawoud, Fahad Khurshid
Published: 21 July 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 46-56; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.7

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Anhar Alyousef, Mohammed Mominul Islam, Maha Hussein Almadany, Fatimah Abdaziz Almana
Published: 21 July 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 84-91; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.11

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Anhar Alyousef, Mohammed Mominul Islam, Randa Jaroudi, Maha Hussein Almadany, Elaf Mohamaf Faraj, Fatimah Abdaziz Almana
Published: 21 July 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 69-76; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.9

Mona Yaser Alsheikh, Bandar Awwadh Alosaimi, Raghad Abdulaziz Alasmari, Asma Saqer Alamri, Yousef Ahmed Alomi
Published: 11 April 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.5

Mona Yaser Alsheikh, Raghad Abdulaziz Alasmari, Asma Saqer Alamri, Bandar Awwadh Alosaimi, Yousef Ahmed Alomi
Published: 11 April 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.2

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Sultan Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Juman Saad Mohammad Alsaab, Razan Alshehri, Khawla Ibrahim Al-Shahrani
Published: 11 April 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.1

Mona Yaser Alsheikh, Asma Saqer Alamri, Raghad Abdulaziz Alasmari, Bandar Awwadh Alosaimi, Yousef Ahmed Alomi
Published: 11 April 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.3

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Sultan Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Juman Saad Mohammad Alsaab, Razan Alshehri, Khawla Ibrahim Al-Shahrani
Published: 11 April 2022
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 8, pp 26-36; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2022.8.4

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Hanin Sumaydan Saleam Aljohani, Aroub Abdullah Albatel
Published: 24 September 2021
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 7, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2021.7.12

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Abeer Hussin Almasoudi
Published: 24 September 2021
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 7, pp 61-65; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2021.7.11

Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Basmah Sulimain AlHamdan, Amani Abdullah Bahdailah, Sahar Obaid Alosaimi, Deema Abdullah Altuwayhir
Published: 16 December 2021
Journal: PTB Reports
PTB Reports, Volume 7, pp 86-94; https://doi.org/10.5530/ptb.2021.7.15

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