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Published: 20 September 2020
by MDPI
Metabolites, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/metabo10090377

Abstract:
Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a significant comorbidity for cancer patients and survivors. Physical activity (PA) has been found to be a strong gene modulator that can induce structural and functional changes in the brain. PA and exercise reduce the risk of cancer development and progression and has been shown to help in overcoming post-treatment syndromes. Exercise plays a role in controlling cancer progression through direct effects on cancer metabolism. In this review, we highlight several priorities for improving studies on CRCI in patients and its underlying potential metabolic mechanisms.
Published: 20 September 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13184177

Abstract:
Bridge expansion and contraction installation (BECI) has proved to be an indispensable component of bridge structures due to its stability, comfort, and durability benefits. At present, conventional replacement technologies for modular-type, comb plate-type, and seamless-type BECIs are widely applied worldwide. However, it is unfortunate that there remains no systematic research on quantitative assessment approaches for evaluating the overall technical status and selecting optimal replacement methods for existing BECIs. Therefore, considering the installation performance according to functional index evaluations and the economic cost based on life-cycle value assessment (LCVA), a standardized quantitative assessment approach is proposed for optimal replacement method selection in this article. Simultaneously, the other new quantitative assessment method is developed for evaluating the overall technical status of BECIs, which provides a basis for the necessity of replacement. A BECI replacement decision system is constructed, and a corresponding case study illustrates that the proposed system based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in this article proves to be reasonable and feasible. The results reveal that the selected replacement method with both a higher function coefficient and a lower economic coefficient can not only fulfil the performance requirements but also pursue a cost reduction, which leads to a considerable value increment. This system can effectively assist bridge managers in making appropriate operation and maintenance (O and M) decisions in actual engineering projects.
Published: 20 September 2020
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 20; doi:10.3390/s20185379

Abstract:
A vortex flow meter employs a sensor based on the piezoelectric vibration principle to realize vortex signal acquisition, and therefore the measurement results are susceptible to vibration noise. In this paper, the generalized mode method is proposed based on the central tendency characteristic of the vortex signal and combined with the existing filter bank method. The method combining filter bank with the generalized mode is designed and applied in the signal-processing system of the vortex flow meter, which makes up for the defect that the filter bank method cannot filter out the noise in the sub-band. The simulation experiments verify the feasibility and anti-interference performance of the algorithm. Meanwhile, a comparison with two FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrum analysis methods shows that the algorithm designed in this paper requires a smaller sample size and achieves better real-time performance. The actual anti-vibration experiment and calibration experiment verify that the signal-processing system of a vortex flow meter ensures good accuracy and repeatability.
Published: 20 September 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13184178

Abstract:
High bone–implant contact is a crucial factor in the achievement of osseointegration and long time clinical success of dental implants. Micro, nano, microtopography, and oxide layer of dental implants influence tissue response. The lasers were used for achieving an implant surface with homogeneous micro texturing and uncontaminated surface. The present study aimed to characterize the implant surfaces treated by Nd: DPSS Q-sw Laser treatment compared to machined implants. A total of 10 machined implants and 10 lasered surface implants were evaluated in this study. The implant surfaces were evaluated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and metallography to characterize and measure the thickness of the oxide layer on the implant titanium surface. The machined surfaces showed a non-homogeneous oxide layer ranging between 20 and 30 nm. The lasered implant surfaces showed a homogeneous oxide layer ranging between 400 nm and 460 nm in the area of the laser holes, while outside the layer, thickness ranged between 200 nm and 400 nm without microcracks or evidence of damage. Another exciting result after this laser treatment is a topographically controlled, repeatable, homogeneous, and clean surface. This technique can obtain the implant surface without leaving residues of foreign substances on it. The study results indicate that the use of Nd: DPSS Q-sw laser produces a predictable and reproducible treatment able to improve the titanium oxide layer on the dental implant surface.
Published: 20 September 2020
by MDPI
Remote Sensing, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/rs12183078

Abstract:
Overhead high-voltage conductors are the chief components of power lines and their safety has a strong influence on social and daily life. In the recent decade, the airborne laser scanning (ALS) technique has been widely used to capture the three-dimensional (3D) information of power lines and surrounding objects. Most of the existing methods focused on extraction of single conductors or extracted all conductors as one object class by applying machine learning techniques. Nevertheless, power line corridors (PLCs) are built with multi-loop, multi-phase structures (bundle conductors) and exist in intricate environments (e.g., mountains and forests), and thus raise challenges to process ALS data for extraction of individual conductors. This paper proposes an automated method to extract individual subconductors in bundles from complex structure of PLCs using a combined image- and point-based approach. First, the input point cloud data are grouped into 3D voxel grid and PL points and separated from pylon and tree points using the fact that pylons and trees are vertical objects while power lines are non-vertical objects. These pylons are further separated from trees by employing a statistical analysis technique and used to extract span points between two consecutive pylons; then, by using the distribution properties of power lines in each individual span, the bundles located at different height levels are extracted using image-based processing; finally, subconductors in each bundle are detected and extracted by introducing a window that slides over the individual bundle. The orthogonal plane transformation and recursive clustering procedures are exploited in each window position and a point-based processing is conducted iteratively for extraction of complete individual subconductors in each bundle. The feasibility and validity of the proposed method are verified on two Australian sites having bundle conductors in high-voltage transmission lines. Our experiments show that the proposed method achieves a reliable result by extracting the real structure of bundle conductors in power lines with correctness of 100% and 90% in the two test sites, respectively.
Henrik Detjen, Bastian Pfleging, Stefan Schneegass
12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications; doi:10.1145/3409120.3410662

Abstract:
Understanding user needs and behavior in automated vehicles (AVs) while traveling is essential for future in-vehicle interface and service design. Since AVs are not yet market-ready, current knowledge about AV use and perception is based on observations in other transportation modes, interviews, or surveys about the hypothetical situation. In this paper, we close this gap by presenting real-world insights into the attitude towards highly automated driving and non-driving-related activities (NDRAs). Using a Wizard of Oz AV, we conducted a real-world driving study (N = 12) with six rides per participant during multiple days. We provide insights into the users’ perceptions and behavior. We found that (1) the users’ trust a human driver more than a system, (2) safety is the main acceptance factor, and (3) the most popular NDRAs were being idle and the use of the smartphone.
Na Du, Jinyong Kim, Feng Zhou, Elizabeth Pulver, Dawn M. Tilbury, Lionel P. Robert, Anuj K. Pradhan, X. Jessie Yang
12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications; doi:10.1145/3409120.3410666

Abstract:
In conditionally automated driving, drivers engaged in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) have difficulty taking over control of the vehicle when requested. This study aimed to examine the relationships between takeover performance and drivers’ cognitive load, takeover request (TOR) lead time, and traffic density. We conducted a driving simulation experiment with 80 participants, where they experienced 8 takeover events. For each takeover event, drivers’ subjective ratings of takeover readiness, objective measures of takeover timing and quality, and NDRT performance were collected. Results showed that drivers had lower takeover readiness and worse performance when they were in high cognitive load, short TOR lead time, and heavy oncoming traffic density conditions. Interestingly, if drivers had low cognitive load, they paid more attention to driving environments and responded more quickly to takeover requests in high oncoming traffic conditions. The results have implications for the design of in-vehicle alert systems to help improve takeover performance.
Andreas Löcken, Pascal Brunner, Ronald Kates
12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications; doi:10.1145/3409120.3410641

Abstract:
The introduction of micro-mobility, such as e-scooters, brings new challenges. Nevertheless, these trend devices are spreading rapidly without a comprehensive study of their interactions with other road users. For example, many countries currently require drivers of e-scooters to signal turns by hand. In this work, we investigate whether e-scooter riders can do this without losing control and whether they perceive hand signals as safe enough to use in traffic. We have conducted two studies with 10 and 24 participants, respectively. Each participant was able to perform hand signals without apparent problems. We also observed an intensive training effect regarding the handling of e-scooters. Nevertheless, our results indicate that a considerable number of inexperienced riders will, outside the laboratory, turn without signs with the currently prevailing e-scooter designs and regulations due to uncertainties.
Dylan Moore, Rebecca Currano, David Sirkin
12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications; doi:10.1145/3409120.3410667

Abstract:
Electric vehicles’ (EVs) nearly silent operation has proved to be dangerous for bicyclists and pedestrians, who often use an internal combustion engine’s sound as one of many signals to locate nearby vehicles and predict their behavior. Inspired by regulations currently being implemented that will require EVs and hybrid vehicles (HVs) to play synthetic sound, we used a Wizard-of-Oz AV setup to explore how adding synthetic engine sound to a hybrid autonomous vehicle (AV) will influence how pedestrians interact with the AV in a naturalistic field study. Pedestrians reported increased interaction quality and clarity of intent of the vehicle to yield compared to a baseline condition without any added sound. These findings suggest that synthetic engine sound will not only be effective at helping pedestrians to hear EVs, but also may help AV developers implicitly signal to pedestrians when the vehicle will yield.
Mark Colley, Stefanos Can Mytilineos, Marcel Walch, Jan Gugenheimer, Enrico Rukzio
12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications; doi:10.1145/3409120.3410647

Abstract:
Automated vehicles will change the trucking industry as human drivers become more absent. In crossing scenarios, external communication concepts are already evaluated to resolve potential issues. However, automated delivery poses unique communication problems. One specific situation is the delivery to the curb with the truck remaining partially on the street, blocking sidewalks. Here, pedestrians have to walk past the vehicle with reduced sight, resulting in safety issues. To address this, we conducted a literature survey revealing the lack of addressing external communication of automated vehicles in situations other than crossings. Afterwards, a study in Virtual Reality (N=20) revealed the potential of such communication. While the visualization (e.g., arrows or text) of whether it is safe to walk past the truck only played a minor part, the information of being able to safely walk past was highly appreciated. This shows that external communication concepts carry great potential besides simple crossing scenarios.
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