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Nevenka Djurovic, Milka Domazet, , Vesna Pocuca, , Radmila Pivic, Enika Gregoric, Uros Domazet
Published: 23 November 2015
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2015, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/742138

Abstract:
Water table forecasting plays an important role in the management of groundwater resources in agricultural regions where there are drainage systems in river valleys. The results presented in this paper pertain to an area along the left bank of the Danube River, in the Province of Vojvodina, which is the northern part of Serbia. Two soft computing techniques were used in this research: an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model for one-month water table forecasts at several wells located at different distances from the river. The results suggest that both these techniques represent useful tools for modeling hydrological processes in agriculture, with similar computing and memory capabilities, such that they constitute an exceptionally good numerical framework for generating high-quality models.
Published: 7 May 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Water
Abstract:
Soil erosion is a severe environmental problem worldwide as it washes away the fertile topsoil and reduces agricultural production. Nepal, being a hilly country, has significant erosion disputes as well. It is important to cognise the soil erosion processes occurring in a river basin to manage the erosion severity and plan for better soil conservation programs. This paper seeks to calculate the sediment yield and maximum outflow from the Sarada river basin located in the western hills of Nepal using the computer-graphic Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) model. Asymmetry coefficient of 0.63 was calculated, which suggests a possibility of large floods to come in the river basin in the future whereas the maximum outflow from the river basin was 1918 m³ s−1. An erosion coefficient value of 0.40 was obtained, which indicates surface erosion of medium strength prevails in the river basin. Similarly, the gross soil loss rate of 10.74 Mg ha−1 year−1 was obtained with the IntErO modeling which compares well with the soil loss from the erosion plot measurements. The IntErO model was used for the very first time to calculate soil erosion rates in the Nepalese hills and has a very good opportunity to be applied in similar river basins.
Published: 22 January 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030385

Abstract:
Landslides are a worldwide occurring hazard that can produce economic impact and even fatalities. The collection and monitoring of data regarding active landslides are important for predicting future landslides in that region, and is critical to minimize the losses caused. In the expanding metropolitan area of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, drastic changes of land use and increasement of construction zones represent a current evolution issue. The urban sprawl phenomenon imposed the expansion of the city limits and outside the old built-up area, and due to the hilly terrain and geomorphology, natural hazards such as landslides and erosion processes are susceptible to appearance or reactivation. The study incorporates interdisciplinary research composed of evaluation of a landslide susceptible hotspot located in an area of interest to the municipality by means of geodetic and topographic precise measurements, combined with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) monitoring of surface movement and GIS spatial analysis. The data obtained in a span of over two years reveal that the investigated slope is subjected to a shallow active landslide of a few centimeters per year, and based on the 64 individual placed landmarks the highest displacement value was 67 mm. Through geomatic tools the exchange rate of the slope surface was evaluated with comprehensive volume calculations, such as displacement, erosion, and accumulation that illustrate a volume of material displaced of 107.2 m3 and the accumulated one of 55.7 m3. The results provide valuable insight into the complex landslide and erosion dynamics that are crucial when predicting future movements and prevention measures.
Published: 23 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Water
Abstract:
Land use change in all river basins leads to changes in hydrologic response, soil erosion, and sediment dynamics characteristics. Those changes are often viewed as the main cause of accelerated erosion rates. We studied the impact of land use changes on soil erosion processes in one of the watersheds in Montenegro: the Miocki Potok, using this watershed as a pilot river basin for this area. We simulated responses of soil erosion processes by using a process-oriented soil erosion Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) model, with different settings of land use for the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. The model provides fast, effective, and affordable insight into the effects of land use change on soil erosion processes. Testing of the applied procedures was important for the further establishment of watershed management methodologies at the national level, for the other 300 river basins of Montenegro. For the current state of land use, calculated peak discharge for the Miocki Potok was 364 m3 s−1 (2020)–372 m3 s−1 (1970) for the incidence of 100 years, and there is a possibility for large flood waves to appear in the studied basin. Real soil losses, Gyear, were calculated at 13680 m3 year−1 (2020) and specific 333 m3 km−2 year−1 (2020). A Z coefficient value of 0.439 (2020) indicated that the river basin belongs to destruction category III. The strength of the erosion process was medium, and according to the erosion type, it was mixed erosion. According to our analysis, the land use changes in the last 50 years influenced a decrease in the soil erosion intensity for 14% in the Miocki Potok River Basin. Further studies should be focused on the detailed analysis of the land use changes trends with the other river basins at the national level, closely following responses of soil erosion to the changed land use structure, and effects of plant-and-soil interaction on soil erosion and sediment dynamics.
Published: 6 April 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Sensors
Sensors, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20072054

Abstract:
The Transylvanian region of Romania is a place of rich history since ancient times, where the original natural environment around architectural heritage sites or buildings has not been severely altered by urban development. Unfortunately, many such places are left by the authorities to degrade or totally collapse for lack of funds, vision or initiatives. The current paper addresses the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the assessment of a viable and feasible prospect of restoration on a 19th century mansion that belonged to a nobiliary family. UAV use is rising in many industries and has become very popular in the last decade, but for survey engineering and related domains they represent a quantum leap in technology. Integrating UAV-acquired data and structure from motion software, has enabled modern techniques to obtain useful metrics from the field, accurate photorealistic 3D models for visual inspection, structural damage analyses, architectural rehabilitation-restoration, conservation and spatial analysis of the surrounding area. In this work a socio-cultural planning and design process is explored and presented to improve the local community and inclusion in a tourist circuit based on the regional potential, as well as an evaluation of accessibility derived from a vector-raster database that highlights the central position of the cultural heritage in regards to the axis of circulation between the important metropolitan areas and the local tourist attractions. This established workflow of modern topographic and construction measurements is fully integrable into the architectural process, building information modelling, heritage conservation and reconstruction.
Published: 5 March 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Sustainability
Sustainability, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051362

Abstract:
In the highly populated analysed territory, the expansion of the construction zones and the pressure imposed on the slopes by the housing and transport infrastructure led to the appearance and reactivation of mass movement processes that affects the population and the environment. The purpose of this study consist in applying the principles of bivariate statistical analysis in order to determine the dynamic potential of a territory, taking into account the statistical relationship between the independent variables represented by predisposing and triggering factors of landslides (slope, geology, land use etc.) and dependent variables, in this case: landslides. The identification of the degree of validation of the results was determined by calculating the AUROC (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic) value, whose value of 0.854 highlights the representativeness of the chosen model. The analysis of landslides susceptibility highlights the inclusion of the territory represented by the hills surrounding Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area, Romania, on the classes of spatial occurrence of these processes.
, Milan Lakicevic, Dragan Radanovic, Paolo Billi, Goran Barovic, Dusko Vujacic, ,
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 45, pp 602-610; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha45210695

Abstract:
This paper presents an Ecological-Economic (Eco-Eco) modelling using the Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) model for calculation of sediment yield and runoff assessing the impacts of different land covers on soil erosion intensity. Calculations have been made for the Velicka River basin, which is one of 57 sub-basins of the Lim River in the Northeast Montenegro. Several different land use scenarios were then simulated in the model in order to find the optimal scenario of land use for intensive seed potato production. The results of Ecological (Eco-) analysis shown that the real soil loss under current conditions is 18148 myr-1. If seed potato production is introduced, the model calculated a soil loss of 20834 myr-1 as sediment yield. In order to balance the damage caused by the introduction of seed potato production we considered also the ecological measure of afforestation to reduce soil loss caused by seed potato production. The model calculated that afforestation would result in a decrease of sediment yield to 17886 myr-1. The results of Economic (-Eco) analysis revealed that the investment of 3,385 per ha for the establishment of the seed potato production will provide the income for the farmers of 15,000 per hectare annually. In parallel, we proposed the investment for the protection of the area (258 ha) with afforestation that amounts to 330,608 (1,281 per ha), for the period of two years, with no other costs in the next decade. The research results demonstrate that the application of the Eco-Eco modelling, by using the IntErO model for studying the effect of soil erosion and possible land use for intensive seed potato production in the Velicka River Basin provides cost effective solutions for the benefit of the local population.
Published: 5 April 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Sustainability
Sustainability, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072039

Abstract:
This paper presents a case study of the village of Mrkovi in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, showing the importance of landscape identification and assessment in planning the revitalization and development of Mediterranean rural settlements. The research revealed the methods of identification and evaluation of different landscape types. Moreover, it showed how such an approach could considerably contribute to the preservation of the space’s identity and quality by taking into account the existing characteristics of the space or the relationship between cultural and natural heritage. The identification of the landscape types was followed by the evaluation of individual elements and assessment of vulnerability in relation to the space’s natural, cultural, and visual quality. The first step in the process of preserving the elements that contribute to the landscape’s identity was the spatial identification of the cultural pattern of traditional terraces with drystone walls. The results of analysis indicate a high risk of degradation of the basic landscape value. The effects of future interventions in the space, especially the planned construction of a tourist resort, can be mitigated if they comply with the guidelines related to the rational use of the space and delimitation of the construction zones. This paper points out the importance of a responsible attitude and planned approach regarding the cultural and natural landscape of Mediterranean rural settlements.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 47, pp 237-248; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47111310

Abstract:
Vegetation cover change in all the river basins leads to the changes of hydrologic response, soil erosion and sediment dynamics characteristics. Those changes are often viewed as main cause of anthropogenic and accelerated erosion rates in short term and one of the main reasons of climate change in long term. The effects of vegetation cover changes on various parts of water balance and hydrological cycle has to be deeply studied because of its important role on mankind future. The aim of present research was therefore to simulate the responses of soil erosion processes by using a process-oriented soil erosion model IntErO, with the different settings of land use for the years 1977, 1987, 1997, 2006 (2007) and 2016 (2017) in Orahovacka Rijeka watershed; a pilot river basin of the Polimlje Region for the northeastern part of Montenegro. For the current state of land use, calculated peak discharge for the Orahovacka Rijeka was 174-175 m3 s-1 (the incidence of 100 years) and there is a possibility for large flood waves to appear in the studied basin. Real soil losses, Gyear, were calculated on 2614-2921 m3 year-1, specific 229-256 m3 km-2 year-1 (1977-2017). The value of Z coefficient range from 0.444 to 0.478 and indicates that the river basin belongs to III destruction category. The strength of the erosion process is medium, and according to the erosion type, it is surface erosion. According to our analysis the land use changes in the last 40 years influenced the increase of the soil erosion intensity for 11% in the study watershed. Further studies should be focused on the detailed analysis of the land use changes trends with the other river basins at the national level, closely following responses of soil erosion to the changed land use structure. The results and approach also should be used by policymakers in all national natural resources organizations to highlight the role of management.
, Leila Gholami, Maziar Mohammadi, , Moghadeseh Falah Soraki
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 46, pp 553-562; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha46211192

Abstract:
Soil erosion is one of the key challenges in soil and water conservation. Vegetation that covers soil and organic and inorganic mulch is very useful for the control of erosion processes. This study examined treatment with wheat residual (as agriculture mulch) on infiltration, time to runoff, runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil erosion processes. The study has been conducted for sandy-loam soil taken from summer rangeland (Northern Iran) with simulated rainfall intensities of 50 and 100 mm h-1. The experiment was conducted in slopes of 30% in three replications with two amounts of wheat residual of 50 and 90 %. The results showed that conservation percent of soil erosion for wheat residual 50 and 90% was 61.68 and 73.25%, respectively (in rainfall intensity of 50 mm h-1). Also, the conservation percent of soil erosion for wheat residual of 50 and 90% cover was 70.68 and 90.55, respectively (in rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1). It was concluded that the conservation treatments could reduce runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil erosion and increase the time to runoff and infiltration coefficient. This effect was significant on time for infiltration, sediment concentration and soil erosion variables (R2=0.99), time to runoff and runoff coefficient variables (R2=0.95). The interaction effects of rainfall intensity and soil conservation was significant for sediment concentration and soil erosion variables (R2=0.99).
, , Márta Birkás, Aleksandra Jurisic,
Published: 27 July 2016
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, Volume 63, pp 403-413; https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2016.1213815

Abstract:
The poor physical, chemical and biological properties make Stagnic Luvisol highly susceptible to water erosion on sloping terrains. The objective of this paper is to estimate the effect of different tillage treatments and crops (maize, soybean, winter wheat, spring barley, oilseed rape) on water erosion. The highest erosion in investigation period (1995–2014) was recorded in the control treatment with fallow, followed by the treatment that involved ploughing and sowing up and down the slope. Significantly, lower soil losses were recorded in no-tillage and treatments with ploughing and sowing across the slope. Regarding the crops significantly higher soil losses were recorded in spring row crops (maize and soybean) compared to high-density winter crops (wheat and oilseed rape) and double crop (spring barley with soybean). In the studied period, an average loss of 46 mm of the plough layer was recorded in the control treatment, while in treatment with ploughing and sowing up and down the slope average annual soil loss was 10 mm. According to the results of this study no-tillage and tillage across the slope are recommended as tillage which preserves soil for the next generations in agro-ecological conditions of continental Croatia.
Dragan Božović, Vera Popović, Vera Rajičić, , Vladimir Filipović, Ljubiša KOLARIĆ, Vladan Ugrenović,
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1387-1397; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha48312058

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to estimate genotype by locality, by year, by treatments (G×LxYxT) interaction using AMMI model, to identify maize genotypes with stable number of rows of grains performance in different growing seasons. The trials conducted with seven maize lines/genotypes, four treatments, two years and at the two locations. The results showed that the influence of genotype (G), year (Y), locality (L), and G×L, G×T, G×L×T, G×Y×T, G×Y×L×T interaction on maize number of rows of grains were significant (p<0.01). The genotype share in the total phenotypic variance for the grains number rows of was 53.50%, and the interaction was 21.15%. The results also show that the sums of the squares of the first and second major components (PC1 and PC2) constitute 100% of the sum of the squares of the interaction G×L. The first PC1 axis belongs to all 100%, which points to the significance of the genotype in the total variation and significance of the genotype for overall interaction with other observed sources of variability. The highest stability in terms of expression of the grains number of rows had the genotype L-6, followed by the genotypes L-4, L-5 and L-3. The lowest stability was demonstrated by the genotypes L-2 and L-1, which confirmed that these genotypes are not important for further selection in terms of this trait.
Published: 12 July 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142737

Abstract:
We bring a practical and comprehensive GIS-based framework to utilize freely available remotely sensed datasets to assess wildfire ignition probability and spreading capacities of vegetated landscapes. The study area consists of the country-level scale of the Romanian territory, characterized by a diversity of vegetated landscapes threatened by climate change. We utilize the Wildfire Ignition Probability/Wildfire Spreading Capacity Index (WIPI/WSCI). WIPI/WSCI models rely on a multi-criteria data mining procedure assessing the study area’s social, environmental, geophysical, and fuel properties based on open access remotely sensed data. We utilized the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis to weigh each indexing criterion’s impact factor and assess the model’s overall sensitivity. Introducing ROC analysis at an earlier stage of the workflow elevated the final Area Under the Curve (AUC) of WIPI from 0.705 to 0.778 and WSCI from 0.586 to 0.802. The modeling results enable discussion on the vulnerability of protected areas and the exposure of man-made structures to wildfire risk. Our study shows that within the wildland–urban interface of Bucharest’s metropolitan area, there is a remarkable building stock of healthcare, residential and educational functions, which are significantly exposed and vulnerable to wildfire spreading risk.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 46, pp 292-300; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha46110866

Abstract:
In the case of forests located in the close proximity of urban centres, the functions and conventional roles of the forests have to be largely reconsidered. An experimental study area was located in Făget Forest, near the city of Cluj-Napoca, North-West of Romania, as a subject to evaluate different natural risks, especially landslides. Although most of this area is stabilized, human activity became in the last period the most aggressive and active factor that can induce changes in slopes stability. The evaluation based on new changes on the terrain and constructions has clearly revealed the effect of the unprecedented urban sprawl and the expansion of infrastructure elements and residential buildings. Landslide susceptibility map was elaborated using a multivariate statistical analysis and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology on a predetermined path inside the forest, as well as obtaining valuable information about the tree species. Based on 14 surveys, each of them covering an area of 500 m2 on a longitudinal transect of the forest, there were identified relatively few tree species with a significant share: Carpinus betulus (42.9%), Fagus sylvatica (24.9%), Quercus petraea (23.2%), Q. robur (6.3%), Prunus avium (1.2%). Their positive roles on avoiding or limiting the flow on slopes, flooding, landslides etc. are different depending on the position, terrain, forest composition, trees density, slope, exposition, but it is fundamental beneficial. However, these species can assure productive (as wood), ameliorative, ecological, landscape, cultural, educational, relaxation roles, and consequently inestimable values.
Published: 13 December 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245482

Abstract:
Inappropriate soil management practices and specific climatic conditions in semi-arid region cause loss of soil organic matter (SOM), decline soil fertility, and trigger soil erosion processes and desertification. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate the effects of tillage intensity and fertilizer regime treatments on the productivity of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and soil physicochemical properties in the semi-arid highland region in northwest Iran (37°31′ north (N), 46°53′ east (E)). Five fertilizer treatments were included under conventional (CT) or reduced tillage systems (RT): F1, no fertilizer application; F2, 20 t∙ha−1 farmyard manure (FYM); F3, 40 t∙ha−1 FYM; F4: 20 t∙ha−1 FYM + 50% of the recommended dose of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK) chemical fertilizer; F5: full dose of the recommended chemical NPK fertilizer. Results showed that utilization of FYM decreased bulk density (BD); its effects were more evident under the highest SOM content for the F2 and F3 treatments, whereas application of mineral fertilizer had no significant effect upon SOM content, and elevated levels of FYM preserved higher organic carbon contents in topsoil. The highest N, P, and K contents of the soil were obtained with FYM plus inorganic fertilizer application in the RT system. Hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture content were significantly improved by RT and FYM application. The highest root growth was observed for F3 and F4 under the RT system. The effect of fertilizer and tillage treatments was more pronounced during the second year. Traits related to growth and seed quality such as achene oil content, leaf area, and harvest index were enhanced by chemical fertilization in the CT system. The highest achene yield and oil percentage were recorded for plants grown with F3 and F4. The best option for enhancing sunflower productivity and quality in semi-arid, high-altitude environments is the application of organic fertilizers amended with reduced amounts of chemical fertilizers.
, Mohamad Derikvandi, Ramyar Aliramaee, Mohsen Khorsand, , , Dusko Vujacic
Abstract:
Application of empirical models is inevitable because of the complexity of process,features, spatial and temporal variation of soil erosion and non-existence or lack ofassociated data. In the present study, maximum outflow and soil erosion intensitywere predicted for Khamsan representative watershed in West of Iran, using IntEromodel. The results of production of erosion material in the river basin (W year),coefficient of the deposit retention (Ru) and real soil losses (G year) were thencompared with the measured soil erosion, SDR and sediment yield data inKhamsan watershed. The intensity of the erosion process were medium in studiedwatershed. The predicted data were compared with the measured sediment yield ofstudied watershed and verified the acceptable results of the IntEro model inKhamsan representative watershed. The results showed that the peak flow is 27.50m3s-1 for a return period of 100 years. The value of Z coefficient of 0.876 indicatesthat the river basin belongs to the second destruction category out of five. Thecalculated net soil loss from the river basin was 12263.44 m3 per year, specific282.81 m3km-2 per year. The strength of the erosion process is strong, andaccording to the erosion type, it is surface erosion.
Klaas Annys, , , , Dragan Borota,
Published: 13 February 2014
Journal: Journal of Maps
Journal of Maps, Volume 10, pp 600-611; https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2014.909338

Abstract:
The geomorphological map of the northeastern Durmitor Mountains and the plateau Jezerska Površ (1:10,000, 47 km², Montenegro, Dinaric Alps) was prepared from an intensive fieldwork campaign and remote sensing analysis, and was compiled within a GIS. The basic components of the legend are (i) processes/genesis, (ii) materials, (iii) morphometry/morphography, (iv) hydrography, (v) vegetation and (vi) anthropogenic features. The geomorphological setting of the area consists of Mesozoic limestones which are physically deformed by Quaternary glacial and periglacial activity and chemically affected during interglacials. Glacial deposits on the plateau of three middle-to-late Pleistocene glacial phases are intersected by a well-developed network of palaeo meltwater channels. In the mountains, Holocene glacier retreat left behind a series of well-preserved recessional moraines. The map serves as a valuable tool for Quaternary research in the Durmitor Mountains, and also in other mountains of the Western Balkans.
Published: 14 May 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Agronomy
Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liming (CaCO3 1000 kg ha−1) and application of organic fertilizers (rotted farmyard manure 40 t ha−1) and six different combination of mineral fertilizers: NPK 15:15:15 800 kg ha−1 + KAN (calcium ammonium nitrate) 240 kg ha−1; NPK 15:15:15 400 kg ha−1 + MCB (water-soluble mineral fertilizer NPK 13:11:20 + 2MgO + microelements + humic acid) 300 kg ha−1 + KAN 125 kg ha−1; MCB 400 kg ha−1; MCB 400 kg ha−1 + KMg (water-soluble mineral fertilizer Multi KMg 13:0:43 + 2MgO) 100 kg ha−1; MCB 600 kg ha−1 + KMg 100 kg ha−1 and MCB 800 kg ha−1 + KMg 100 kg ha−1 on yield and other productivity parameters of potato (Kennebec variety). The aim of the research was to optimize the system of potato plant nutrition for maximum profitability in the future potato production on acid soils of mountainous region of Montenegro. The experiments were carried out during 2015 and 2016, on Dystric Cambisols. The results obtained suggested that in both years, the highest values for all studied parameters were measured on plots with combined application of liming, organic and mineral fertilizers. In addition, a significant influence on the increase in the number of tubers per plant, the average tuber weight and the total yield was also demonstrated in all individual trials of potato nutrition, and the interaction of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Fertilizing with rotted farmyard manure had significantly increased potato productivity, with the effect more pronounced in treatments with liming. The highest number of tubers (6.2 and 7.2), average tuber weight (93.5 g and 101.0 g) and yield (27.6 t ha−1 in 2015 and 34.8 t ha−1 in 2016, respectively) were obtained using combinations of MCB 800 kg ha−1 + KMg 100 kg ha−1 on variants fertilized with rotted farmyard manure and liming. This research is a valuable source of information for potato growers and scientists from this region as the results have shown how fertilization is raising productivity in this environment and its importance in the future potato growing on acid soils in mountainous regions of Montenegro and Western Balkans.
Published: 23 March 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Water
Abstract:
Land use change is known as one of the main influencing factors on soil erosion and sediment production processes. The objective of the article is to study on how land use change impacts on soil erosion by using Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) as a process-oriented soil erosion model. The study has been conducted under land use changes within the period of 1991–2014 in the Talar watershed located in northern Iran. The GIS environment was used to prepare the required maps including Digital Elevation Model (DEM), geology, land use, soil, and drainage network. The climatology data including average annual precipitation and air temperature as well as the volume of torrential rain were extracted from the data of meteorological stations located inside and around the study watershed. The results indicates that, within the period of 1991–2014, the forest area decreased by 12,478.04 ha (6%), while the other land uses including rainfed agriculture, rangeland, irrigated agriculture, and residential area increased by 7248.25, 4481.05, 476.00, and 273.95 ha, respectively. The estimated outflow with 100 year return interval was 432.14 m3 s−1 in 1991, which increased to 446.91 m3 s−1 in 2014. It can be concluded that the probability of larger and/or more frequent floods waves in the Talar River is expected to increase. In addition, the amount of production of erosion material (gross erosion) in the watershed increased from 1,918,186 to 2,183,558 m3 yr−1, and the real soil losses per year (sediment yield) of the watershed increased from 440,482.4 to 501,421.3 m3 yr−1. The results clearly emphasized how the lack of appropriate land management and planning leads to increase the maximum flow discharge and sediment yield of the watershed.
, Habiba Aassoumi, Mohamed Moukhchane, Abdelhak Moumou, Mhammad Houssni, ,
Published: 14 May 2020
Hydrological Sciences Journal, Volume 65, pp 1568-1582; https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2020.1755435

Abstract:
Soil erosion is a serious ecological problem in Mediterranean areas. The IntErO model based on the erosion potential method (EPM) and the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) have been used to assess soil erosion in several basins. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of these methods for evaluating sediment production and deposition rates in the Arbaa Ayacha basin, Morocco, in order to estimate sediment fluxes on a catchment scale. Our findings suggest that the basin is strongly exposed to erosion owing to geological formations, slope and land use, with average losses of about 28.4 t ha−1 year−1. Erosion processes were evaluated at the erosion production (Eocene marly formations) and sedimentation zones (Quaternary terraces). The results of these models may be useful to address soil and water management in this region and to assess the impact of a river dam that will be built in the basin.
, Tudor Salagean, Stefan Bilasco, Mircea Vasile Bondrea, Sanda Nas, Spyros Fountas, , Sorin Mihai Cimpeanu
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Volume 18, pp 1269-1277; https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2019.121

Published: 26 July 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Water
Abstract:
Non-point source pollution is a major factor in excessive nutrient pollution that can result in the eutrophication. Land use/land cover (LULC) change, as a result of urbanization and agricultural intensification (e.g., increase in the consumption of fertilizers), can intensify this pollution. An informed LULC planning needs to consider the negative impacts of such anthropogenic activities to minimize the impact on water resources. The objective of this study was to inform future land use planning by considering nutrient reduction goals. We modeled the LULC dynamics and determined the capacity for future agricultural development by considering its impacts on nitrate runoff at a watershed scale in the Tajan River Watershed in northeastern Iran. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate the in-stream nitrate concentration on a monthly timescale in this watershed. Historical LULCs (years 1984, 2001 and 2010) were derived via remote sensing and were applied within the Land Change Modeler to project future LULC in 2040 under a business-as-usual scenario. To reduce nitrate pollution in the watershed and ecological protection, a conservation scenario was developed using a multi-criteria evaluation method. The results indicated that the implementation of the conservation scenario can substantially reduce the nitrate runoff (up to 72%) compared to the business-as-usual scenario. These results can potentially inform regional policy makers in strategic LULC planning and minimizing the impact of nitrate pollution on watersheds. The proposed approach can be used in other watersheds for informed land use planning by considering nutrient reduction goals.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2368-2384; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha48411993

Abstract:
This paper presents an updated version of our previous GIS-based method developed for indexing the forest surfaces by their wildfire ignition probability (WIPI) and wildfire spreading capacity (WSCI). The previous study relied on a multi-criteria approach including a variety of factors of social, hydro-meteorological, and geo-physical character of the context. However, this study is challenging the drawbacks of the previous work, by introducing three new criteria regarding the vegetation properties in the area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Tree Cover Density (TCD), and land cover type are launched as indicators of fuel properties of the forest being indexed. The materials and software utilized here belongs to different open sources. CORINE Land Cover (CLC), Open Street Map (OSM), TCD via Copernicus high resolution data, and multispectral satellite images via Landsat 8 (Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin- SCP) are utilized as raw materials in a workflow in QGIS software. At this stage, the study area is the territory of Montenegro. Following the inventory stage, the indexing method relies on a normalizing procedure in QGIS and the assignment of weighted impact factor to each criterion via analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The WSCI value is derived as the sum of the products between the normalized class and the respective weighted impact factor of each criterion. Besides the methodological improvements the results of this work deliver tangible outputs in support of forest fire risk reduction in disaster risk management and fire safety agendas.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 44, pp 525-532; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha44210415

Abstract:
The pepper producers in the Republic of Macedonia have used drip irrigation systems to increase yield in recent years, but more research is still needed, related to irrigation scheduling and precise requirement of nitrogen fertilizer to maximise pepper yield. Therefore, a two year experiment was conducted in a plastic house to determine the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) and yield potential of pruned pepper as affected by irrigation and fertilization regime. Four experimental treatments were applied in this study. Three of the treatments were drip fertigated (DF1, DF2, DF3), while the fourth treatment was furrow irrigated with conventional fertilization (ØB). The labelled urea with 1% concentration of a stable isotope of nitrogen (15N) was applied for determination of NFUE. The results of this study clearly showed that increased NFUE and pepper yield depend on irrigation and fertilization regime. Namely, NFUE was significantly increased with the application of nitrogen fertilizer through drip irrigation system as compared to conventional fertilization with furrow irrigation. Also, drip fertigation frequency positively affects percentage increase of NFUE. Furthermore, our results showed that drip fertigation treatments resulted in significantly higher pepper yields in comparison to conventional fertilization. Also, drip fertigation frequency at four and two days (DF2 and DF1) resulted in higher yields when compared with drip fertigation scheduled by using tensiometers (DF3). Generally, to reach acceptable pepper yield with high NFUE, we recommend drip fertigation with a frequency of two to four days combined with two main shoots of pruned pepper in order to increase farmer’s income and to minimize the environmental impact.
, , M. Medarevic, R. Cvjeticanin, D. Pantic,
Published: 1 January 2011
Archives of Biological Sciences, Volume 63, pp 429-440; https://doi.org/10.2298/abs1102429c

Abstract:
Due to their extraordinary diversity and high level of conservation, the forest ecosystems of Biogradska Gora undoubtedly fall under the most significant forest objects. Owing to the lack of anthropogenic impacts, it is an especially interesting and gratifying research subject for different experts and scientists. In order to implement a sufficiently high biodiversity level management, it is necessary to know the structural characteristics of untouched forests. In this paper we focused our attention on monodominant montane beech forests with their ecological and structural characteristics, as a bioecological basis for environmentally friendly planning and sustainable management of these and similar forest ecosystems.
Natanael Rodolfo Ribeiro Sakuno, Augusto Cesar Ferreira Guiçardi, , Junior Cesar Avanzi, Marx Leandro Naves Silva, Ronaldo Luiz Mincato
Published: 1 January 2020
Revista Ciência Agronômica, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20200004

Published: 20 August 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Agronomy
Abstract:
The physical-geographical features of the mountainous area of Montenegro cause difficulties in farmers’ life and work. The organization of the agricultural production faces a number of problems that limit the overall development of rural areas. Some agricultural crops, such as raspberry, have found optimal growth conditions and produce appropriate yields associated with good fruit quality in such mountainous area. The Willamette variety dominates the production and has broadly expanded, as some new varieties, most notably, Tulameen, Fertȍdi Zamatos, and Glen Ample. The aim of this paper was to examine the biological and production characteristics of two raspberry varieties—one floricane (Tulameen) and one primocane (Polka)—grown in two localities. We confirmed the general rule that at lower altitudes, these varieties (570 m a.s.l, Bijelo Polje) are characterized by earlier vegetation, flowering, and fruit ripening in comparison to plants at higher altitude (1040 m a.s.l, Mojkovac). The Tulameen variety started flowering on 15 May in Bijelo Polje (the flowering phenophase lasted for 29 days, until 12 June) and on 25 May in Mojkovac (the flowering phenophase lasted for 27 days, until 20 June). That is a delay of 11 days in relation to different locations. The Polka variety started flowering on 25 June in Bijelo Polje (57 days, until 20 August) and on 1 July in Mojkovac (flowering for 67 days, until 5 September). That is a delay of 7 days. The Tulameen variety started maturation on 14 June in Bijelo Polje (maturation lasted for 27 days, until 10 July) and on 22 June in Mojkovac (26 days, until 17 July), with a delay of 9 days. The Polka variety started maturation on 23 July in Bijelo Polje (the maturation phenophase lasted for 55 days, until 15 September) and on 5 August in Mojkovac (52 days, until 25 September), with a delay of 14 days. The results showed that the Polka variety had significantly higher total phenol content than the Tulameen variety (4.43 and 4.03 mg, respectively). In terms of locality, the Mojkovac raspberries had higher total phenol content than the Bijelo Polje raspberries. Polka raspberries also had a higher content of total flavonoids than Tulameen, whereas differences between localities in regard to the content of total flavonoids in the fruit were not significant. The content of condensed tannins and gallotannins in the raspberry fruit was similar in relation to both varieties and localities. Finally, the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the Polka compared to the Tulameen variety, whereas the differences between localities were not statistically significant.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126565

Abstract:
Particulate matter air pollution is one of the most dangerous pollutants nowadays and an indirect cause of numerous diseases. A number of these consequences could possibly be avoided if the right information about air pollution were available at a large number of locations, especially in urban areas. Unfortunately, this is not the case today. In the whole of Europe, there are just approximately 3000 automated measuring stations for PM10, and only about 1400 stations equipped for PM2.5 measurement. In order to improve this issue and provide availability of real-time data about air pollution, different low-cost sensor-based solutions are being considered both on-field and in laboratory research. In this paper, we will present the results of PM particle monitoring using a self-developed Ecomar system. Measurements are performed in two cities in Montenegro, at seven different locations during several periods. In total, three Ecomar systems were used during 1107 days of on-field measurements. Measurements performed at two locations near official automated measuring stations during 610 days justified that the Ecomar system performance is satisfying in terms of reliability and measurement precision (NRMSE 0.33 for PM10 and 0.44 for PM2.5) and very high in terms of data validity and operating stability (Ecomar 94.13%–AMS 95.63%). Additionally, five distant urban/rural locations with different traffic, green areas, and nearby industrial objects were utilized to highlight the need for more dense spatial distributions of measuring locations. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study of low-cost sensor-based air quality measurement systems in terms of the duration of the on-field tests in the Balkan region.
Fernanda Almeida Bocoli, Jaqueline Aparecida Marcon, Maiqui Izidoro, Pedro De Toledo Bortolon, Sérgio Emílio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Velibor Spalevic, Paulo Sérgio de Souza
The Journal "agriculture and Forestry", Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.17707/agricultforest.66.4.08

Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Agriculture
Abstract:
The aim of this research was to study the impact of application technique and rate of liquid starter fertilizer applied with a novel device on the production of corn. Starter fertilizer was applied in the root system range of freshly germinated plants in the ‘belt’ and ‘point’ forms at different quantities (35, 50, 70, and 100 L ha−1), which led to intensive plant growth in the initial stages of development. This adapted system was used for sowing and for application of the liquid starter fertilizer at the same time. The field trial was set up at two sites (two different land types), in the conditions of the natural water regime of the soil during the three vegetation seasons in the period 2016–2018. For this purpose, a prototype of the electronic device EUKU-01 was designed. The starter fertilizer was applied at 5 cm laterally from the row where the sowing was performed and 5 cm below the depth at which the corn seeds were sown. Data were statistically analyzed by two-factor analysis of variance, where the influence of mineral fertilizer treatment and the influence of liquid starter fertilizer treatment were observed as factors. The results showed that the optimal choice of the technique of liquid starter fertilizer application can result in fertilizer savings by 30% without reducing yield.
Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan, Maziar Mohammadi, Goran Skataric, Svetislav G. Popovic, Morteza Behzadfar, Natanael Rodolfo Ribeiro Sakuno, Ronaldo Luiz Mincato,
The Journal "agriculture and Forestry", Volume 65; https://doi.org/10.17707/agricultforest.65.4.18

Sabri El Mouatassime, Ahmed Boukdir, Ismail Karaoui, Goran Skataric, Marina Nacka, Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan, ,
The Journal "agriculture and Forestry", Volume 65; https://doi.org/10.17707/agricultforest.65.4.22

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Volume 40, pp 555-572; https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n2p555

Abstract:
Soil losses due to water erosion threaten the sustainability of agriculture and the food security of current and future generations. This study estimated potential soil losses and sediment production under different types of land uses in a subbasin in the Municipality of Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of the Potential Erosion Method by the Intensity of Erosion and Drainage program and correlate the findings with the results obtained by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation as well as geoprocessing techniques and statistical analyses. In the Potential Erosion Method, the coefficient indicating the mean erosion intensity was 0.37, which corresponded to erosion category IV and indicated weak laminar erosion processes, and the total soil loss was 649.31 Mg year-1 and the mean was 1.46 Mg ha-1 year-1. These results were consistent in magnitude with those obtained in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, which estimated a mean soil loss of 1.52 Mg ha-1 year-1 and a total soil loss of 668.26 Mg year-1. The Potential Erosion Method suggests that 1.5% of the area presents potential soil losses above the soil loss tolerance limit, which ranged from 5.19 to 5.90 Mg ha-1 year-1, while the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated that 7.3% of the area has potential soil losses above the limit. The maximum sediment discharge was 60 Mg year-1, meaning that 9.3% of the total soil loss reached the depositional areas of the river plains or watercourses. The Potential Erosion Method was efficient in the evaluation of water erosion in tropical soils, and the results were consistent with models widely employed in the estimation of soil losses. Thus, the model can support the evaluation of soil losses in Brazil and is a robust tool for evaluating the sustainability of agricultural activities.
Vesna Markoska, Velibor Spalevic, Kiril Lisichkov, Katerina Atkovska, Rubin Gulaboski
The Journal "agriculture and Forestry", Volume 64; https://doi.org/10.17707/agricultforest.64.3.10

, , Saja Kosanovic, Svetislav G. Popovic, Mladen Djurovic, Miha Konjar
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 45, pp 611-622; https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha45210855

Abstract:
Land development analyses play a fundamental role in understanding how land use change shapes the land, depending on continuously changing social, economic, and environmental factors that reflect the interests in space. It is especially important to follow land use changes in rural areas due to their role in food security, environmental hazards, cultural landscape preservation, etc. Continuous analyses and monitoring of land use changes allow for the identification and prevention of negative trends in land use (over intensification, land fragmentation, etc.) that might affect biodiversity, change physical and chemical properties of soil, causing soil degradation, change the spatial balance, stability and natural equilibrium in the rural area. The use of the cross-tabulation matrix methodology was suggested for land use change analyses. The methodology, when the cross-tabulation matrix elements are correctly interpreted, allows us to gain as much insight as possible in the process of land use change. This approach enabled a detailed analysis of vineyards in Goriška brda, Slovenia. It was found that the existing methodology fails to analyse the location of change. For this reason, additional analyses of spatial distribution of change and of the locations where changes in space occur were suggested. The study demonstrated that the land use category of vineyards changes systematically, although seemingly randomly. By comparing land use categories over several time periods, the study determined that the size and speed of change varied across different time intervals. The identified land use changes were assessed in the context of their high pressure on agricultural land. The results of the analyses showed different trends shaping the typical agrarian landscape in Goriška brda.
Goran Barovic, , Pedro Veloso Gomes Batista, Dusko Vujacic, Walisson Soares Souza, , Morteza Behzadfar, Velibor Spalevic
The Journal "agriculture and Forestry", Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.17707/agricultforest.61.3.23

Published: 6 January 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Diversity
Diversity, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14010034

Abstract:
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is recognised as a forest species of interest due to its multiple uses. The management of forest genetic resources and their efficient conservation suffer from variations in traits and start with seed germination. The aim of the current study was to investigate the germination of seeds obtained from plus trees selected in eight Romanian provenances, as well as to investigate the influence of the origin upon plants’ growth and development. Two experiments were undertaken to test seed germination: one treatment involved water-soaked seeds and heat/cold treatment, while the other treatment was based on sulphuric acid, at different concentrations (50, 70, 90%). The results were correlated with the morphological analysis of the seeds. Satu-Mare had the lowest germination rate within both treatments. Sulphuric acid did not improve seed germination as much as the heat treatment. The highest germination rate occurred for the water and temperature treatment on seeds from Bihor provenance (68.2%). The most distant provenance was Bihor, in inverse correlation with Bistrița Năsăud and grouped separately within the hierarchical dendrogram of cluster analysis based on the analysed parameters of the provenances investigated. The results demonstrated that the genotypes and environmental heterogeneity of the seed origin within the provenances may finally result in different performances.
Published: 29 July 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Agriculture
Abstract:
Architectural quality and preservation of rural characteristics is a goal of building design for sustainable environments. The environment has a different function for different societies, creating a large variety of meanings. In the Zeta region of Montenegro, the negative transformation of the rural environment is happening more rapidly than the recording of its traditional built assets. Protection and conservation of traditional rural architecture in this rural region of south-eastern Europe are important to both mitigation of the consequences of unsustainable rural shifts and the preservation of cultural heritage. This research focuses on the meaning of the different dwelling and residential environment features for the residents of the traditional houses of the rural areas of the Zeta region, Montenegro. The aim of the research was to obtain more insight and information on the meaning of architectural and rural design features by exploring the sustainability-related characteristics of traditional rural houses in the so-far insufficiently studied micro-region of the western Balkans to reveal their value and to initiate discussion of the role of heritage regeneration in sustainable rural development. Fifty (50) traditional houses of agrarian and rural areas of the Zeta region of Montenegro were observed and analysed in terms of the building site, space planning of the interior space, and building materials used. The analysis has revealed that many ecological aspects were taken into consideration and different methods were implemented during the construction of the traditional houses of the Zeta region. Taking into consideration the age of those structures, the constructors did not have an in-depth awareness of sustainability theories, and they were acting based on their personal practices and specific environmental requirements. This study’s results can help update a database of sustainability for the traditional architectural heritage of Montenegro, which will enhance the process of creating sustainable buildings without losing the place identity and staying in the same cultural context. Restoration of the traditional houses of the Zeta region of Montenegro, but also of the other rural areas of Montenegro, must in future be defined in a way that enables the preservation of recognized general values and further improvement of environmental quality and climate resilience. Simultaneously, functional reactivation of traditional houses should be understood as a contribution to the sustainable development of the studied region of Montenegro.
Published: 20 April 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Sustainability
Sustainability, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083328

Abstract:
This paper analyses demographic trends and population decline of the rural area surrounding Niksic, Montenegro, from the second half of the 20th century to the first two decades of the 21st century. After World War II, industry in Niksic began to develop strongly. A large number of state enterprises started to operate, and the consequent industrialisation and improved living conditions triggered a wave of migration from the surrounding rural areas to Niksic. The paper describes the depopulation of rural areas and the causes and consequences of migration within the Municipality of Niksic based on an analysis of population movement and density, the rural and urban populations, and the age structure of the population. Transformations of the economy after 1990 indicate that the neglect of agriculture and the destruction of agricultural land are mistakes that will prove difficult to correct. The results of our research reveal that, today, revitalisation of the countryside is only possible if non-agricultural activities are brought to the area centres and the quality of life is improved in the villages, which would reduce unemployment in the city. A solid traffic infrastructure between individual settlements and their connection with the city is also necessary. Between 2003 and 2011, the agricultural population increased by 1.2%, which gives hope because agriculture is now being recognised as significant, and a movement for changing the inherited negative perception of it is being created. This research is addressed to the state and municipal administrations of the region with the message to implement responsible and timely measures to revitalise the countryside and stop the extinction of the villages.
Geography Department, University of Sao Paulo; https://doi.org/10.11606/rdg.v0ispe.132694

Abstract:
Resumo Diferentes métodos de cálculo das perdas de solo por erosão hídrica foram comparados com a Tolerância de Perda de Solo em Latossolos tropicais. Foram utilizados o Método de Erosão Potencial e a Equação Universal de Perda de Solo Revisada. O Método de Erosão Potencial foi calculado no aplicativo Intensidade de Erosão e Escoamento e obteve uma média de perdas de solo de 1,46 Mg ha-1 ano-1 com descarga máxima de 649,31 Mg ano-1. Já pela Equação Universal de Perda de Solo Revisada, foi obtida uma média de perda de solo de 1,52 Mg ha-1 ano-1, com descarga máxima de 668,26 Mg ano-1. As perdas de solo calculadas pelos dois métodos foram similares e ficaram aquém do limite de Tolerância de Perda de Solo, que variou de 5,19 a 5,90 Mg ha-1 ano-1 e validam a aplicação do Método da Erosão Potencial em solos tropicais do sul de Minas Gerais.
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