Electronics, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/electronics9111778
This study introduces an enhanced thermal management strategy for efficient heat dissipation from GaN power amplifiers with high power densities. The advantages of applying an advanced liquid-looped silicon-based micro-pin fin heat sink (MPFHS) as the mounting plate for GaN devices are illustrated using both experimental and 3D finite element model thermal simulation methods, then compared against traditional mounting materials. An IR thermography system was equipped to obtain the temperature distribution of GaN mounted on three different plates. The influence of mass flow rate on a MPFHS was also investigated in the experiments. Simulation results showed that GaN device performance could be improved by increasing the thermal conductivity of mounting plates’ materials. The dissipated power density of the GaN power amplifier increased 17.5 times when the mounting plate was changed from LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) (k = 2 Wm−1 K−1) to HTCC (High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) (k = 180 Wm−1 K−1). Experiment results indicate that the GaN device performance was significantly improved by applying liquid-looped MPFHS, with the maximum dissipated power density reaching 7250 W/cm2. A thermal resistance model for the whole system, replacing traditional plates (PCB (Printed Circuit Board), silicon wafer and LTCC/HTCC) with an MPFHS plate, could significantly reduce θjs (thermal resistance of junction to sink) to its theoretical limitation value.
Published: 27 October 2020
Pakistan Journal of Zoology, Volume 52; doi:10.17582/journal.pjz/20190808100805
Published: 27 October 2020
Pakistan Journal of Zoology, Volume 52; doi:10.17582/journal.pjz/20190512100805
Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 485; doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2020.115537
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Vaccine, Volume 38, pp 7205-7212; doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.058
The development of an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. We generated SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Fc fusion protein and evaluated its potency to elicit neutralizing antibody response in mice. RBD-Fc elicited a higher neutralizing antibodies titer than RBD as evaluated by a pseudovirus neutralization assay and a live virus based microneutralization assay. Furthermore, RBD-Fc immunized sera better inhibited cell–cell fusion, as evaluated by a quantitative cell–cell fusion assay. The cell–cell fusion assay results correlated well with the virus neutralization potency and could be used for high-throughput screening of large panels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and vaccines without the requirement of live virus infection in BSL3 containment. Moreover, the anti-RBD sera did not enhance the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 infection of K562 cells. These results demonstrate that Fc fusion can significantly improve the humoral immune response to recombinant RBD immunogen, and suggest that RBD-Fc could serve as a useful component of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.
Vaccine, Volume 38, pp 7198-7200; doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.057
Published: 27 October 2020
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 17; doi:10.3390/ijerph17217850
Crops contaminated by aflatoxins (AFs), the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced namely by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, have severe impacts on human health. Changes in temperature and water availability related to actual climate changes (increased temperature, heavy rainfalls, and droughts) are modulating factors of mould growth and production of mycotoxins. To protect human and animal health from the harmful effects caused by AFs, the development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach in combating food and feed contamination with AFs is necessary. This review aims to collect and analyze the available information regarding AF presence in food and feed to reinforce AF management and to prevent health issues related to the AF exposure in the light of actual climate changes.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 485; doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2020.115585
Acoustic metamaterial absorbers have been built and tested with focus on low frequency airborne sound absorption in linear and nonlinear regimes. The absorbers are made up of a series of piled up flat cavities, separated by thin walls and traversed by a perforation at their centre. A model for absorber effective properties is developed and compared with experimental data. The model is used to derive simple formulae for the frequency and the peak value of the absorption coefficient at the lowest frequency resonance, depending on the geometrical parameters of the structure. Different absorbers have been built with several cavity thicknesses to allow comprehensive comparisons with the model. Nonlinear properties of the absorbers are investigated experimentally using sine wave excitation around the resonance frequency with the amplitude of the incident wave up to 250 Pa. Flow resistivity measurements at low flow rates show that the periodic set of cavities does not modify resistivity significantly when compared to a simple perforated cylinder with same thickness. As flow rate increases, the flow resistivity grows linearly according to Forchheimer's law and has a significant dependence on the absorber thickness. A numerical model is developed accounting for the linear growth of flow resistivity with particle velocity amplitude in the central perforation and compared with the measurements at high amplitudes of the incident wave.
Cancers, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/cancers12113134
The SLIT-ROBO axis plays an important role in normal stem-cell biology, with possible repercussions on cancer stem cell emergence. Although the Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) protein can regulate SLIT2 expression in the central nervous system, little is known about SLIT2 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hence, we aimed to investigate the levels of SLIT2 in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and assess its biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Our analysis indicated that blasts with SLIT2high transcript levels were associated with cell cycle arrest, while SLIT2low APL blasts displayed a more stem-cell like phenotype. In a retrospective analysis using a cohort of patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracyclines, high SLIT2 expression was correlated with reduced leukocyte count (p = 0.024), and independently associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.97; p < 0.001). Functionally, SLIT2-knockdown in primary APL blasts and cell lines led to increased cell proliferation and resistance to arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis. Finally, in vivo transplant of Slit2-silenced primary APL blasts promoted increased leukocyte count (p = 0.001) and decreased overall survival (p = 0.002) compared with the control. In summary, our data highlight the tumor suppressive function of SLIT2 in APL and its deteriorating effects on disease progression when downregulated.
Sensors, Volume 20; doi:10.3390/s20216089
In this work, we present a multipurpose photonic integrated circuit capable of generating multiheterodyne complex Dual-Combs (DC) THz signals. Our work focuses on translating the functionality of an electro-optic tunable DC system into a photonic chip employing standard building blocks to ensure the scalability and cost efficiency of the integrated device. The architecture we analyze for integration is based on three stages: a seed comb, a mode selection stage and a DC stage. This final DC stage includes a frequency shifter, a key element to improve the final detection of the THz signals and obtain real-time operation. This investigation covers three key aspects: (1) a solution for comb line selection on GHz spaced combs using OIL or OPLL on photonic chips is studied and evaluated, (2) a simple and versatile scheme to produce a frequency shift using the double sideband suppressed carrier modulation technique and an asymmetric Mach Zehnder Interferometer to filter one of the sidebands is proposed, and (3) a multipurpose architecture that can offer a versatile effective device, moving from application-specific PICs to general-purpose PICs. Using the building blocks (BBs) available from an InP-based foundry, we obtained simulations that offer a high-quality Dual-Comb frequency shifted signal with a side mode suppression ratio around 21 dB, and 41 dB after photodetection with an intermediate frequency of 1 MHz. We tested our system to generate a Dual-Comb with 10 kHz of frequency spacing and an OOK modulation with 5 Gbps which can be down-converted to the THz range by a square law detector. It is also important to note that the presented architecture is multipurpose and can also be applied to THz communications. This design is a step to enable a commercial THz photonic chip for multiple applications such as THz spectroscopy, THz multispectral imaging and THz telecommunications and offers the possibility of being fabricated in a multi-project wafer.