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Egor Skvorcov
Russian Journal of Management, Volume 8; doi:10.29039/2409-6024-2020-8-3-121-125

Abstract:
The relevance of the research lies in the insufficiently studied theoretical aspects of the application of precision farming technologies. The development programs of the industry in countries with developed agriculture contain separate elements for the development of precision farming technologies. The aim is to study the international practice of introducing precision farming technologies on the basis of national programs for the development of the agrarian sector of countries with developed agriculture. The United States occupies a leading position in the development of precision farming technologies. This became possible thanks to the implementation of the Food and Agriculture Cyber ​​Informatics and Tools (FACT) program, as well as the development of these technologies by private companies (Ag Leader Technology; AgJunction, Inc; CropMetrics LLC, etc.). In the People's Republic of China, in the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for the Economic and Social Development of the Republic, Article 4 proclaims a course for the modernization of agriculture, which is designed for 2015-2020. It is planned to introduce a regional pilot project in the field of precision farming technologies based on IoT, increasing the level of intelligence and precision of agriculture. Japan has implemented the Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) for the next generation of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Its main tasks include an automatic travel system for agricultural machinery under human supervision (by 2018), as well as an unmanned system for agricultural machinery with remote monitoring (by 2020). In total, 15.6 billion yen (11.5 billion rubles) was allocated for the implementation of these tasks in the period from 2014 to 2018. In Germany, 14 digital innovation parks have been created, aimed at developing both precision farming technologies and technologies of the Internet of things, big data and others.
Meredith Aguüero-Castrellón, Fernando M. Calderón-Osorio, Josué B. Zamarripa-Mottú, Nundehui Cisneros-Sánchez, Luis A. Sierra-Rodríguez, José M. Meza-Alvarado
Archivos de Cardiología de México; doi:10.24875/acm.20000048

Florian A. Schober, Ilian Atanassov, Christoph Freyer, Anna Wredenberg
Methods in Molecular Biology pp 75-87; doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-0834-0_7

Abstract:
Protein-focused research has been challenging in Drosophila melanogaster due to few specific antibodies for Western blotting and the lack of effective labeling methods for quantitative proteomics. Herein, we describe the preparation of a holidic medium that allows stable-isotope labeling of amino acids in fruit flies (SILAF). Furthermore, in this chapter, we provide a protocol for mitochondrial enrichments from Drosophila larvae and flies together with a procedure to generate high-quality peptides for further analysis by mass spectrometry. Samples obtained following this protocol can be used for various functional studies such as comprehensive proteome profiling or quantitative analysis of posttranslational modifications upon enrichment. SILAF is based on standard fly routines in a basic wet lab environment and provides a flexible and cost-effective tool for quantitative protein expression analysis.
Cristian Rivera Machado, Hiroshan Hettiarachchi
Organic Waste Composting through Nexus Thinking pp 17-38; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-36283-6_2

Abstract:
Municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in developing countries usually contains a high percentage of organic material. When not properly managed, organic waste is known for creating many environmental issues. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil and water contamination, and air pollution are a few examples. On the other hand, proper and sustainable management of organic waste can not only bring economic gains but also reduce the waste volume that is sent for final disposal. Composting is one such recovery method, in which the end product – compost – eventually helps the agricultural industry, and other sectors, making the process an excellent example of nexus thinking in integrated management of environmental resources. The aim of this chapter is to discuss how Cajicá, a small city in Colombia, approached this issue in a methodical way to eventually became one of the leading organic waste composting examples in the whole world, as recognised by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2017. Cajicá launched a source separation and composting initiative called Green Containers Program (GCP) in 2008, based on a successful pilot project conducted in 2005. The organic waste separated at source collected from households, commercial entities, schools, and universities are brought to a privately operated composting plant chosen by the city to produce compost. The compost plant sells compost to the agricultural sector. The participants in the GCP could also receive a bag of compost every 2 months as a token of appreciation. The Cajicá case presents us with many lessons of good practice, not only in the sustainable management of waste but also in stakeholder engagement. It specifically shows how stakeholders should be brought together for long-lasting collaboration and the benefits to society. Finding the correct business model for the project, efforts made in educating the future generation, and technology adaptation to local conditions are also seen as positive experiences that others can learn from in the case of Cajicá’s GCP. Some of the concerns and potential threats observed include the high dependency GCP has on two institutions: the programme financially depends completely on the municipality, and the composting operation depends completely on one private facility. GCP will benefit from having contingency plans to reduce the risk of having these high dependencies.
Luis Fernando Marmolejo-Rebellón, Edgar Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña, Patricia Torres-Lozada
Organic Waste Composting through Nexus Thinking pp 147-164; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-36283-6_7

Abstract:
Composting is one of the most widely used technologies for the recovery and use of organic waste from municipal solid waste (MSW); however, its implementation in some developing countries has mostly been ineffective. This chapter documents the experience of the composting of municipal organic waste in the urban area of ​the municipality of Versalles, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Within the locality, composting of organic waste occurs at an MSW management plant (SWMP), after being separated at the source and selectively collected. The information presented was generated through collaborative research projects, conducted with the cooperation of Camino Verde APC (a community-based organisation providing sanitation services) and Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia). The evaluations undertaken show that (i) within the locality, high rates of separation, at the source, in conjunction with selective collection and efficient waste sorting and classification processes in the SWMP, have significantly facilitated the composting process; (ii) the incorporation of locally available amendment or bulking materials (e.g. star grass and cane bagasse) improves the physicochemical quality of the processed organic waste and favours development (i.e. a reduction in process time), leading to an improvement in product quality; (iii) the operation, maintenance and monitoring of the composting process can be carried out by previously trained local human talent; and (iv) revenues from the sale of the final product (compost) are not sufficient to cover the operating costs of the composting process. Despite this current lack of financial viability, the application of technology entails environmental benefits (e.g. a reduction in the generation of greenhouse gases) and social benefits (e.g. employment opportunities), which, given the conditions in the municipality studied, highlight the relevance of this technological option.
Improving a Country’s Education pp 175-201; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-59031-4_9

Abstract:
ILSAs show that student performance in Spain is lower than the OECD average and has shown no progress from 2000 until 2011/2012. One of the main features is the low proportion of top performers. During this long period of stagnation, the education system was characterized by having no national (or standardized regional) evaluations and no flexibility to adapt to the different needs of the student population. The fact that the system was blind and rigid, plus the lack of common standards at the national level, gave rise to three major deficiencies: a high rate of grade repetition, which led to high rates of early school leaving, and large differences between regions. These features of the Spanish education system represent major inequities. However, PISA findings were used to reinforce the misguided view that the Spanish education system prioritized equity over excellence. After the implementation of an education reform, some improvements in student performance took place in 2015 and 2016. Unfortunately, the results for PISA 2018 in reading were withdrawn for Spain, apparently due to changes in methodology which led to unreliable results. To this date, no explanation has been provided raising concerns about the reliability and accountability of PISA.
Laura Reséndiz, David Block Sevilla
Teaching Multiplication with Lesson Study pp 215-239; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_9

Abstract:
This research presents a sequence of didactic situations involving a proportionality relationship in which every value in a set (a number of necklaces) is mapped to a pair, a triad, or a quartet of values (numbers of blue beads, red beads, green beads, etc., required to make that number of necklaces) from another set. The sequence includes relatively simple multiplication and division problems, as well as more complex “missing-value” problems. This paper also presents the results of applying the sequence with a group of 4th grade students in a Mexican primary school (9 and 10 years old).
Raimundo Olfos, Masami Isoda, Soledad Estrella
Teaching Multiplication with Lesson Study pp 25-35; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_2

Abstract:
This chapter shows how the teaching of multiplication is structured in national curriculum standards (programs) around the world. (The documents are distributed by national governments via the web. Those documents are written in different formats and depths. For understanding the descriptions of the standards, we also refer to national authorized textbooks for confirmation of meanings.) The countries chosen for comparison in this case are two countries in Asia, one in Europe, two in North America, and two in South America: Singapore, Japan, Portugal, the USA (where the Common Core State Standards (2010) are not national but are agreed on by most of the states), Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, from the viewpoint of their influences on Ibero-American countries. (The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards (published in 2000) and the Japanese and Singapore textbooks have been influential in Latin America. Additionally, Portugal was selected to be compared with Brazil). To distinguish between each country’s standard and the general standards described here, the national curriculum standards are just called the “program.” The comparison shows the differences in the programs for multiplication in these countries in relation to the sequence of the description and the way of explanation. The role of this chapter in Part I of this book is to provide the introductory questions that will be discussed in Chaps. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 to explain the features of the Japanese approach. (As is discussed in Chap. 1, the Japanese approach includes the Japanese curriculum, textbooks, and methods of teaching which can be used for designing classes, as has been explored in Chile (see (Estrella, Mena, Olfos, Lesson Study in Chile: a very promising but still uncertain path. In Quaresma, Winsløw, Clivaz, da Ponte, Ní Shúilleabháin, Takahashi (eds), Mathematics lesson study around the world: Theoretical and methodological issues. Cham: Springer, pp. 105–122, 2018). The comparison focuses on multiplication of whole numbers. In multiplication, all of these countries seem to have similar goals—namely, for their students to grasp the meaning of multiplication and develop fluency in calculation. However, are they the same? By using the newest editions of each country’s curriculum standards, comparisons are done on the basis of the manner of writing, with assigned grades for the range of numbers, meanings, expression, tables, and multidigit multiplication. The relationship with other specific content such as division, the use of calculators, the treatment of multiples, and mixed arithmetic operations are beyond the scope of this comparison. Those are mentioned only if there is a need to show diversity.
Raimundo Olfos, Masami Isoda
Teaching Multiplication with Lesson Study pp 103-131; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_5

Abstract:
In Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_2, we posed questions about the differences in several national curricula, and some of them were related to the definition of multiplication. In Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_3, several problematics for defining multiplication were discussed, particularly the unique Japanese definition of multiplication, which is called definition of multiplication by measurement. It can be seen as a kind of definition by a group of groups, if we limit it to whole numbers. In Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_4, introduction of multiplication and its extensions in the Japanese curriculum terminology were illustrated to explain how this unique definition is related to further learning. Multiplicand and multiplier are necessary not only for understanding the meaning of multiplication but also for making sense the future learning. The curriculum sequence is established through the extension and integration process in relation to multiplication. In this chapter, two examples of lesson study illustrate how to introduce the definition of multiplication by measurement in a Japanese class. Additionally, how students develop and change their idea of units—that any number can be a unit in multiplication beyond just counting by one—is illustrated by a survey before and after the introduction of multiplication. After the illustration of the Japanese approach, its significance is discussed in comparison with the Chilean curriculum guidebook. Then, the conclusion illustrates the feature of the Japanese approach as being relatively sense making for students who learn mathematics by and for themselves by setting the unit for measurement (McCallum, W. (2018). Making sense of mathematics and making mathematics make sense. Proceedings of ICMI Study 24 School Mathematics Curriculum Reforms: challenges, changes and Opportunities (pp. 1–8). Tsukuba, Japan: University of Tsukuba.). A comparison with Chile is given in order to demonstrate the sense of it from the teacher’s side. In relation to lesson study, this is a good exemplar of how Japanese teachers develop mathematical thinking. It also illustrates the case for being able to see the situation based on the idea of multiplication (Isoda, M. and Katagiri, S. (2012). Mathematical thinking: How to develop it in the classroom. Singapore: World Scientific; Rasmussen and Isoda Research in Mathematics Education 21:43–59, 2019), as seen in Figs. 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_4#Fig2 and 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_4#Fig3 in Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_4 of this book.
Masami Isoda, Raimundo Olfos
Teaching Multiplication with Lesson Study pp 1-21; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-28561-6_1

Abstract:
This introductory chapter explains the origin of this book and provides overviews of every chapter in Parts I and II of the book. Part I of the book is aimed at explaining what multiplication and lesson study are in relation to the Japanese approach. It provides an overview of Japanese theories on mathematics education for developing students who learn mathematics by and for themselves and provides necessary ideas to understand the Japanese approach and lesson study. Part II consists of contributions from leading researchers in Ibero-America. Through their contributions, this book provides various perspectives based on different theories of mathematics education which provide the opportunity to reconsider the teaching of multiplication and theories.
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