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Huda Faour
International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, Volume 5, pp 907-913; doi:10.38124/ijisrt20jul637

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Kadir Can Küçük, Berk Anbaroğlu
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, Volume 7, pp 205-212; doi:10.30897/ijegeo.710508

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial accuracy of OpenStreetMap (OSM) with respect to the Turkey Topographic Vector Database (TOPOVT) within the context of ‘building’ layer. Being an open-platform, anyone can access to OSM and add geographic entities as well as update them. Since there is no stringent standards, spatial accuracy assessment of OSM is an open research area. TOPOVT, on the other hand, is produced by the General Directorate of Mapping by following a standard procedure, where the maps are produced for 1:25000 scale or larger scale. Updating this database is a costly process and could only be conducted at specific time intervals. Therefore, automatic detection of the locations requiring update in TOPOVT would be an effective operation, which would eventually reduce the overall cost of the database update. However, the spatial accuracy of the geographical features have to be analysed in order to support such a motivation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the spatial accuracy of ‘building’ layer by calculating the Hausdorff distance between the matching (homologous) polygons in OSM and TOPOVT. The proposed methodology consists of two methods to detect the matching polygons: ‘overlap method’ and ‘centroid method’. Hausdorff distance is calculated for only those intersecting buildings in both of the layers. Since it is safe to assume that the intersecting polygons refer to the same geographic object, the calculated distance could be used to indicate the spatial accuracy of the building. The developed software is tested on an urban and a rural environment in Ankara, Turkey. The results indicate that the quality of OSM could well match with TOPOVT. Specifically, the average Hausdorff distance is approximately the same for both of the methods: approximately 9.5 metres. Considering that OSM and TOPOVT are generated through completely different processes’, the spatial accuracy is considered to be ‘good’ and ‘useful’ for many practical and operational purposes. In order to increase the effectiveness of the developed methodology in a real-life context, the whole process is integrated into an ArcMap extension and the code is made available on GitHub.
Fulya Gönültaş, Muhammed Enes Atik, Zaide Duran
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, Volume 7, pp 165-171; doi:10.30897/ijegeo.715510

Abstract:
Solar energy is a renewable energy source directly from sunlight and its production depends on roof characteristics such as roof type and size. In solar potential analysis, the main purpose is to determine the suitable roofs for the placement of solar panels. Hence, roof plane detection plays a crucial role in solar energy assessment. In this study, a detailed comparison was presented between aerial photogrammetry data and LIDAR data for roof plane recognition applying RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) algorithm. RANSAC algorithm was performed to 3D-point clouds obtained by both LIDAR (Laser Ranging and Detection) and aerial photogrammetric survey. In this regard, solar energy assessment from the results can be applied. It is shown that, the RANSAC algorithm detects building roofs better on the point cloud data acquired from airborne LIDAR regarding completeness within model, since aerial photogrammetric survey provides noisy data in spite of its high-density data. This noise in the source data leads to deformations in roof plane detection. The study area of the project is the campus of Istanbul Technical University. Accuracy information of the roof extraction of three different buildings are presented in tables.
Sena Ahmetoğlu, Ayşegül Tanik
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, Volume 7, pp 191-204; doi:10.30897/ijegeo.726913

Abstract:
Carbon footprint involves the calculation of direct and/or indirect emissions of fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases (GHG) that lead to greenhouse effect responsible of global warming. The resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the activities of the individuals/institutions emerges into the atmosphere with the consumption of energy. The amount of emissions throughout the world in general and in Turkey, and the main reasons of these emissions is explained in this study. Carbon footprint management and tracking since 1990’s in Turkey are underlined, and carbon tax and carbon trade terminologies are introduced. Scope classification for determining emissions according to three classification of ISO 14064 Greenhouse Gas Calculation and Validation Management System is described. Scope-1 covers the activities that create direct carbon footprint. In this context, the fossil fuels used by the projects for heating or energy needs and the emissions from the fuels of the vehicles are taken into consideration. Within Scope-2, the carbon footprints of the emissions caused by the electrical energy consumed by the projects are considered. Scope-3 is an indirect carbon footprint and includes emissions from projects that are not directly emission-driven projects. With this study, it is aimed to address the carbon footprint caused by the entire construction sector that extends from the production of construction materials to the construction and post-construction (operation) stages. This sector is focused on due to its significance regarding GHG emissions globally. Emissions from non-owned or uncontrolled sources such as production, transportation, leased assets, outsourced services and disposal of the wastes generated during the construction or operation of the stages of different building typologies are included in the carbon footprint calculations.
Esther Martínez Luna
Literatura Mexicana, Volume 31, pp 11-31; doi:10.19130/iifl.litmex.2020.31.2.0001

Abstract:
The objective of this article is to analyze the long polemic that surrounds pronunciation as a national identity mark, as some “hommes des lettres” maintained in the pages of the Diario de México. Jacobo de Villaurrutia, editor and collaborator of the newspaper, was the most important voice that led the controversy towards a more open and less normative position.
Alvin L. Young
Urban Studies and Public Administration, Volume 3; doi:10.22158/uspa.v3n3p183

Abstract:
The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) was charted in April 1984 by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC because there was a need to ensure that Federal policies and research applicable to the use and control of radiation sources were well coordinated and integrated. The creation and maintenance of a convenient neutral forum provided opportunities for examining various agency and public interests in radiation research and policy formulation. During its 11 years of existence, the success of CIRRPC’s policy and research initiatives were supported by a professional and administrative staff whose operations were housed in a central and neutral facility that served as a focal point for the radiation coordination activities of the 18 member agencies and departments that were brought together to discuss radiation and scientific issues of mutual interest. For over a decade CIRRPC was recognized nationally and internationally for its activities, and its preparation and publication of more than 20 major reports. CIRRPC was a model of how the Federal government should coordinate radiation issues for the United States.
Sciprofile linkFederica Pozzi, Julie Arslanoglu, Eleonora Nagy
Heritage Science, Volume 8, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40494-020-00419-7

Abstract:
The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, owns one of the largest motorized works made by the renowned American artist Alexander Calder, titled Half-Circle, Quarter-Circle, and Sphere. Created in 1932, and acquired by the Whitney in 1969, this seminal work was featured in an iconic exhibition held in 2017 and entitled Calder: Hypermobility. Prior to that, the object underwent a series of treatments in order to repair its main kinetic elements that had become compromised during its lifetime. While the work’s mechanism retained its creator’s ingenious engineering solutions, the motor, urethane belts, plug, and electrical wires turned out to be neither original, nor authentic to the period. The appearance of the piece had also been altered, as most surfaces displayed multiple layers of overpainting and, thus, did not deliver the proper gloss, hue, and texture. These observations prompted a first, comprehensive scientific study to investigate the stratigraphy of Calder’s painted surfaces on Half-Circle, Quarter-Circle, and Sphere, with the final goal to comprehend and restore its original appearance through careful removal of the overpaint. Non-invasive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to gain initial insight into the paints’ composition. After that, extensive microscopic sampling was performed to assess the possible presence of original layers below the repainting throughout the object’s surface. Cross sections were examined with optical microscopy and analyzed with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, as well as scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), in order to identify pigments, colorants, and extenders located in the various paint layers. Scrapings were also investigated with pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) for a detailed characterization of the binding media. Scientific analysis revealed, in selected white and red areas, up to eleven layers of overpaint composed of a wide array of modern materials, including pigments (titanium white in the form of tetragonal rutile and a variety of synthetic organic red pigments) and binders (alkyd or late formulations of enamels based on ortho-phthalic acid/phthalic anhydride, glycerol and pentaerythritol, polyvinyl acetate with various plasticizers, and acrylics). On the other hand, the identification of materials that were available in the early 1930s, such as zinc white, calcite, and gypsum, as well as traditional drying oil binders, supported the hypothesis that a layer of original paint may still be present in certain areas. In addition to shedding new light on the stratigraphy of Calder’s painted surfaces, this study informed the optimization of a treatment plan tailored for the safe removal of the overpaint to uncover the original layer, wherever present.
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