Diagnostics, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/diagnostics10040202
There have been tremendous advances in in vitro diagnostic (IVD) assays for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The main IVD assays used for COVID-19 employ real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that takes a few hours. But the assay duration has been shortened to 45 min by Cepheid. Of interest is the point-of-care (POC) molecular assay by Abbott that decreased the assay duration to just 5 min. Most molecular tests have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under emergency use authorization (EUA) and are Conformité Européenne (CE) marked. A wide range of serology immunoassays (IAs) have also been developed that complement the molecular assays for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The most prominent IAs are automated chemiluminescent IA (CLIA), manual ELISA, and rapid lateral flow IA (LFIA), which detect the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced in persons in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ongoing research efforts and advances in complementary technologies will pave the way to new POC IVD assays in the coming months. However, the performance of IVD assays needs to be critically evaluated before they are employed for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 4, pp 99-119; doi:10.26593/risa.v4i02.3807.99-119
- Monumen Perjuangan Rakyat Jawa Barat (MPRJB) is an element of city that was built for being a landmark of the Bandung City. This city element was built for commemorating the spirit of West Javan repelled Colonizer. This monument is one of the Primary Element of Bandung in the Gedung Sate-Lapangan Gasibu-MPRJB area. This area is a very unique place in Bandung which is able to direct the orientation towards Tangkuban Parahu Mountain because there is an imaginary axis which is formed by straight line from Gedung Sate towards MPRJB. So that the MPRJB cannot be separated from this area and has potency to signify the area or often referred to as landmark. Along with the development of the city, physical changes in the Gedung Sate-MPRJB area such as the growth of building intensity become high and infrastructure such as bridges and widening of roads has led to the movement in the city becoming fast. This will affect MPRJB's visual obstruction due to the physical development of the city and changes in the way observers observe the city from stay to moving due to the rapid circulation movement. This issue becomes interesting to study how far the city and element development blocking the visbility of MPRJB out. The research aims are to identify how much visibility MPRJB as a landmark and any city object that is able to obstruct or support MPRJB's visibility. The research uses descriptive method with a quantitative approach to visibility of the MPRJB physical. This research is describing the existing condition of MPRJB through recording images of sequential points (serial vision) and segmenting them to get a comparison of MPRJB silhouettes with surrounding objects in that scene. After that the segemented pictures are given a score from each point and compared with the theory of the visibility of an object in acting as a landmark. The MPRJB area data are collected by field study observations and literature studies. Data are collected in the form of documentation photos at sequential points, objects around the MPRJB area, and observer activity data that could potentially see the MPRJB used to find out how much the MPRJB's visibility and objects that block or support MPRJB's visibility. The result is MPRJB's visibility level at the sequensial points is majorly low in its role as Bandung City landmark because of many objects that block the visuals of MPRJB. The higher the visibility of an object, the higher the role of an object becomes a landmark to be remembered and used as orientation by city observers. Another finding is a list of identification of barrier objects and supporting MPRJB visibility that can be used in further research to increase MPRJB visibility. Key Words: Urban Landmark, visibility, serial vision, Monumen Perjuangan Rakyat Jawa Barat
Polymers, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/polym12040824
Edible coatings and films are appealing strategies for the postharvest management of blueberries. In the current work, alginate and alginate/cellulose nanofibril (CNF) edible coatings crosslinked with calcium chloride were developed for application on Andean blueberry (a promissory wild blueberry). Cocoa by-products were valorized through the isolation of their CNFs, and these were incorporated in the edible coatings. Edible coating formulations were based on blends of alginate (2% w/v), CNFs (0%, 0.1%, or 0.3%), glycerol, and water. In addition, stand-alone films were prepared, and their light and water vapor barrier properties were studied before applying the coating on the fruit surface. The results show that the addition of CNFs caused a significant decrease in the transparency and the water vapor permeability of the alginate films. After applying on the Andean blueberry fruits, the alginate and alginate/CNF coatings enhanced the appearance and the firmness of the fruits. Moreover, they significantly reduced the respiration rate and the water loss of the Andean blueberries throughout the 21 days of refrigerated storage. Alginate and alginate/CNFs coatings may be considered a useful alternative for the delay of the postharvest deterioration of Andean blueberries.
Symmetry, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/sym12040561
Due to the limited varieties and sizes of existing public hyperspectral image (HSI) datasets, the classification accuracies are higher than 99% with convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In this paper, we presented a new HSI dataset named Shandong Feicheng, whose size and pixel quantity are much larger. It also has a larger intra-class variance and a smaller inter-class variance. State-of-the-art methods were compared on it to verify its diversity. Otherwise, to reduce overfitting caused by the imbalance between high dimension and small quantity of labeled HSI data, existing CNNs for HSI classification are relatively shallow and suffer from low capacity of feature learning. To solve this problem, we proposed an HSI classification framework named deep residual spectral spatial setwork (DRSSN). By using shortcut connection structure, which is an asymmetry structure, DRSSN can be deeper to extract features with better discrimination. In addition, to alleviate insufficient training caused by unbalanced sample sizes between easily and hard classified samples, we proposed a novel training loss function named sample balanced loss, which allocated weights to the losses of samples according to their prediction confidence. Experimental results on two popular datasets and our proposed dataset showed that our proposed network could provide competitive results compared with state-of-the-art methods.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036147
Rice is the predominant crop during wet season (July–December) and majority of land remain fallow during dry season (January–June) in the coastal saline region of West Bengal, India. Sustainable cropping system intensification in this salt affected region needs improved package of practices which conserve soil moisture, facilitate early crop establishment, ensures profitability and has positive effect on soil health. To achieve these objectives in a rice-based cropping system, we evaluated seven treatments for potato crop during the dry season viz. T1: ridge sowing (control), T2: Zero tillage (ZT) sowing with 9 t ha−1 paddy straw mulching (PSM), T3: T2 + foliar spray of nutrients, T4: ZT sowing with 12 t ha−1 PSM, T5: T4 + foliar spray of nutrients, T6: ZT sowing with 15 t ha−1 PSM, T7: T6 + foliar spray of nutrients in randomized block design with five replications. This study was conducted during 2016-2019 in the Gosaba island of the Indian Sundarbans. Cost of cultivation of potato reduced by about 27% due to ZT sowing (₹ 81,287 ha−1) compared to ridge sowing (₹ 1,11,260 ha−1). Tuber yield, net return and irrigation water productivity was significantly increased in T5, T6 and T7 over other treatments. There was reduction in soil salinity (ECe reduced from 5 to 3 dS m−1), bulk density (from 1.49 to 1.44 Mg m−3), irrigation water use (less 20 cm), conservation of soil moisture (4–8%), and increase in organic carbon (0.39 to 0.44%) due to ZT sowing with PSM. Rice-ZT potato-green gram cropping system was the most profitable one with highest net return (₹ 1,71,752 ha−1), however, the benefit-cost ratio was highest (2.33) with Rice-ZT potato cropping system.
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13071696
In the last half century, great attention has been paid to materials that can be used in the human body to prepare parts that replace failed bone structures. Of all materials, Ti-based materials are the most desirable, because they provide an optimum combination of mechanical, chemical and biological properties. The successful application of Ti biomaterials has been confirmed mainly in dentistry, orthopedics and traumatology. The Ti biomaterials provide high strength and a relatively low Young’s modulus. Titanium biocompatibility is practically the highest of all metallic biomaterials, however new solutions are being sought to continuous improve their biocompatibility and osseointegration. Thus, the chemical modification of Ti results in the formation of new alloys or composites, which provide new perspectives for Ti biomaterials applications. Great attention has also been paid to the formation of nanostructures in Ti-based biomaterials, which has leads to extremely good mechanical properties and very good biocompatibility. Additionally, the surface treatment applied to Ti-based biomaterials provides faster osseointegration and improve in many cases mechanical properties. The special issue “Ti-Based Biomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field. The articles included in the special issue cover broad aspects of Ti-based biomaterials formation with respect to design theirs structure, mechanical and biological properties, as highlighted in this editorial.
Remote Sensing, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/rs12071166
The first 5.3 years of magnetic data from three Swarm satellites have been systematically analyzed, and possible co-seismic magnetic disturbances in the ionosphere were investigated just a few minutes after the occurrence of large earthquakes. We preferred to limit the investigation to a subset of earthquakes selected in function of depth and magnitude. After a systematic inspection of the available data around (in time and space) the seismic events, we found 12 Swarm satellite tracks with co-seismic disturbances possibly produced by ten earthquakes from Mw5.6 to Mw6.9. The distance of the satellite to the earthquake epicenter corresponds to the measured distance-time arrival of the disturbance from the surface to the ionosphere, confirming that the identified disturbances are most likely produced by the seismic events. Secondly, we found a good agreement with a model that combined a propagation of the disturbance to the F2 ionospheric layer with an acoustic gravity wave at a velocity of about (2.2 ± 0.3) km/s and a second faster phenomenon that transmits the disturbance from F2 layer to the Swarm satellite with a velocity of about (16 ± 3) km/s as an electromagnetic scattering propagation.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13071729
Coal burst is a type of dynamic geological hazard in coal mine. In this study, a modified bursting energy index, which is defined as the ratio of elastic strain energy at the peak strength to the released strain energy density at the post-peak stage, was proposed to evaluate the coal burst proneness. The calculation method for this index was also introduced. Two coal mines (PJ and TJH coal mines) located in Ordos coalfield were used to verify the validity of the proposed method. The tests results indicate that modified bursting energy index increases linearly with increasing uniaxial compressive strength. The parameter A, which is used to fit relation between total input and elastic strain energy density, has a significant effect on the modified bursting energy index. A large value of parameter A means more elastic strain energy before the peak strength while a small value indicates most of input energy was dissipated. Finally, the coal burst proneness of these two coal mines was evaluated with the modified index. The results of modified index are consistent with that of laboratory tests, and more reasonable than that from original bursting energy index because it removed the dissipated strain energy from the total input strain energy density.
Land, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/land9040110
Sustainable intensification practices (SIPs) involve a process to produce high yields for existing land without affecting the environment. The significance and relevance of SIPs in a Pakistani context demands an investigation. Hence, this study takes the initiative to investigate the determinants regarding the adoption of these practices. Based on the evidence, we selected five SIPs, namely, improved seeds, organic manure, crop rotation, intercropping, and low tillage. Furthermore, this study analyzes the adoption of SIPs with randomly collected data from 612 farmers through multistage sampling. A multivariate probit model (MVP) is employed to analyze the mutually dependent adoption decisions and identify the factors associated with them. The results revealed that education, the area under cultivation, access to information, extension access, social participation, rainfall variability, and temperature increase significantly predict the adoption of SIPs. The adoption of organic manure and crop rotation was highest between all the ecological zones, whereas low tillage was the least adopted practice. Adoption intensity in mixed cropping zones was slightly higher than the other ecological zones. Moreover, the findings also reveal the important synergies amid natural resource management and input-based SIPs. Hence, the study highlights the perseverance and importance of social groups and recommends the government to formulate comprehensive policies to facilitate institutional access and elevate the adoption level amongst the farming community.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036149
: Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millspaugh) is extensively grown in tropical subtropical and warmer equatorial regions of the world and ranks 6th in the global legume production (6.8MT; 2017). It is consumed by billions of people as a major source of protein in developing countries. Despite the increasing demand the crop is facing severe yield losses (2.4 billion US$/Annum) due to the insect pest Helicoverpa.armigera (68% globally). As this pest is polyphagous was exposed to several pesticides and gained strong resistance, it necessities a strong need for identifying host plant resistance towards this pest. Australia is the second hub with 15 out of 32 Cajanus species next to Asia. This is the pilot study exploring the potential of Australian Cajanus species as wild were proven sources for potential trait information in many other crops. My study firstly characterized the Australasian wild species and their derivatives for phenotypic variation and secondly tested for their resistance to Helicoverpa armigera. My research also demonstrated a very high levels of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera in some of the Australian wild species and their derivatives, compared to cultivated species. This research also revealed a high levels of total phenolic compounds in the wild species and a significant negative correlation of total phenols with the pest survival. We were successful in identifying the major phenolic compound in resistant species. Exploring the role of that specific compound related to host plant resistance and identifying the genetic markers associated with phytochemicals triggering the pest resistance is underway.