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Joel Andrus, David Walter Sullivan, James Bort
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13764abstract

Abstract:
We investigate the impact the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on the accumulation of critical resources and status for female-led crowdfunding campaigns. Although past research suggests that crowdfunding presents a “safe haven” for female entrepreneurs—and thus reduce the impact of gender bias—our research goes beyond initial target-goal completion (i.e., horizontal success of goal completion) and explores the impact of gender bias on an important, yet underexamined, aspect of crowdfunding: vertical success bias (i.e., gendered-biased results pertaining to the accumulation of resources and status). Additionally, we examine how COVID-19 amplifies underlying societal norms and expectations impacting gender bias and the success of female-led crowdfunding campaigns. We test our hypotheses using data gathered from Kickstarter and examine the impact COVID-19 has on vertical success bias for female-led campaigns. Our results largely support the presence of vertical success bias both before and during COVID-19, while also demonstrating the pandemic’s amplifying effect. The present research provides novel insight into the complex nature of gender bias via crowdfunding and challenges previous findings regarding crowdfunding’s success for women. More importantly, this research demonstrates the impact a global pandemic, such as COVID-19, can have on gender bias and it’s shadow-effect for female crowdfunding success.
Mohamed Hassan Awad
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.203

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Local places, such as communities, cities, and towns, host many cross-cross sector partnerships primarily towards alleviating social and environmental issues on the local level. Yet, existing literature has focused on large-scale systemic impact and global challenges such as climate change, paying scant attention to the role of these local dynamics in shaping cross-sector partnerships. In this article, I advance the concept of place, a geographic location imbued with specific meaning systems and material resources, to unpack how local embeddedness shapes the structure of cross-sector partnerships. I focus on elements of formalized structure, specifically the scope of operations, partners’ roles, and shared resources. I employ a longitudinal approach focusing on two place-based dynamics: the changes in the wicked problem, and the subsequent shifts in the tensions between the moral and material considerations of the partners. I investigate these shifts using a three-year field study of Occupy Medical, a local partnership between the civic society and the local government in Eugene, Oregon, tackling the wicked problem of providing healthcare to marginalized and disenfranchised communities, mainly the homeless. The analysis covers a nine-year period of 2011 – 2020 and various restructurings of the organization, the latest prompted by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. I unpack a dynamic relationship between the two partners in response to place-based dynamics captured in shifts in the organizational structure. I theorize two forms of structural arrangements between the partners, loosely and tightly-coupled, and further elaborate on the role of cross-sector partnerships in crisis response on the local level.
Rachel Gifford, Daan Westra, Frank Van De Baan, Dirk Ruwaard, Fred Zijlstra, Lieze Poesen, Bram Fleuren
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.11316abstract

Abstract:
The environment of healthcare organizations is becoming increasingly uncertain. Emergent environmental threats such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic pose imminent and real risks to our societies and require healthcare organizations to adapt rapidly and continuously. To understand how healthcare organizations can cope with such deep uncertainty, we conducted a multiple case study of five hospitals during the COVID-19 crisis in a heavily hit region of the Netherlands. We find that hospitals made adaptations in six key categories, namely; reorganization, decision-making, staffing, well-being, resources, and planning. These adaptations offer insights into the core capabilities needed by healthcare organizations to cope with dynamic uncertainty. Our findings highlight the need for agility (e.g. reconfiguring staff and bed capacities) and a long-term orientation (e.g. strategic decision-making, forecasting and planning) in order to sense and respond to environmental change. Furthermore, a learning mindset allows organizations to seize opportunities and be resilient in the face of ongoing uncertainty. We make recommendations on how healthcare organizations can build these capabilities and address the core challenges and dilemmas they face in this pursuit.
Dinorá Eliete Floriani, Beatrice Mayer, Gabrielle Damo Rossato, Giovanna Magnani
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15940abstract

Abstract:
Considering the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic it is timely to emphasize time pressure debates in times of high uncertainty. Through an empirical research developed based on four Brazilian high-tech firms we collected the data in real time simultaneously with the evolution of pandemic. Our paper leads to the start of debates about the role of time pressure in the internationalization of firms in uncertainty times. Presents also the relationship between liability of timing and the need to seek a manageable internationalization processes over time through international permanence.
Eimear Nolan, Mairead Brady, Bart Rienties, Yingfei Héliot
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15358abstract

Abstract:
A global rapid shift to online delivery in higher education due to the Covid19 pandemic resulted in students and teachers pivoting into a new learning environment, in many cases overnight. Our research nested within an Irish university explores how such a rapid educational delivery shift affected both students and teachers, offering a unique dual perspective and input into the changing roles of students and teachers due to Covid19. Our research design focused on open-ended surveys of 83 M.Sc. postgraduate students and their five teachers in five modules, followed by qualitative data collected through 34 in-depth interviews. The findings illustrate a complex narrative of self-regulation and challenge for both students and teachers both needing to adjust to a new educational experience. The main findings are that there is a core challenge in the repositioning of the student and teacher roles in a new educational ecosystem which needs to be both understood and managed to gain maximum benefit from this rapid and unprecedented change.
Luc Glasbeek, Martin Van Der Vijver
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13701abstract

Abstract:
Our ongoing longitudinal research on entrepreneurship examines how firms in the Dutch floriculture sector—the third-largest exporter in the Netherlands, generating 9.2 billion euros in revenue in 2018—strategically respond to the implications of Covid-19. We aim for a contribution to the strategic entrepreneurship literature, examining how personal value systems shape strategic decision-making in times of crisis. To date, we have examined 14 Dutch floriculture wholesale companies, and we expect that the next 6 to 8 months will provide critical opportunities for additional data collection. We plan to have a comprehensive working paper available in June 2021, incorporating the views of 45 director-level informants.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.11397symposium

Abstract:
While much progress has been made in understanding the role of the trustor and trustee within the dyad, factors in the surrounding context can also impact their trusting relationship. Importantly, these contextual factors can have implications for how the two parties in the initial trustor-trustee dyad engage one another in building and rebuilding trust. Our symposium explores these possibilities by showcasing four papers that challenge existing assumptions and provide new insights. They do so by integrating a variety of research designs (surveys, experiments, case studies), analytical techniques employed (mixed model analysis, qualitative data analysis, structural equation modeling), levels of analyzes (individual, organizational), contexts (crises, public health systems), and topics that further enrich this research dialogue (time, emotions, culture). This symposium aims to extend the existing literature on the role of the surrounding context for trusting relationships, and identify future research areas.Third One’s the Charm? The Role of Third Parties in Trust RepairPresenter: Jonathan Lee; U. of New HampshirePresenter: Rachel Lea Campagna; U. of New Hampshire“It’s that Fight or Flight”: Emotional Responses to Trust Violations in Essential ServicesPresenter: Niamh Daly; -Presenter: Nicole Gillespie; U. of QueenslandPresenter: Matthew Hornsey; U. of QueenslandPresenter: Lisa Van Der Werff; Dublin City U.In Integrity We Trust: Interpersonal and Organizational Uncertainty and Trustworthiness AssessmentPresenter: Eric Yuge Lou; INSEADPresenter: Li Huang; INSEADThe Critical Role of Trust and Supervisor Interpersonal Emotion Management at the Onset of COVID-19Presenter: Liuba Belkin; Lehigh U.Presenter: Michele Williams; U. of IowaPresenter: Sarah Tuskey; Virginia TechPresenter: William J. Becker; Virginia Tech
Eric J. Emerson, Robert C. Ford, Koray Simsek
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13853abstract

Abstract:
This study was premised on the idea that baby boomers, like anyone else, desire to maximize their well-being. That is, they seek situations that provide positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning and accomplishment (PERMA) which determine their personal appraisal of well-being based on both objective and subjective measures. Thus, the purpose of the research was to identify the most important PERMA elements of well-being that the baby boomer cohort who have decided to retire but have not yet done so (i.e., pre-retirees), seek in their preference in post-retirement residence. Moreover, this study investigates the degree to which this group sees that choice being influenced by their affinity for technology. The data for this correlational study was collected through a survey instrument administered to respondents electronically. The responses were analyzed utilizing logistic regression to generate research findings and implications. The results of this study suggest there is a relationship between the PERMA elements of well-being, singly and collectively, and their preference in post-retirement residence. Further, when considering the impact of affinity for technology on these two variables, the hypothesis of moderation was not significant. Lastly, the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on baby boomers’ preference in post-retirement residence was also considered. Future research in these areas is warranted as technological innovations continue to impact the delivery of the elements of well-being, and as baby boomers move through their retirement years, to consider the potential impact on their preference in post-retirement residence.
Asta Pundziene, Shahrokh Nikou, Rima Sermontyte-Baniule, Agne Gadeikiene, Jurgita Giniuniene
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13439abstract

Abstract:
The pandemic of COVID-19 urged healthcare ecosystem to expedite the deployment and use of digital healthcare services. Digital healthcare services by nature require the integration of diverse external and internal knowledge provided by multiple stakeholders of the healthcare ecosystem. Thus, open innovation could significantly contribute to value-based digital healthcare performance. This article illustrates how different open innovation strategies contribute to different types of value created by digital healthcare services. Healthcare providers, policymakers and insurance companies while seeking to utilize digital healthcare services need to leverage between different strategies of open innovation (e.g., inside-out or inside-in). While orchestration of the strategies might provide the optimal results, special attention needs to be given to inside-in open innovation processes.
Ilias Kapoutsis, Yingge Li, Wayne Hochwarter, Mayowa Babalola, Abdul Karim Khan
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14054abstract

Abstract:
The current study examined linear and nonlinear effects of work passion on relevant outcomes for nurses practicing during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also investigated whether these relationships are consistent across levels of work politics. Results indicated that passion reported nonlinear effects on job satisfaction (inverted U-shape), citizenship (U-shape), and work performance (U-shape). Confirming prior research, politics perceptions (POPs) was non-linearly related to job satisfaction (U-shape), citizenship (OCBs) (inverted U-shape), and performance (U-shape). Lastly, passion demonstrated nonlinear relationships OCBs when POPs was both high (U-shape) and low (inverted U-shape), and with performance at high levels of POPs (U-shape). These findings question the often-held assumption of linearity in the organizational sciences. Implications of these results for nursing practice and scholarship are discussed, as our strengths, limitations, and avenues for future research.
Andrea Tomo, Lucio Todisco, Paolo Canonico, Gianluigi Mangia
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13291abstract

Abstract:
The paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of Smart Working before and after the COVID-19 emergency in the public sector. In more detail, the aim is to understand how the spread of COVID-19 influenced public employees’ perception of smart working and its application during the pandemic. We interviewed 27 public employees from Italian local and central administrations already employing smart working before the pandemic to deepen positive and negative aspects of smart working and how these changed after the spread of COVID-19. The findings highlight a widespread positive impact on organizational flexibility and the degree of response and resilience of Italian public organizations to the health emergency. However, some critical factors emerged, such as the right to disconnect and the impact on work-life balance. In doing so, the paper provides many theoretical, managerial and policy implications relatively to the use of smart working in public administrations.
Vikas Rai Bhatnagar
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.10198abstract

Abstract:
The stagnating levels of employee engagement, worsened by the distressing and uncertain times due to the global pandemic of COVID-19, makes the requirement for humanizing organizations compelling. The current study examines the newly developed state-like construct of employee strengths at work (ESAW) that engages four attributes out of the five that humanize organizations, unlike the extant trait-like conceptualization of employee strengths that engages only one attribute. Bridging a gap in the literature by linking leadership and strengths theory, the current study empirically examines the mediating effects of the new variable ESAW on the association of empowering leadership and voice by analyzing data from 259 leader-subordinate dyads in manufacturing companies in India. As the study examines a new variable, a multiple-rater and cross-sectional research design are appropriate for providing causal evidence, more so when time lag in the design of the questionnaire provides temporal precedence to the predictor variable. Results reveal that ESAW fully mediates the relationship between empowering leadership and voice behavior, thereby unraveling the causal mechanism by which empowering leadership triggers voice behavior. The significance of the study lies in contributing to humanizing organizations and providing insights for trigger voice behavior from subordinates, having implications for improving organizational effectiveness.
Dawn DeTienne, Anna Saies Jenkins, Dean Shepherd, Amanda Jasmine Williamson
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.10279symposium

Abstract:
Entrepreneurial ventures carry a high level of uncertainty, which makes the potential for failure and exit a rather common occurrence. Adding to this uncertainty is the COVID-19 global pandemic, which has disrupted individual’s lives both personally and professionally. State mandates on social distancing requirements and disruptions in workers’ schedules from telework have likely impacted multiple aspects of entrepreneurial businesses and projects. Notwithstanding, social movements and political activism (e.g., Black Lives Matter, Women’s March, and #MeToo) have called attention to those who have previously been neglected and whose needs have been ignored. In response, entrepreneurs and scholars may need to pivot, making a sharp change in direction for what to focus time and resources on what is next. This panel symposium brings together prominent scholars in the entrepreneurial failure and exit domains to provide a current perspective on the state of research in this domain and initiate a proposed launching point for future research on entrepreneurial failure and exit. The topic naturally investigates the influence of the on-going pandemic and social movements impacting entrepreneurs around the globe, specifically how both entrepreneurs and stakeholders make sense of failure and exit and in turn adapt.
Dustin Bluhm, Paul B. Lester, Bruce Avolio, Sean Hannah
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.16524abstract

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented uncertainty and rapid change within organizations, leaving employees more susceptible to burnout and productivity loss. Using Conservation of Resources theory, we explore how transformational leadership can bolster followers’ psychological and skill-based resources to reduce emotional exhaustion and productivity loss in the pandemic crisis context. Based on the adaptive performance framework and Event System Theory, we also examine leader crisis response competence and perceived coronavirus disruption as boundary conditions. Using multi-wave field study data collected as the pandemic unfolded (n = 453), our moderated serial-mediation model demonstrates that during extreme events, transformational leadership positively influences follower resources of psychological capital and coping with uncertainty, with a dominant effect of psychological capital in mediating the effects of transformational leadership on follower emotional exhaustion and productivity loss. Further, the serial mediation effect was strengthened when perceptions of leader crisis response competence was high, and no longer significant when response competence was low, suggesting that transformational leadership behaviors must be paired with an effective crisis response by the leader in order to reduce follower emotional exhaustion and productivity loss. This research offers contextualized theoretical contributions to multiple literatures in addition to important practical implications for leaders during the pandemic and other extreme events.
Leqin Xu, Jiayin Qi
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15108abstract

Abstract:
In the background of COVID-19 pandemic, the economy of the whole world has been strongly hit. Due to the forced adjustment of business models, the development of the online industry has been accelerated and provided an important impetus for economic recovery. Live streaming influencer marketing is one of the tools. In this research, we will analyze the live streaming influencer marketing during the COVID-19 pandemic from two stages. The first stage describes the positive first-order effect based on customer engagement theory, and the second stage describes the negative reflection based on the second-order effect theory. We will integrate the two stages and discuss them in three paradoxes: long term versus short term, return versus risk and coordination versus competition, and show whether live streaming influencer marketing will be utopia or dystopia when the post pandemic era comes.
Peter Heslin
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15645abstract

Abstract:
Sustainable careers involve maintaining at least some degree of productivity, health, and happiness across the career lifespan. For many, the sometimes severe social, financial, and physical deprivations and restrictions imposed, as well as physical and psychological health risks heralded by the COVID-10 pandemic, have massively increased the challenge of forging a sustainable career. Against this stressful backdrop and motivated by an impulse to help people address their prevailing career challenges, we propose that attempts to enact a sustainable career may be facilitated by drawing on the rich literature in occupational health psychology on recovering from stressful experiences. After briefly reviewing the flourishing literature on initiatives that organizations, leaders, and individuals can take to support sustainable careers, we propose that enabling oneself to have rich recovery experiences may foster career sustainability. We develop this notion by outlining how five different empirically-ground approaches to accessing richer recovery experiences may enable career sustainability, each crystallized in a related proposition. We then discuss implications for sustainable career research and practice, aiming to thereby support those striving for career sustainability amidst the array of stressors flowing from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Kabiru Oyetunde, Rea Prouska, Aidan McKearney
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.11319abstract

Abstract:
The traditional employment relationship (TER) is eroding rapidly due to economic instabilities and crises occasioned by past and recent events (e.g. COVID-19). In response is a growing proliferation of non-traditional employment relationships (NTERs). Expectedly, traditional workers’ voice research has been widely documented. However, non-traditional workers’ voice research is in its infancy leaving the literature fragmented. This necessitates understanding the body of literature and conceptualizing voice in NTERs. Reviewing present empirical studies on non-traditional workers’ voice, we conceptually map the current forms of voice available to these workers, the issues they voice and their influence on management actions and decisions. Then we identify the determinants and outcomes of non-traditional workers’ voice, and offering future research insights in to studying voice of these workers.
Khalid Dahleez, Mohammed Aboramadan
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.11438abstract

Abstract:
The negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic open the door to investigate what leadership practices are needed to guarantee positive work-related outcomes among employees in organizations. This research proposes, building on the norm of reciprocity, a model to examine the role of servant leadership in stimulating task performance and risk-taking behaviors among healthcare professionals during the pandemic. In this model, safety climate was theorized to serve as a mediating variable between servant leadership, task performance and risk-taking behavior. Data in this study were collected from 237 healthcare professionals (Medial and Administrative Staff) working in Palestinian hospitals. Partial least-squares structural equation modelling was employed to analyze the data. The results of this study demonstrate that servant leadership is effective in fostering task performance and risk-taking behaviors in crisis times. Safety climate showed to exert a full mediating effect among the aforementioned relationships. Finally, results demonstrated that healthcare professionals with high experience are more willing to engage in risk-taking behavior. Discussion, implications, and limitations are discussed.
Shiva Kakkar, Samvet Kuril, Swati Singh, Surajit Saha, Anurag Dugar
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14389abstract

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has restricted mobility and made remote working a norm. Many scholars and practitioners have raised concerns that remote working can lead to feelings of isolation and alienation among employees. The study explores this issue by examining the influence of remote communication satisfaction and the organization’s CSR association on employee alienation and job satisfaction. Sensemaking theory serves as the basis for hypotheses formulation in this study. Primary data has been collected from 418 employees working in various Indian organizations and analyzed through AMOS and Hayes’ PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results indicate that remote communication satisfaction negatively influences work alienation, thereby improves employee satisfaction. Also, organizations that are perceived to have higher CSR association experience lesser work alienation than those who have a lower CSR association.This study extends the sensemaking theory by introducing new work-related (internal communication) and non-work-related (CSR associations) cues and explains how employees use them to ‘make sense’ of the organization’s philosophy and continuity. Secondly, this study is a pioneer in exploring the relationship between communication satisfaction and work alienation. The results of this study translate into two significant recommendations for organizations. One, organizations should adopt a proactive communication strategy and provide work-related information to employees expeditiously. Two, since the organization’s CSR involvement and its regular communication to employees bolsters their job satisfaction and reduces the development of negative attitudes (like alienation), organizations must ennunciate their position on CSR issues on a regular basis.
Katherine Kay Bae, Remy E. Jennings, Hun Whee Lee, Henry Robin Young, David Mayer, Brent Scott, Russell Eric Johnson, Sooyeol Kim, Klodiana Lanaj
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.10761symposium

Abstract:
In the past year, the devastating COVID-19 crisis has rapidly aggravated the dire problem of leadership burnout and propelled it to the forefront of organizational concerns. On a regular basis but particularly during times of uncertainty and hardship, the myriad daily demands and responsibilities involving high stakes decisions can easily deplete and distress managers, as they are expected to tackle strategic decisions while also caring for the well-being of their followers and guiding work teams. Unfortunately, experiencing low (emotional) well-being—depleted energy and the lack of positive emotional experiences—has been linked to lower performance and effectiveness. Thus, it is crucial and timely to better understand how leaders can effectively regulate themselves to recover their own sense of well-being—whether this recovery takes place at or outside of work (i.e., at home)—especially during challenging times when leaders’ well-being is most likely to be precarious. Traditionally, researchers have focused largely on a “follower-centric” perspective and focused less on a “leader-centric” perspective. While the former emphasizes the interpersonal consequences of leader behaviors on their followers, a small but emerging literature takes the latter approach, seeking to understand the intrapersonal consequences of leaders’ behaviors—that is, how the behaviors that leaders engage in affect their own emotions, attitudes, and/or leadership behaviors (e.g., Foulk, Lanaj, Tu, Erez, & Archambeau, 2018; Lanaj, Johnson, & Lee, 2016; Lin, Scott, & Matta, 2019). Given the tenor of our time and in line with the 2021 AoM theme, “Bringing the Manager Back in Management,” our symposium takes a leader-centric perspective and explores how leaders’ behaviors at and outside of work are associated with their experience of well-being. Going further, we also investigate (a) boundary conditions (i.e., moderators) and (b) how, in turn, leaders’ experience of well-being affects their leadership attitudes (e.g., leader identity) and/or behaviors (e.g., procedural justice, transformational leadership behavior, effort-based performance). To provide a comprehensive examination of the phenomenon of leader well-being, our symposium addresses three complementary questions guided by our leader-centric approach: (1) How does a leader experiencing low well-being (i.e., depletion) affect the leader’s (subsequent) leadership behaviors? (Young, Lee, & Johnson) (2) How do leader behaviors at work, especially during times of hardship, affect the leader’s experience of well-being? (Bae & Mayer; Lee & Kim) (3) How do leader behaviors outside of work (i.e., at home after work) affect the leader’s (next day) experience of well-being at work? (Lanaj & Jennings). By answering these questions, our symposium sheds light on the intrapersonal consequences of leader behavior. In doing so, we uncover what kinds of leader behaviors, both at work and at home, help to sustain leaders’ (emotional) well-being.Influence and Adjustment: Examining the Role of Ideal Affect for Leader Self-RegulationPresenter: Henry Robin Young; Eli Broad School of Business, Michigan State U.Presenter: Hun Whee Lee; The Ohio State U. Fisher College of BusinessPresenter: Russell Eric Johnson; Eli Broad School of Business, Michigan State U.Pepped Up or Petered Out: An Examination of the Energizing Effects of Leaders Giving Pep TalksPresenter: Katherine Kay Bae; U. of Michigan, Ross School of BusinessPresenter: David Mayer; U. of MichiganFinding Hope in Times of Hardship: A Daily Investigation of the Benefits of Reflective ConversationPresenter: Hun Whee Lee; The Ohio State U. Fisher College of BusinessPresenter: Sooyeol Kim; National U. of Singapore (NUS)The Importance of Leader Recovery Activities for Leader Identity and BehaviorPresenter: Klodiana Lanaj; U. of FloridaPresenter: Remy E. Jennings; U. of Florida
Danny Miller, Zhenyang Tang, Xiaowei Xu, Isabelle Le Breton-Miller
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14203abstract

Abstract:
The literature on the interplay between geographic communities and organizations has largely ignored the role of individual residents. In adopting a meso-perspective, we examine a potentially vital relationship between corporate conduct and pro-social behavior demanding sacrifice from individuals. Drawing on Weber (1922), we theorize that organizations in a community legitimize personal social conduct in three ways – by serving as role models, imparting norms and values, and routinizing forms of interaction. We study the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) behavior by local firms and the social distancing (SD) of citizens in US counties during the Covid-19 pandemic, a core ethical outcome. We argue and find that the residents of communities in which firms exhibit higher levels of CSR engaged in more SD during the Covid-19 pandemic. This was true when firms were a) long-established, b) isomorphic in their CSR, and c) major employers and vendors. Moreover, CSR relating to the treatment of employees and positive and negative extremes in CSR had an especially strong effect on SD. Implications are drawn for the study of business ethics, as modeled by CSR, as a force for ethical personal behavior and public health in communities.
Patrick Flynn, Anthony J. Nyberg
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.11241abstract

Abstract:
Using a large, geographically dispersed organization designated as “essential” and required to stay open during the COVID-19 crisis, we examine the relative influence of store-level versus macro-level differences in collective turnover over time. Capitalizing on the unique situation in which employees were at minimal risk of being unemployed, but who likely perceived high levels of uncertainty surrounding health risks, we responded to calls to disentangle the influence of store and macro factors of collective turnover. The findings illustrate that store-level differences explain most changes in collective turnover, and that high collective engagement appears to limit increases in collective turnover as crises unfold. The findings result from examining monthly collective voluntary turnover between January and June of 2020 in 4,528 stores in the United States from a large, North American organization coupled with a detailed examination of collective engagement in a random subsample of 472 stores. In combination, the results inform theory regarding collective turnover and collective responses to crises while also providing practitioners suggestions for how to minimize negative employee responses to unexpected events through employee engagement. The lessons learned are applicable to crisis situations but also have important implications for practitioners and researchers in non-crisis situations.
Nishita Tripathi, Daniya Sheikh, Demetra Antimisiaris
The Senior Care Pharmacist, Volume 36, pp 365-373; doi:10.4140/tcp.n.2021.365

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To provide a descriptive literature review about the effects of anticancer treatment on clinical outcomes because of active COVID-19 infection in older people. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Articles published in English between December 1, 2019, to September 1, 2020, were included. STUDY SELECTION: Nine studies assessing the effectiveness of various modalities for cancer treatments in patients infected with COVID-19 infection were reviewed. The studies reviewed the severity of COVID-19 infection outcomes in patients who underwent any anticancer treatment. Studies exclusively focused on older people could not be found, but all studies included older people. DATA SYNTHESiS AND RESULTS: Early pandemic studies suggested avoiding anticancer treatment during a COVID-19 infection because of poor clinical outcomes and increased mortality. However, the totality of studies reviewed found no association between the continuation of anticancer treatment and adverse COVID-19 outcomes in cancer patients. Adverse COVID-19 infection outcomes and high mortality rates were associated with older cancer patients independent of anticancer therapy. CONCLUSION: Treatment of cancer could be challenging because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Interruption or delaying the anticancer therapy could increase the burden of overall mortality. This literature review indicated that adverse outcomes because of COVID-19 are associated with advanced age independent of anticancer therapy. Further exploration of the correlation between cancer, anticancer treatments, and COVID-19 infection outcomes is needed.
, Hakan Hançer, Özge Altaş, Kaan Kırali
Published: 1 August 2021
Journal of Artificial Organs pp 1-7; doi:10.1007/s10047-021-01288-y

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 affected millions of people and caused pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and increased mortality worldwide. Data from multicenter studies showed that concomitant chronic diseases are associated with severe coronavirus disease. Patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support may also be vulnerable to the disease. Some symptoms of COVID-19 infection like dyspnea and fatigue can overlap with heart failure or LVAD dysfunction. Careful evaluation should be made to diagnose and treat these patients. In these two cases with COVID-19, here we presented the first two patients supported with LVAD in Turkey.
Dilip Kumar J. Saini, Dhirendra Siddharth
Published: 1 August 2021
Advances in Bioinformatics pp 375-393; doi:10.1007/978-981-33-6191-1_20

Abstract:
With rising applications in engineering and science, digital image processing is a rapidly evolving sector. Modern digital technology has allowed multidimensional signal manipulation. Digital image processing has a wide range of applications including medical image processing, remote satellite sensing data, acoustic image processing, sonar, radar, and automation. Imaging has become important in fields of clinical practice and medical and laboratory science. Biologists research cells and produce data sets using three-dimensional optical microscope, three-dimensional image visualisation and quantitative analysis could only be carried out with expensive UNIX workstations and custom tools. Today, much of the simulation and analysis can be performed on an inexpensive desktop computer with the necessary hardware and software for the graphics. In these data-intensive problems, the introduction of new image analysis, database, data mining, and simulation strategies to record, evaluate, scan, and manage biological information has been increasingly focused. This recent emerging field of bioinformatics is being referred to as ‘bioimage computing’. This chapter discusses the developments made in this field from various perspectives including implementations, main methods, tools, and resources available. The requisite strategies for success in the battle against COVID-19, such as identification of bioimage characteristics, monitoring and segmentation, visualisation, mining, registration, management of image data and annotation, along with a brief description of accessible analytical resources, bioimage databases, and other facilities, are also outlined.
Published: 1 August 2021
Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 68; doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102646

Abstract:
Since December 2019, the coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread worldwide and has caused millions of deaths. Although the main manifestation of the disease is acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability resulting from hypoxemia leads to venous thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis, which have a fatal prognosis for COVID-19. We report the case of patient admitted to our unit for management of a concomitant limb ischemia, splenic and renal infarcts associated to a COVID-19 infection with favorable outcomes after thrombectomy and therapeutic doses of heparin. Systemic procoagulant manifestations related to a COVID-19 infection is a newly described phenomenon responsible of cardiovascular and neurological disorders.
Ali Sharifpour, Aref Hoseini, Zahra Nekoukar, Elham Sadat Banimostafavi, Mahdi Fakhar, Mostafa Soleymani, , Mohammad Reza Navaeifar, Kimia Rsouli
Published: 1 August 2021
Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 68; doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102653

Abstract:
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) in adults may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Fever and cough are the most common symptoms of Coronavirus infection and other causes of pneumonia. Regardless of the etiology of pneumonia, the first step in the treatment of FBA-associated pneumonia is to remove the foreign body from the airway. A 32-year-old man was referred to our emergency department on October 26, 2020 with shortness of breath (SOB) and a cough. He was referred to the medical center with clinical suspicion of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and his disease was treated considering COVID-19. Based on the persistence of his symptoms after discharge, he was referred to the hospital again, and the presence of a foreign body was confirmed by a rigid bronchoscopy, which was then removed. Our patient did not remember any history of aspirating solid particles, choking, or any other high-risk conditions associated with aspiration. Also, he had no symptoms with the exception of cough and SOB before the first admission. It means that asymptomatic FBA can be tolerated and go undiagnosed, particularly in adults, and manifests as a secondary complication, such as pneumonia. The FBA and other causal agents may mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. Consequently, FBA should be included in the COVID-19 differential diagnosis.
Miyabi Moriyama, Atsumu Yuki
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, Volume 70, pp 257-268; doi:10.7600/jspfsm.70.257

Abstract:
The aims were to investigate the changes in physical activity of university students after the COVID-19 emergency declaration was lifted, and to determine whether there were any differences in these changes between academic years. The subjects were 81 students attending university or graduate school in Kochi Prefecture who completed a baseline survey (May 2020). Analysis 1, included 51 subjects who responded to both the baseline survey and the retrospective survey (October 2020) on physical activity at 1 year prior. In Analysis 2, 71 subjects who participated in at least one follow-up examination (August 2020, November 2020) were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Long Form was used to assess physical activity and sitting time per week. Between October 2019 and May 2020, the total (-47.7%), vigorous (-59.3%) and moderate (-42.1%) physical activity decreased, and sitting time (+36.9%) increased. The interaction between the time of the survey and year of university (first-year, ≥second-year), analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model, on total, vigorous, walking physical activity and sitting time was significant. Especially, the estimate of least squares mean after inverse square root transformation of total physical activity in first-year students was higher in November 2020 (8192.4 METs·min/week) compared to baseline (3388.5 METs·min/week). Vigorous physical activity in first-year students was also higher in November 2020 (4773.3 METs·min/week) compared to baseline (1060.3 METs·min/week). The emergency declaration in April 2020 inhibited physical activity among university students, and the impact was particularly strong among first-year students.
Stefania Albanesi, Jiyeon Kim
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 35, pp 3-24; doi:10.1257/jep.35.3.3

Abstract:
The economic crisis associated with the emergence of the novel corona virus is unlike standard recessions. Demand for workers in high contact and inflexible service occupations has declined while parental supply of labor has been reduced by lack of access to reliable child care and in-person schooling options. This has led to a substantial and persistent drop in employment and labor force participation for women, who are typically less affected by recessions than men. We examine real-time data on employment, unemployment, labor force participation and gross job flows to document the impact of the pandemic by occupation, gender and family status. We also discuss the potential long-term implications of this crisis, including the role of automation in depressing the recovery of employment for the worst hit service occupations.
Kayla Nitahara, Alan Doan, Kenneth Vitale
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 53, pp 302-302; doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000762660.64684.52

Amy L. Morgan, Mary-Jon Ludy, Natalie C. Nieschwitz, Madelyn G. Huzyak, Chen Du, Robin M. Tucker
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 53, pp 209-210; doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000761496.85341.0c

Lindsey E. White, Tiago V. Barreira, Michael L. Norris
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 53, pp 194-194; doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000761320.46497.f9

Marc A. Augenreich, Valesha M. Province, Nina L. Stute, Abigail S. Stickford, Stephen M. Ratchford, Jonathon L. Stickford
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 53, pp 88-88; doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000760140.94352.8f

Sándor Beniczky, Aatif Husain, Akio Ikeda, Haifa Alabri, J. Helen Cross, Jo Wilmshurst, Margitta Seeck, Niels Focke, Patricia Braga, Samuel Wiebe, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Epileptic Disorders, Volume 23, pp 533-536; doi:10.1684/epd.2021.1292

Published: 1 August 2021
by MDPI
Cancers, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/cancers13153883

Abstract:
Considering the high morbidity and mortality of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with malignancy, they are regarded as a priority for COVID-19 vaccination. However, general vaccine uptake rates among cancer patients are known to be lower than in their healthy counterparts. Thus, we aimed to investigate the attitude and acceptance rates for the COVID-19 vaccine in cancer patients and identify predictive factors for vaccination that could be modified to increase vaccine uptake rates, via a paper-based survey (58 items over six domains). A total of 1001 cancer patients participated in this nationwide, multicenter survey between February and April 2021. We observed that 61.8% of respondents were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Positive predictive factors found to be independently associated with vaccination were male gender, older age, obesity, previous influenza vaccination history, absence of cancer recurrence, time since cancer diagnosis over 5 years, and higher EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale scores. Along with the well-known factors that are positively correlated with vaccination, here, we report that patients’ disease status and current health status were also associated with their acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, 91.2% of cancer patients were willing to be vaccinated if their attending physicians recommend it, indicating that almost 30% could change their decision upon physicians’ recommendation. Unlike other factors, which are unmodifiable, physicians’ recommendation is the single modifiable factor that could change patients’ behavior. In conclusion, we firstly report that Korean cancer patients’ acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccination was 61.8% and associated with disease status and current health status. Physicians should play a major role in aiding cancer patients’ decision-making concerning COVID-19 vaccines.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18158156

Abstract:
Worldwide, previous studies have expressed concerns regarding the broad psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among college students as they are considered an especially vulnerable group. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of, risk of, and protective factors associated with fear of COVID-19 among college students in Europe. We have sought to address gaps in the literature by conducting a cross-sectional survey among 517 college students (79.1% women and 20.9% men) from a public university in the southeast of Spain. Participants were asked to complete the Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) questionnaire and answer questions related to resilience, social support, anxiety, and suicide risk levels using validated scales. The results of the analysis of the variables associated with fear of COVID-19 suggest that, in addition to gender, the factor of anxiety shows a robust positive association and effect with COVID-19 fear (p< 0.001). According to our results, university institutions must adopt support mechanisms to alleviate psychological impacts on students during this pandemic, treating it similarly to other disasters. Implications for social work to reduce COVID-19 fear are also discussed.
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/joitmc7030180

Abstract:
Open innovation allows the hotel industry to create platforms and channels for collaboration with its customers, which results in a better understanding of their tastes and demands. In the current environment, which is full of uncertainty, many companies have seen their profits decrease, and even the permanence of their businesses endangered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In such an environment, it is even more necessary to take into account the customer’s opinion about the service received, since once the customer makes use of the hotel’s services, he/she will recommend the hotel to third parties if he/she is satisfied with it. Through customer satisfaction and subsequent recommendations, the hotel thus obtains new clients and retains old ones. This feedback from the client allows for understanding their priorities in order to jointly design a tailor-made service. It is for this reason that this research has been carried out to analyze the service attributes evaluated by customers. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, a survey instrument was used, as well as a longitudinal study procedure applying logistic regression over a period of one year. The descriptive results and the logistic regression show the level of customer satisfaction with the service and the importance given to each of the selected attributes. In this way, the research shows in which areas innovation strategies should be sought. Although the research offers a model composed of five attributes to measure satisfaction through recommendation with a probability of more than fifty percent, it is necessary to take into account the limitations of the current environment due to COVID-19 or the possibility of extending the multidimensionality of the model. It is necessary to continue to work through open innovation platforms to keep contact with the customer and to update the examined attributes in order to obtain customer satisfaction and feedback.
Shawana Tabassum
Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices 2021, Volume 11800; doi:10.1117/12.2597527

Abstract:
We are developing a wearable sensing platform that provides rapid and quantitative measurements of a panel of inflammatory biomarkers. The sensor detects interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, which are found to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes and death in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients. Although wearable technology has entered the fight against COVID-19, the devices are limited to monitoring physical attributes and rely on syndromic case finding. Hence, asymptomatic but contagious individuals with no early symptoms remain undetected and transmit the virus/bacteria. In this regard, our sensor would result in a powerful public health weapon that will monitor biochemical attributes in real-time and diagnose an infection before symptoms appear.
, , Olivia A Mac, Carys Batcup, , , , , Dana Mouwad, Dipti Zachariah, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Abstract:
Background: To manage the COVID-19 pandemic effectively, governments need clear and effective communication. This is a challenge for culturally diverse communities as groups may have different informational needs and information-seeking behaviours. In this paper we present the frequency of information sources for COVID-19 in a culturally diverse area of Sydney, Australia. Methods: This study reports findings from two surveys. The first recruited participants across 10 languages between March 21 and July 9, 2021. The second provides a point of reference, and was an Australian, nationally-representative sample of English-speaking participants between November 4 and 18, 2020. Results: For the survey in culturally and linguistically diverse communities, of 708 participants, mean age was 45.4 years (SE 0.78), and 51% of respondents were female. Across all language groups, 54.7% of participants used Australian official or public broadcasters to find out about COVID-19 (n=421). Australian commercial information sources (54.1%, n=417), social media (51.6%, n=397), and family and friends in Australia (32.7%, n=252) were common sources. Patterns varied substantially across language groups. In the nationally representative survey (n=2313), 67% of participants (n=1540) used Australian official or public broadcasters, with lower proportions for social media (31.9%, n=738) and friends, family or other personal sources (23.1%; n=533). Conclusion: Almost 50% of participants from culturally and linguistically diverse communities did not report using Australian official or public broadcaster as main sources of information. Instead Australian commercial information sources, friends and family, overseas sources and social media were common. Though a crude comparison of the two datasets, this data can guide policy decisions for communication to different community groups. Further analysis is needed to interpret this data. Better understanding of how diverse communities seek and receive COVID-19 health information is imperative as we manage the current COVID-19 outbreak in the Sydney region.
Lena F Schimke, Alexandre H Marques, Gabriela C Baiocchi, Caroline A Prado, Dennyson L Fonseca, , Desiree R Placa, Igor S Filgueira, Ranieri C Salgado, Gabriel Jansen-Marques, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Abstract:
Clinical and hyperinflammatory overlap between COVID-19 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been reported. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that COVID-19 and HLH have an overlap of signaling pathways and gene signatures commonly dysregulated, which were defined by investigating the transcriptomes of 1253 subjects (controls, COVID-19, and HLH patients) using microarray, bulk RNA-sequencing (RNAseq), and single-cell RNAseq (scRNAseq). COVID-19 and HLH share pathways involved in cytokine and chemokine signaling as well as neutrophil-mediated immune responses that associate with COVID-19 severity. These genes are dysregulated at protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins which converge to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.
Zhaowei Xu, , Qing Lei, Likun Huang, Dan-Yun Lai, Shu-Juan Guo, He-Wei Jiang, Hongyan Hou, Yun-Xiao Zheng, Xue-Ning Wang, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, varies with regard to symptoms and mortality rates among populations. Humoral immunity plays critical roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery from COVID-19. However, differences in immune responses and clinical features among COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown. Here, we report a database for COVID-19-specific IgG/IgM immune responses and clinical parameters (COVID-ONE humoral immune). COVID-ONE humoral immunity is based on a dataset that contains the IgG/IgM responses to 21 of 28 known SARS-CoV-2 proteins and 197 spike protein peptides against 2,360 COVID-19 samples collected from 783 patients. In addition, 96 clinical parameters for the 2,360 samples and information for the 783 patients are integrated into the database. Furthermore, COVID-ONE humoral immune provides a dashboard for defining samples and a one-click analysis pipeline for a single group or paired groups. A set of samples of interest is easily defined by adjusting the scale bars of a variety of parameters. After the START button is clicked, one can readily obtain a comprehensive analysis report for further interpretation. COVID-ONE-humoral immune is freely available at www.COVID-ONE.cn.
Molly Brady, Abigail Combs, Chethana Venkatraman, Alexander Solorzano, Angelique Johnson, Conor McQuaid, Akib Rahman, Hannah Leyva, Wing-Chi Edmund Kwok, Ronald W Wood, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Abstract:
While there is clinical evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 multiorgan tropism in severely infected coronavirus 19 patients, it is unclear if there is differential multiorgan biodistribution and organ uptake in healthy young individuals, a group that usually has asymptomatic to moderate coronavirus 19 symptoms. In addition, for antibody therapies and vaccines that target the spike protein, it is unclear if these reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or spike protein multiorgan tropism equally. We used fluorescently labeled spike protein near infrared fluorescence to study viral behavior, using an in vivo dynamic imaging system, in young mice. We found a spike protein body-wide biodistribution followed by a slow regional elimination, except for the liver, which showed an accumulation. Spike protein uptake was highest for the lungs, and this was followed by kidney, heart and liver, but, unlike the choroid plexus, it was not detected in the brain parenchyma or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, the brain vascular barriers were effective in restricting the entry of spike protein into brain parenchyma in young healthy mice. While both anti-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and anti-spike protein antibodies suppressed spike protein biodistribution and organ uptake, anti-spike protein antibody was more effective. By extension, our data support the efficacy of these antibodies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 biodistribution kinetics and multiorgan tropism that could determine coronavirus 19 organ-specific outcomes.
Bolaji Felicia Udomah, Uriel Oludare Ashaolu, , Olufunke Folasade Dada, Victor Kehinde Soyemi, Yetunde Bolatito Aremu-Kasumu, Chikezie John Ochieze, Olusola Ayodele Adeyemi, Adeyinka Olabisi Owolabi, Martin Chukwudum Igbokwe, et al.
Published: 1 August 2021
Abstract:
Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is far from over, although appreciable progress have been made to limit the devastating effects of the pandemic across the globe. Adequate knowledge and risk perception is a critical assessment that is required to ensure proper preventive measures. This study assessed these among Nigerians. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessment of 776 consenting Nigerian adults that were distributed across the 6 geo-political zones and the Federal Capital Territory. Online pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire were used to obtain the socio-demographic data and assessed the knowledge and risk perception of the participants to COVID-19. The knowledge of COVID-19 was assessed based on the number of accurate responses given in comparison to average scores. Chi-square analysis was computed to analysis the association between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of COVID-19 and risk perception. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, the level of significance was set at value p<0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Majority of the participants were male 451 (58.1%), there was a good knowledge of COVID-19 among 90.3% of respondents with 57% having positive risk perception. There was a statistically significant relationship between good knowledge and positive risk perception of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Annual income (p =0.012) and the perception that vaccines are good significantly predict positive risk perception of COVID-19 among the respondents. Conclusion: A good knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccination against the virus were the two most important factors that determined risk perception among the population. This may be because of the widespread advocacy, and it portends a good omen at combating COVID-19 menace. Key words: COVID-19, Risk perception, Nigerians
Marina Eckermann, Tim Salditt
Published: 1 August 2021
by SPIE
Developments in X-Ray Tomography XIII, Volume 11840; doi:10.1117/12.2596133

Abstract:
The mammalian brain shows a complex and hierarchical architecture, whose assessment at all functionally relevant scales requires the establishment of multiomics approaches. In this work, we propose a correlative workflow, which is based on large-scale overview PC-CT scans using the extended beams offered by laboratory μCT sources and parallel beam synchrotron radiation (SR), with subsequent zooms into specific regions-of-interest using cone-beam recordings with nanofocused laboratory sources or SR, and finally FIB-SEM in controlled and well-identified sub-volumes obtained before. We demonstrate the workflow at the example of rOTO-stained murine corpus callosum tissue, a brain region rich in myelinated nerve fibers. Based on two different and complementary techniques, PC-CT and focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), we approach the establishment of a correlative imaging workflow. As we show here, the workflow can be applied (i) in a correlative study, in order to add further quantitative value, for instance, or (ii) in a multiscale approach, to which PC-CT can contribute volume throughput, while FIB-SEM can contribute resolution. The findings from this work demonstrate the complementary strength of each modality in terms of resolution (FIB-SEM) and FOV or volume throughput (PC-CT).
Gaurang Chaudhari, Igor Koba, Ioannis Katsavounidis, Harikrishna Reddy
Applications of Digital Image Processing XLIV, Volume 11842; doi:10.1117/12.2595404

Abstract:
In the era of COVID-19 pandemic, videos are very important to the billions of people staying and working at home. Two-pass video encoding allows for a refinement of parameters based on statistics obtained from the first pass. Given the variety of characteristics in user-generated content, there is opportunity to make this refinement optimal for this type of content. We show how we can replace the traditional models used for rate control in video coding with better prediction models with linear and nonlinear model functions. Moreover, we can utilize these first-pass statistics to further refine the traditional encoding recipes that are typically used for all input video sequences. Our work can provide much-needed bitrate savings for many different encoders, and we highlight it by testing on typical Facebook video content.
P. J. G. Bettencourt
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Volume 25, pp 611-613; doi:10.5588/ijtld.21.0372

Published: 1 August 2021
Cureus, Volume 13; doi:10.7759/cureus.16809

Abstract:
With the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we were issued with guidance to minimize aerosol-generating procedures and discontinued the use of pulsed lavage for hip hemiarthroplasty. Instead, we used a bladder syringe to wash the femoral canal. The aim of this study was to assess whether this change in practice had a detrimental effect on the quality of the bone cement mantles in patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated at a tertiary teaching hospital in the United Kingdom (Addenbrookes, Cambridge University Hospitals) presenting with a neck of femur fracture requiring a hemiarthroplasty between October 2019 and June 2020. We retrospectively assessed 100 post-operative radiographs for patients who had received hip hemiarthroplasty following neck of femur fragility fracture (50 before the service change and 50 after). The Barrack classification was used to assess the quality of the bone cement mantle. Pre-SARS-CoV-2, 30% of hemiarthroplasties were deemed as being “at risk” of aseptic loosening. During SARS-CoV-2, 64% of hips were deemed as being “at risk.” This represents a statistically significant absolute increase of 34% (P < 0.05, the P value is 0.000645). Both clinicians agreed on the classification of hips “at risk” or “not at risk” (i.e., grades C/D and A/B, respectively) in 85% of the cases. Cohen’s kappa coefficient was calculated as 0.68, indicating substantial agreement. Following our experience of this forced service change, we would discourage abandoning the use of pulsed lavage in future pandemics. We have demonstrated an association between abandoning pulsed lavage and detrimental effects on the procedural quality for hip hemiarthroplasty. Patients treated over this time period will be closely monitored for operative complications. As this was the only equipment change made for this procedure, we have demonstrated its detrimental effect on the procedural quality. Should pulsed lavage be discontinued, patients may need to be counseled for higher risk of early failure and revision surgery and may require long-term radiographic follow-up. In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, Surgeons should carefully consider the risks and benefits of using pulsed lavage in accordance with the personal protective equipment they have available and the consequential impact on the bone cement mantle quality.
Mj Quinn
Published: 1 August 2021
The American Journal of Medicine, Volume 134; doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.01.036

The Lancet Oncology
Published: 1 August 2021
The Lancet Oncology, Volume 22; doi:10.1016/s1470-2045(21)00416-2

Abstract:
As part of a new collaboration with Signify Health, a US health-care platform that aims to bring health care into the home, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) announced on June 17, 2021, that it would be expanding participation in the phase 3 AALL1731 trial by facilitating home-based delivery of drug infusions. This trial is investigating blinatumomab in combination with chemotherapy in patients aged 1–31 years with newly diagnosed B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. Without the option of in-home delivery, patients would typically spend weeks in hospital, and potential patients (particularly children, adolescents and young adults [AYAs], and disadvantaged groups) often miss out due to their inability to manage the logistics and out-of-pocket costs involved. This partnership makes participation in the trial easier and more patient-centric, and could increase enrolment, reduce attrition, and boost diversity among trial participants. However, trialling new drugs at home is not without risk, because patients will not have the immediate medical attention they would have had in a hospital setting. But, after a year in which cancer care has been severely disrupted worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic, innovative solutions are needed to improve access to health systems and the latest advances in care.
Mehri Salari, Masoud Etemadifar, Alireza Zali, Zahra Aminzade, Irene Navalpotro-Gomez,
Published: 1 August 2021
Neurología; doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2021.07.002

Abstract:
Purpose: Covid-19 has affected all people, especially those with chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Covid-19 may affect both motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD patients. We intend to evaluate different aspects of Covid-19 impact on PD patients. Methods: 647 PD patients were evaluated in terms of PD-related and Covid-19-related clinical presentations in addition to past medical history during the pandemic through an online questioner. They were compared with an age-matched control group consist of 673 individuals and a sample of the normal population consist of 1215 individuals. Results: The prevalence of Covid-19 in PD patients was 11.28%. The mortality was 1.23% among PD patients. The prevalence of Covid-19 in PD patients who undergone Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was 18.18%. No significant association was found between the duration of disease and the prevalence of Covid-19. A statistically significant higher prevalence of Covid-19 in PD patients who had direct contact with SARS-CoV-19 infected individuals was found. No statistically significant association has been found between the worsening of motor symptoms and Covid-19. PD patients and the normal population may differ in the prevalence of some psychological disorders, including anxiety and sleeping disorders, and Covid-19 may affect the psychological status. Conclusion: PD patients possibly follow tighter preventive protocols, which lead to lower prevalence and severity of Covid-19 and its consequences in these patients. Although it seems Covid-19 does not affect motor and psychological aspects of PD as much as it was expected, more accurate evaluations are suggested in order to clarify such effects. Objetivos: la COVID-19 ha afectado a toda la población, especialmente a aquellos con enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo a los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). La COVID-19 puede empeorar tanto los signos motores como los síntomas neuropsiquiátricos de los pacientes con EP. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar diferentes aspectos del impacto de la COVID-19 en los pacientes con EP. Métodos: se evaluaron a través de un cuestionario virtual a 647 pacientes con EP de acuerdo a sus presentaciones clínicas relacionadas con la EP y con la COVID-19 además de la historia médica previa durante la pandemia. Se compararon con un grupo de controles sanos de la misma edad que constaba de 673 individuos y una muestra de la población general de 1215 individuos. Resultados: la prevalencia de la COVID-19 en pacientes con EP fue del 11,28%. La mortalidad fue del 1,23% entre los pacientes con EP. La prevalencia de COVID-19 en pacientes con EP con estimulación cerebral profunda fue del 18,18%. No se encontró una asociación significativa entre la duración de la enfermedad y la prevalencia de COVID-19. Se halló una prevalencia mayor de COVID-19 que fue estadísticamente significativa en pacientes con EP que tuvieron contacto directo con personas infectadas con SARS-CoV-19. No se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el empeoramiento de los signos motores y la COVID-19. Los pacientes con EP y la población general podrían diferir en la prevalencia de algunos trastornos psicológicos, incluidos los trastornos de ansiedad y del sueño, y la COVID-19 podría afectar al estado psicológico. Conclusión: los pacientes con EP posiblemente sigan protocolos preventivos más estrictos, lo que conduce a una menor prevalencia y gravedad de COVID-19 y de sus consecuencias en estos pacientes. Aunque parece que la COVID-19 no afecta los aspectos motores y psicológicos de la EP tanto como se esperaba, se sugiere la realización de evaluaciones más precisas para aclarar tales efectos.
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