(searched for: ("Covid-19") OR ("SARS-CoV-2") OR ("coronavirus") OR ("2019-nCoV"))
Published: 21 October 2020
The new SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has been threatening public health worldwide for half a year. The aim of this work was to evaluate compounds of natural origin, mainly from medicinal plants, as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors through docking studies. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein and the main protease Mpro, involved in the recognition of virus by host cells and in viral replication, respectively, were the main molecular targets in this study. The best energy binding values for S protein were, in kcal/mol: -19.22 for glycyrrhizin, -17.84 for gitoxin, -12.05 for dicumarol, -10.75 for diosgenin, and -8.12 for delphinidin. For Mpro were, in kcal/mol: -9.36 for spirostan, -8.75 for N-(3-acetylglycyrrhetinoyl)-2-amino-propanol, -8.41 for α-amyrin, -8.35 for oleanane, -8.11 for taraxasterol, and -8.03 for glycyrrhetinic acid. In addition, the synthetic drugs umifenovir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine were used as controls for S protein, while atazanavir and nelfinavir were used for Mpro. Key hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between natural compounds and the respective viral proteins were identified, allowing us to explain the great affinity obtained in those compounds with the lowest binding energies. These results suggest that these natural compounds could potentially be useful as drugs to be experimentally evaluated against COVID-19.
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 7; doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.582210
The current recommendation for reducing person-to-person Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission is social distancing, including remote work and school, and home confinement. However, confinement may cause negative feelings, such as frustration, anger, boredom, and stress, in quarantined people. Furthermore, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity behaviors are commonly linked to home confinement, leading to weight gain, metabolic disorders, smoking, and exacerbated alcohol consumption. As a result, these unhealthy behaviors are typically linked to vascular endothelium damage (endothelial dysfunction), which is a first step for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given that CVD is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, attenuating the progression of endothelial dysfunction is very important for the control of CVD. Consuming vegetable rich in nitrate, such as beetroots, may be an effective way to prevent endothelial dysfunction. Several emerging studies have recommended beetroot juice in order to improve endothelial function in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic individuals, as well as in those with CVD risk factors. Therefore, nitrate-rich vegetable consumption, such as beetroot, should be encouraged to be included in the diet during confinement from COVID-19 outbreaks in order to alleviate the potential negative effect of home confinement on cardiovascular health.
BJPsych Bulletin pp 1-11; doi:10.1192/bjb.2020.114
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Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.566000
Because of particular properties of SARS-Cov-2, such as an high infection speed, its antigenic nature, evolutionarily unknown to the human immune system, and/or a viral interference on the immune response mechanisms, this virus would determine in the subjects a delayed anomalous (slow and/or low) immune response, ineffective and, finally, self-damaging. The hypothetical pathogenetic process for covid-19 could occur in three phases: a) Viral phase, asymptomatic or weakly symptomatic, with an a-specific innate immune response; b) Immunological phase, intermediately symptomatic, with an anomalous specific immune response (delayed, slow and/or low synthesis of IgM and IgG) in antigen excess conditions, immune complex formation and complement activation with tissue damages; c) Hemo-vascular phase, severely symptomatic, where complement-mediated tissue damages would induce vascular inflammation and systemic alteration of the coagulation homeostasis. This hypothesis is well supported by the immune-histochemical and microscopic demonstration in severe patient lungs of co-localized spike viral proteins, terminal components of the activated complement system (C5b-9 membrane attack complex) and microvascular deposits of small fibrin thrombi. This picture could be aggravated by the involvement of neutrophils and macrophages, releasing additional lytic and inflammatory factors. Thus, covid-19 would arise as a simple viral infection, develop as a diffuse immune complex hypersensitivity and explode as a systemic hemo-vascular pathology. If this hypothesized process would be real, suitable therapeutic interventions might be carried out, able to interfere with or block the critical factors in the various phases.
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 10; doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.570130
Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly engulfed the world. Cancer patients infected with COVID-19 are considered to carry higher severity of the disease and higher mortality rate than common COVID-19 patients in previous studies. However, due to the poor clinical information on COVID-19 patients with cancer, the evidences that supported this conclusion are insufficient. At present, rather limited reports have analyzed the clinical data of breast cancer patients infected with COVID-19. Therefore, in this retrospective study, we described the clinical characteristics and the outcomes of 35 COVID-19 patients with breast cancer and compared 55 COVID-19 patients without cancer and 81 COVID-19 patients with other types of cancer as controls. Our data showed that there were no differences in disease severity and outcomes between the COVID-19 patients with breast cancer and the common COVID-19 patients, which was in contrast to previous studies. In addition, compared with other types of cancer patients, asymptomatic infections and mild cases among breast cancer patients made up a substantially larger proportion. Our results indicated that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients were milder than those of other types of cancer patients, but there were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups.
Frontiers in Medical Technology, Volume 2; doi:10.3389/fmedt.2020.571030
DNA vaccines are considered as a third-generation vaccination approach in which antigenic materials are encoded as DNA plasmids for direct in vivo production to elicit adaptive immunity. As compared to other platforms, DNA vaccination is considered to have a strong safety profile, as DNA plasmids neither replicate nor elicit vector-directed immune responses in hosts. While earlier work found the immune responses induced by DNA vaccines to be sub-optimal in larger mammals and humans, recent developments in key synthetic DNA and electroporation delivery technologies have now allowed DNA vaccines to elicit significantly more potent and consistent responses in several clinical studies. This paper will review findings from the recent clinical and preclinical studies on DNA vaccines targeting emerging infectious diseases (EID) including COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the technological advancements pivotal to the improved responses—including the use of the advanced delivery technology, DNA-encoded cytokine/mucosal adjuvants, and innovative concepts in immunogen design. With continuous advancement over the past three decades, the DNA approach is now poised to develop vaccines against COVID-19, as well as other EIDs.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 11; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.605118
Corrigendum: Changes in Diet, Sleep, and Physical Activity Are Associated With Differences in Negative Mood During COVID-19 Lockdown
Published: 21 October 2020
Objectives: To explore Knowledge and perceptions about COVID-19, among Syrian refugee mothers in Irbid governorate, the first outbreak of coronavirus in Jordan. Methods: This is an exploratory cross-section study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers, who were currently pregnant or have a newborn child. The data collected through an online survey in April 2020 in North Jordan. Results: A total of 389 Syrian refugee mothers have participated in the study. The study showed that 66% of mothers often access information regarding COVID-19. The main used resources for information, were Facebook pages’ posters (87%), WhatsApp groups’ messages (69%), Television News (53%). While 21% indicated that they access a professional database or governmental websites. In general, Syrian refugee mothers appear well knowledgeable about COVID-19 the transition ways and prevention measures, and aspects that should be considered when diagnosing Coronavirus cases. However, they appeared to have a lack of knowledge about the aspects that should be considered for the transition of COVID-19 between the mother and the child and the concepts about the smoking risks associated with COVID-19. Conclusions: There is less focusing on media on aspects or still understudying of concepts about the smoking risks associated with COVID-19 and concepts around the transition of COVID-19 between the mother and the child. Providing health education regarding COVID-19 to mothers in Irbid would be helpful.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice; doi:10.1177/1078155220967100
unsere jugend, Volume 72, pp 464-468; doi:10.2378/uj2020.art74d
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