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Abstract:
The article summarizes the results of the 25th St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF-2022), which was held in St. Petersburg from June 15 to 18, 2022. As a participant of the forum, the author focuses on the analysis of Arctic issues, which were considered at the last event. They include current problems in the Arctic Council's activities, issues of the development of the Northern Sea Route, ship-building and ship repair in the Arctic, ensuring security in the region by the forces and means of the Russian EMERCOM, the state and prospects of building the international Arctic station Snezhinka, and problems of education and personnel training. Particular attention is paid to increasing the role of science, scientific and educational centers in making strategic decisions on the development of the economy, social and spiritual spheres of the Arctic territories. It is noted that, for the first time, heads of Arctic regions of the Russian Federation successfully presented investment projects in their regions at the Forum.
, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
Abstract:
India released its Arctic Policy in March 2022, a long awaited document by one of the four Observer countries to the Arctic Council indicating India's realisation of the significance of the Arctic. This article examines the evolution of India's Arctic engagement through a historical analysis of India's Arctic dis-course. Apart from enunciating the scientific and political endeavours to date, the article traces the historical evolution of India's Arctic dialogue by political, strategic and academic experts and the process of India's engagement in the region. The objective of the article is to trace the historical context of India's Arctic policy. The article's analysis of India's recently published Arctic policy suggests that India's cooperation with Arctic council countries needs to be expanded, and it also must build up on its Arctic expertise by forging links with scientific institutions and universities across the Arctic. The practical significance of the article is in its use by policy makers and researchers interested in cooperation with India in the Arctic and for academic use at universities.
, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences"
Abstract:
Active efforts to develop the elements of territorial socio-economic systems of the Russian Arctic are the key to the efficient development of its resources. One such element is the labor potential, which, on the one hand, is a social factor of territorial self-development in the Russian Arctic, and, on the other hand, is capable of effectively implementing national interests in the Arctic. In this regard, the quality of labor potential of the regions of the Arctic zone of Russia is of particular relevance, which is the focus of the author’s research. The first two stages of the study identified labor potential as a social factor in the self-development of the regions and local communities of the Russian Arctic, and also analyzed child poverty as a systemic factor limiting the possibilities of quality reproduction of labor potential of the regions of the Arctic zone of Russia. The purpose of the next stage of the study, the results of which are presented in this article, was to analyze the socio-economic situation of young people in the regions of the Russian Arctic as part of the formation of qualitative characteristics of labor potential of the Arctic zone of Russia. The research methods include statistical analysis of socio-economic situation of youth in the regions of the Russian Arctic and analysis of normative legal documents regulating certain issues of socio-labor relations. In the course of the study the main problems of socio-economic situation of the youth in the Russian Arctic, limiting the promising opportunities of their life activity in the regions of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, were identified. The results of the study are focused on their practical use in the management of the development of labor potential of the regions of the Russian Arctic.
, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
Abstract:
The article examines the dynamics of the number of small and medium-sized businesses in the Arkhangelsk Oblast from 2017 to 2021. The main reason for the sharp decrease in the number of subjects in 2020 is determined. The most vulnerable and affected areas of small and medium-sized businesses are listed. The measures of support for these areas of entrepreneurship at the federal level are reviewed. The measures taken by the Arkhangelsk regional government to regulate the situation are studied. The specific organizations that give support directly in the territory of the Arkhangelsk Oblast are given. The reasons why it is necessary to support and develop small and medium business in the Arkhangelsk economy are given. The methods used in this paper are an analysis of the number of small and medium-sized enterprises, drawing conclusions about the economic situation in the Oblast on the basis of this analysis, and researching support measures. This article might be useful for entrepreneurs in the Arkhangelsk Oblast to study the support measures. The information described in the article could be useful for scientific research, for statistics and analysis of small and medium business in the Arkhangelsk Oblast.
, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre “Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences”,
Abstract:
At present, new financial mechanisms of interaction between employees and employers in the context of market relations are being formed and improved in Russia. The decisive factor in workers’ per-formance is their financial motivation and stimulation. The determinative of productivity of an enterprise activity is remuneration efficiency as a base of laborers’ financial motivation and stimulation. The remuneration is a flexible element of distributive relations and it is impossible to create an effective motivational mechanism without an establishment of its communication with final results. Such indices as salary distribution and salary intensity as basic indicators of wage efficiency assessment have been used in the paper. The object of the research is sixteen large and medium-sized fishing enterprises in the Arkhangelsk region as a part of the Arctic fishing cluster. These enterprises catch fish in the Barents and Norwegian seas, as well as in the North Atlantic. It has been shown that the financial results of fishing enterprises depend on external conditions — primarily on the quotas for fish catch and the price of fish products. In the research, the authors have proceeded from the following hypotheses: the Arctic fishing cluster’s enterprises operate in a monopsony on the labor market; there is a pattern between the size of wage fund and financial performance of the Arctic fishery cluster enterprises; the change in wage fund is an effective mechanism to improve the efficiency of the Arctic fishery cluster. In the course of the research, the following interrelated tasks have been solved: the identification of the features of the Arctic fishing cluster’s labor market; the assessment of the effectiveness of the wage fund use for the Arctic fishing cluster’s enterprises based on the author's methodology; the identification of the importance of the problem of insufficient efficiency of wage fund use in the Arctic fishing cluster.
Svetlana V. Kondratyeva, Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
The European North of the Russian Federation is a unique northern (Arctic) tourist destination with ecologically vulnerable system, original traditions and culture of the locals, attracting Russian and in-ternational tourists. The aim of the work is to form a comprehensive view of the development of tourism in the European North of the Russian Federation based on identifying general trends and specifics of its development in the regional context. The model platform is six constituent regions of the European North of the Russian Federation (the Republics of Karelia and Komi, Arkhangelsk, Vologda and Murmansk oblasts, as well as the Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The research is based on investigation of seven main blocks: tourist and recreational potential and its promotion in the Internet; development of tourist infrastructure; strategies of the tourism development; dynamics of tourist flows (domestic and organized international); economic factor in the development of domestic tourism; regions in the National Tourism Rating; factors hindering tourism development. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of tourism in the European North is presented. The study is based on open statistical data from Rosstat, the official website of the National Tourism Rating for the period 20162020. The median indicators are calculated in the work. The results of the study allow us to form a general idea of the development of tourism in the Russian regions of the European North. The specific characteristics and general trends of the regional development of tourism in the regions are revealed.
, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Lyudmila M. Lyudmila M., , , Evgeniya N. Zemtsovskaya, Vologda State University
Abstract:
The article studies lexical designations of the natural phenomenon of the Northern lights in scientific, literary, journalistic and advertising texts of German- and Russian-speaking authors. The purpose is to compare and contrast their implementation in German and Russian Arctic discourses. The study of semantics, syntactics and pragmatics of lexical designations of the phenomenon allows authors to comprehensively assess the views of German and Russian scientists, writers, poets, journalists, representatives of tourism and advertising business on the northern lights. A comparative study of lexical designations of the northern Lights in the focus of German and Russian Arctic discourses shows the similarity in the presentation of the lexical categories under consideration according to the existing universal (scientific) world picture and the differences in the implementation of lexical designations of northern lights, explained by the national world picture of the representatives of two compared linguistic cultures.
Olga V. Vasilyeva, Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North–Siberian Branch RAS
Abstract:
This article is devoted to solving the question of whether it is possible to consider the extraction of mammoth bone as one of the types of traditional nature management of the indigenous peoples of the North. The solution to the problem is considered on the part of three criteria — the formation of a tradition of economic activity within an ethnic group, the focus of economic activity on use for their own needs, a balanced approach ensuring sustainable environmental management. As a result, the author concludes that the extraction of mammoth bone is a type of activity that cannot be called fully consistent with the criteria for traditional nature management. At the same time, in the article, the author proposes to consider broader the concept of traditional nature management in the modern capitalist world, supplementing it with a view from the world-system analysis of the dichotomy of traditional and capitalist society.
Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to identify the features of professional self-determination and formation of career trajectories of secondary vocational education students in the subjects of the Russian Arctic zone, their orientation towards professional implementation in the Arctic zone of Russia. The study is based on the survey of secondary vocational education students in the constituent entities of the Russian Arctic zone in the framework of the All-Russian career guidance lesson “Start your career in the Arctic and the Far East!”. A total of 686 questionnaires of respondents from Krasnoyarsk Krai, Murmansk Oblast, Komi Republic and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were selected for analysis. The results of the study showed that only about a third of students have decided on further plans for building career trajectories. Most students, when shaping their professional future, are guided by personal desires and preferences, as well as by material well-being. Every tenth student does not clearly associate his/her future with employment in the specialty. About a third of students are focused on professional implementation in the Russian Arctic zone. The results of the study can be useful for researchers, specialists in professional self-determination, teachers and consultants of educational institutions of secondary vocational education, as well as authorities in the field of education, labor and employment.
Marina A. Terentyeva
Abstract:
This article focuses on the labor market in the Russian northern regions. The labor market in the Russian North was formed due to the state policy of the no longer existing state, aimed at the active attraction of migrants from other territories for the industrial development of the country. This policy of attracting migrant labor in the state was implemented mainly through the creation of the institution of wages, which provided additional northern payments to the salary, designed to compensate for the discomfort of living and working conditions in the North. This led to an increase in employment in the North. The re-search goal is to study the formation and development of the wage institution, as well as to determine the impact of wages on employment in modern conditions. The article presents the history of formation of the institution of wages in the Russian North. The dynamics of labour market indicators is given, the change in the ratio of wages in the North is presented, based on official statistical data over the past 15 years. The results of the study show that the northern territories have problems of the labor market that have arisen in recent decades: high levels of unemployment, reduced employment, and wages, once being a significant factor, had a positive impact on employment, but today contribute to the decline in the economic attractiveness of life in the North.
Abstract:
The article is devoted to the analysis of threats to human security in the Russian Arctic, taking into account the peculiarities of the “northern mentality”. The authors note that the concept of “human security” is relatively new for the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF), as until recently security in the northern regions of Russia was defined mainly from the state-centric positions. The universalist approach is hardly applicable in practical policy: it is impossible to build a policy of “human security in general” and transfer it to the conditions of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The concept of human security and corresponding policies must be adapted to the specific conditions of the Russian Arctic. Today, however, the AZRF faces a set of new threats to human security that require a response. The authors examine several groups of threats to human security that are relevant to the AZRF, the reasons for their emergence and the extent to which they affect the further development of the region. In conclusion, the authors conclude that the transition of the AZRF to sustainable development is only possible if the threats to human security discussed in the article are neutralised. The key directions of human security policy, which is based on the principle of enhancing the viability and self-development of the peoples permanently living in the Arctic, are highlighted.
, Nikolay D. Naydenov, Elena N. Novokshonova
Abstract:
The article discusses the problems of increasing the multiplier effect of the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic as a result of investment, as well as ways to accelerate the economic growth of its spheres and individual enterprises. The problems of motivation to increase capital investments in order to increase production and competitiveness of marketable products remain without due attention. The aim of the study is to substantiate the transition of the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic to an innovative and investment path of development, to more active methods of using advanced technologies and resource provision of investments, increasing the share of the intellectual component in their composition. The subject of the study is to determine the level of the multiplier effect of the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic as a method for assessing its effectiveness and competitiveness. Research methods — quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of total costs, scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis, systems approach, historical and logical method, statistical observations. The article reveals the main trends of the multiplier effect in the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic. It is proposed to increase the multiplier effect of the agro-industrial complex for business entities to focus on the tasks of coordinating the flows of available investment resources.
Ekaterina N. Sharova,
Abstract:
The article deals with the peculiarities of the regional context of socialization of the youth of the subjects of the AZRF in the field of implementation of vocational and educational attitudes. The paper presents a summary analysis of statistical indicators of migration gain (loss) in the AZRF, including the structure by age groups, as well as data on the dynamics of the number of students studying at different types of ed-ucational institutions from 2005 to 2020. Statistical indicators of migration gain (loss) have revealed a trend of a sharp decrease in the outflow of population in the Russian Arctic. The obvious reasons for this situation were the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, which significantly increased the changes in the logic of the reproduction of the social structures, in particular, there was a migration turn towards provincial subjects, as the most favorable for life, in contrast to megacities and large cities. It actualizes and problematizes the possibilities of the environment of remote regions for the optimal socialization of young people. The authors of the article focus on environmental factors that contribute to the formation and implementation of professional and educational attitudes of young people in the region. The purpose of the article is to study the professional and educational attitudes of young people in the conditions of the migration outflow of the population. The object of the research is young people studying in the Murmansk Oblast. The choice of a specific subject of the Russian Arctic (Murmansk Oblast) is due to a number of reasons: intensive migration loss of population; significant reduction in the number of educational institutions; reduction in the number of students in comparison with other subjects of the Russian Arctic. The empirical basis of the article was formed by the results of a sociological study conducted in April–May 2021 in the Murmansk Oblast using the online survey method among graduates of educational institutions of secondary general (523 people), secondary vocational (519 people) and higher education (bachelor level) (283 people).
Abstract:
In modern conditions, the issues of assessing the sustainability of regional development are of particular relevance. The complex problems of interrelation of economic growth, environmental pollution and population well-being require the development and use of new, simpler and more understandable ap-proaches for decision makers to assess, analyze, and predict sustainability at the regional level. The pur-pose of the article is to investigate the opportunities for sustainable development of the regions of the European North included in the Arctic zone, and to develop methods for forecasting their socio-environmental and economic development based on sustainability window assessment. The dynamics of changes in the relationship between environmental, social and economic indicators with the use of pollu-tion functions is analyzed. The main factors contributing to the reduction of environmental pollution and increase of the population's well-being are identified. It is shown that structural changes in the regional economy and environmental investments have the greatest effect. A methodology for calculating sustainability windows for the regional economy is presented. The possibility of using the method has been demonstrated using data from the Republic of Karelia. A scenario of sustainable development based on the restriction of economic growth for some regions and the requirements for the structure of the economy has been developed. The results obtained can be used as an informational and methodological basis for assessing and elaborating sustainable development policies in the Arctic regions.
, Elena S. Goryachevskaya
Abstract:
The analysis of methods for assessing the financial opportunities for increasing the economic efficiency of industrial enterprises using absolute and relative indicators and coefficients was carried out. A mechanism for determining financial possibilities for realizing innovative potential of northern mining enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy, based on the method of assessing the three-component coefficient, which allows choosing the most rational strategy of scientific and technological development, taking into account financial resources and features of production functioning in the northern regions of the Russian Federation, was developed. It is shown that the proposed methodology can be used with limited infor-mation in the accounting statements provided in public access. On the basis of objective indicators, the research of innovation activity of twenty industrial enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy directly operating in the North and the Arctic and included as subsidiaries and branches of seven largest corporations — PJSC MMC “Norilsk Nickel”, JSC “Mine Karalveem”, PJSC “Acron”, JSC “Mining company “Berelekh”, PJSC “Seligdar”, OJSC “Susumanzoloto”, JSC “Polymetal” for the period 2013–2019 was carried out. Studies showed the dependence of the innovation activity of northern enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy on the level of financial security revealed by the method of assessing the three-component coefficient. Scientifically substantiated possibility of developing and implementing a strategy of innovation development of enterprises for the medium and long term periods based on the level of financial security is shown. Enterprises with high financial security or in special cases (with additional investments with normal financial security) are able to generate innovation technologies. As the analysis has shown, the majority of northern enterprises have low financial security, which does not allow them to count on effective innovative development without attracting a significant amount of targeted investments.
Abstract:
In recent circumstances of world climate change, Arctic zone has become of great interest for those countries actively involved in its development. With the constant climate warming, deglaciation and increasing of sea-level, commercial transport ways through the Arctic Ocean become a possible economic solution for large exporting countries. Due to importance of north passage for China, Beijing proclaimed itself as a "near-circle State" to get advantages from the development of Northern Sea Route (NSR) that can provide direct access to the Arctic zone and its natural resources. Considering this, China has recently published its White Paper on Arctic Policy, where it announces "Ice Silk Road" to be the official Arctic strategy of China. This article underlines the major intentions and interests of China in its Arctic strategy. One of China's intentions is an enhancement of the Northern Sea Route, that still raises concerns from the specialists whether it can be applicable part of Arctic strategy of China. This article approves that according to Ice Silk Road's connotation Russia should play an indispensable role in China's advancement to the Arctic zone through NSR. Moreover, the author investigates the influence of "Ice Silk Road" on Sino-Russian relations. Both China and Russia appear to prioritize this strategy to ameliorate economic situation and infrastructure in less-developed regions of two countries. Though, economic development of Arctic coastal cities is one of the priorities of the Russian Federation, it remains to be attentive to the involvement of China in the development of the region, mainly out of fear that it will influence its legal position in the Arctic region. Meanwhile, it stays important that two governments come to a consensus concerning the legislative basis of NSR usage and have a deep assessment of advantages and disadvantages that come out as a result of their partnership.
Sergey S. Vopilovskiy, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies — Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre ", Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Apatity (Ies Ksc Ras)
Abstract:
The study examines modern challenges affecting the development of the Arctic marine transport system and the economic situation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). The basic normative legal acts that determine the activities of economic organizations in the Arctic are presented. It was deter-mined that in the context of the world economy regression caused by geopolitical, economic, natural and other reasons, increasing the AZRF economic potential is a priority goal, and the implementation of tasks for the Arctic zone development and ensuring national security corresponds to the implementation of the Fundamentals of State Policy of Russia. The tendency of competitive struggle by the Arctic countries on the issues of economics and geopolitics is noted. The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is presented as the basis of the Arctic sea transport system, its economic potential, international importance, international integration with the People's Republic of China is shown. The main infrastructural projects of the Arctic for the development of the oil and gas complex, the construction of an icebreaker fleet, the construction of new and modernization of the existing ports of the NSR, etc. are presented to solve the problems of increasing cargo traffic along the Northern Sea Corridor. New projects for modernization of port infrastructure, transport development, etc. are considered. The purpose of the study is to assess the ongoing and planned infrastructure projects carried out by the state and business to increase the economic potential of the Arctic. Many of them are unique, which expresses firm confidence in the modern development of the Arctic zone, in ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation.
Abstract:
The article discusses the pollution of marine environment with plastic waste, in particular, the accumulation of microplastics in the oceans, which is one of the most serious environmental problems both in the world and in the Russian Arctic. Alongside with other world oceans, the Arctic Ocean and the Barents Sea have become places of plastic accumulation, causing great harm to the fragile ecosystem of the Arctic region. Researchers have found microplastics not only in Arctic waters, but also in the ice of the Arctic seas. Plastic debris is carried by ocean currents from more densely populated areas of the planet. Local sources, such as fishing and other commercial activities, as well as waste water, are one more reason. Microplastics adversely affect living organisms in the ocean. In particular, plastic can cause physical harm and disrupt body formation of marine animals, as well as cause death by suffocation or ingestion of plastic. At the same time, plastics can accumulate persistent organic pollutants on their surface, which can poison marine animals, damaging the entire food chain.
Yanina A. Kuznetsova
Abstract:
Based on the analysis of All-Union Population Census of 1926 and a wide range of general and regional scientific research, the author studies the processes of demographic and economic development of territories located in the Russian North and conventionally designated by the author as regions of Euro-pean, Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern North. The paper identifies key trends and features of Northern re-gions' development in the 1920s, caused by the first Soviet reforms of the administrative-territorial struc-ture of the country, economic development and national state policy, which had an impact on the demo-graphic processes in the regions including population size, its composition and settlement structure. It is found that the economic development was the most active in the bordering areas, where intensive development of industry and transportation implied the need to strengthen national defense and expand trade and economic ties. This mainly concerned the regions of the European and Far Eastern North. The regions that were rich in natural resources, especially gold deposits, such as Yakutia, also developed more actively. Other regions of Ural and Siberian North developed in a more traditional way, based on growth of wood harvesting and fishing industry. Improving of living conditions of the indigenous peoples of the North, material support for their farms, medical care and legal assistance, introduction of education among the population in the 1920s had a positive impact on the economic and demographic development of the indigenous population.
Andreas Raspotnik, Svein V. Rottem, Andreas Østhagen
Abstract:
In the Arctic, the concept of the blue economy is increasingly dominating discussions on regional development. This entails utilising the region’s ocean-based resources in a sustainable way – both from a global and local level, as well as from an environmental and economic perspective. A crucial aspect in this development is how blue activities are regulated. The UNCLOS-regime plays a vital part in providing the mechanisms and procedures for states to manage marine resources more broadly. However, the predominant mode of governance for Arctic maritime activities will remain unilateral management by each of the coastal states. Thus, the national and local legal and political framework needs to be mapped. In this article we will explore and explain how aqua/-mariculture is governed in the United States (Alaska) and Norway (North Norway). This will be done by examining how parameters for blue economic projects are defined and determined at the international, regional, national and local governance level. Thus, our article will illustrate the complexity behind the blue economy. There is no such thing as one blue economy and no such thing as one Arctic, but it is still possible to find common ground and avenues for knowledge and best practice exchange. By this we will bring the academic and political discussions about the blue economy on the right track.
Elena V. Nedoseka, Vladimir V. Kozlovskiy
Abstract:
The article analyzes the regional specifics of solid municipal waste management in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the topic is determined by the need to analyze the regional specifics of solid municipal waste management within the framework of the federal project "Integrated System of Solid Municipal Waste Management", included in the national project "Ecology". First of all, this request will allow us to achieve the most effective management decisions in the field of regulatory regulation and the introduction of mechanisms for economic regulation of MSW management activities, as well as to contribute the creation of an effective management system, and the development of infrastructure for MSW management. The statistical analysis of formation indicators, processing and utilization of MSW waste in the structure by region is presented in this paper. The factors determining the specificity of MSW handling in the Arctic regions are defined. The expert survey made it possible to identify the main problems of implementing the garbage reform in the Arctic in general and in inner regions in particular. The main methods in this study were: semi-formal telephone interviews with representatives of environmental organizations and associations (18 informants), as well as collecting and analysis of statistical indicators of the MSW handling in the Arctic regions.
Henna Longi, Sami Niemelä
Abstract:
In the northern periphery, actions are needed to support regional economic development. According to widely shared understanding, innovations are at the core of sustainable economic growth. The regional innovation system (RIS) approach is a framework that has been developed for the design and im-plementation of innovation-based regional policies. This concept implicates new roles for public and private actors in the system. The role of the public sector is related to generating and diffusing knowledge to the companies and industrial networks. On the other hand, companies have increased collaboration with other actors and utilization of external knowledge for innovation and commercial purposes. The case analysis in this study is based on data from experiments in Oulu region, Finland, which has a long history in developing public-private collaboration and innovation system. The focus of the analysis is on knowledge application and exploitation, and their implications for the public driven innovation system and activities. Operational tools and activities are divided into three different categories: company collaboration, business development, and competence development. The analysis also reveals some examples of the future prospects and challenges in the region.
Kirill A. Galustov, Igor A. Khodachek
Abstract:
The Russian Arctic is at the epicentre of economic, environmental, and social changes. At the same time, the peripheral character of the territory, its strong orientation on primary sector makes the region extremely volatile to suchlike shifts. The study concerns primary sector transformation in the Post-Soviet period when after 1991 significant changes in the economy were observed. The main aim of the paper is to identify the specifics, features and development prospects of the recent primary sector transfor-mation in the Russian Arctic. The statistical methods do not reflect the full picture of the transformation. Firstly, Russia has switched to UN national accounts system only in 1994. Secondly, the Arctic statistics after 2009 for regional level is unavailable. That is why the main method of the research is the expert survey method. The results of the study demonstrate the dominant role of the primary sector and the strong dependence of Russian Arctic regions on these activities. The study identifies the key factors and drivers of the transformation, a specific position of the oil and gas sector and the role of natural resources to be traditionally used in the primary sector. Despite the positive role of economic diversification in the long-term economic development, the corresponding effect for the Arctic regions is not fully expressed. The methodological novelty of the research is an unconventional research method of investigating primary sector transformation on the regional level in the Post-Soviet Russian Arctic, i.e. the expert survey. The method can be applied to other countries and industries.
Julia Olsen, Marina V. Nenasheva, Grete K. Hovelsrud, Gjermund Wollan
Abstract:
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, local communities have been adapting to new political and socioeconomic realities. These changes have prompted dramatic outmigration among rural populations, especially in the Russian Arctic. Despite these changes, some communities remain viable, with some residents exploring new economic opportunities. This study uses findings from qualitative interviews to understand what factors shape community viability, interviewing residents and relevant regional stakeholders in two case areas in the Arkhangelsk oblast: the Solovetsky Archipelago in the White Sea and islands in the delta of the Northern Dvina River. The results indicate that community viability and the reluctance of community members to leave their traditional settlements are shaped by livelihoods, employment opportunities, and social capital. Social capital is characterized by such empirically identified factors as shared perceptions of change and a willingness to address changes, place attachment, and local values. We conclude that further development or enhancement of community viability and support for local livelihoods also depends on 1) bottom-up initiatives of engaged individuals and their access to economic support and 2) top-down investments that contribute to local value creation and employment opportunities.
Aliaksei Patonia
Abstract:
Iceland — an independent republic — and Greenland — an autonomous country within Denmark — represent two nations with similar geographical, economic, and historical backgrounds. Isolated from the continents, both are significantly affected by an adverse climate, making their economies dependent on trade and import. Nevertheless, despite their similarities, their national energy patterns differ substantially. Specifically, Iceland covers most of its energy mix with local renewables, whereas Greenland meets most of the energy demand with imported hydrocarbons. This paper investigates the reasons for Greenland lagging behind Iceland in terms of developing renewable energy resources. It hypothesises that, apart from the commonly-mentioned geographical, institutional, and cultural factors, the difference in social capital level has significantly contributed to the countries’ divergent energy strategies. In this sense, Iceland’s higher social capital stock stimulates its renewable power progress, whereas Greenland’s lower social capital level hampers it. To examine this hypothesis, the article constructs a ‘social capital tripod’, which assumes specific geographical, institutional, and cultural factors to be linked to renewable energy development through social capital. The findings demonstrate that Greenland, being dependent on hydrocarbon import, has a significantly lower expected level of social capital than Iceland, which runs mostly on renewables, therefore generally aligning with the research hypothesis.
Konstantin S. Zaikov, Nikolay A. Kondratov
Abstract:
The Arctic region has long been at the center of world politics and economy. One of the reasons for the transformation of the global fringe into a center of attraction for the economic, geo-ecological and geopolitical interests of foreign countries is the Arctic is undergoing dynamic transformations. In the socio-political and scientific research agenda of the Arctic States, there are acute issues of accumulation and exchange of knowledge about changes taking place in the natural and socio-economic environment of a non-standard region from the point of view of management. The Arctic strategies of the Northern European States seek to fill the vacuum about the trends of environmental changes in the Arctic, the impact of natural transformations on the environment, socio-economic development, population security, and the use of natural resources by indigenous peoples. This task is planned to be solved through the development of research activities of universities located in the Far North and in the Arctic zone of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden, as well as Iceland. The article describes the scientific interests of the Northern European States in the Arctic. Using analytical and comparative methods, the goal is achieved — to characterize universities as one of the parts of their scientific and educational space in the Nordic countries. An attempt is made to answer the question: how does educational and research activities contribute to the implementation of state program documents for the development of natural resources in the Arctic and the use of its spaces? The further direction of scientific research may be to compare the educational and research activities of universities in Northern Europe and universities in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.
Nikolay Egorov, Grigoriy Kovrov
Abstract:
The paper deals with the assessment of the level of innovative development of the Northern regions. Based on the data of the annual rating of innovative economies, performed by Bloomberg, a comparative analysis of the rating of innovative economies in the Nordic countries is presented. It is noted that Russia has been consistently ranked 25–27 in the last four years, although in 2016, it was in the 12th place. An overview analysis of methodological approaches and methods for assessing the level of innovative de-velopment of a region in Russia is carried out. On the basis of statistical data on the composite integral index, a comparative assessment of the level of innovative development of 17 regions of the Far North of the Russian Federation for 2017 is carried out, and the corresponding ranks are analyzed separately for 5 sub-indices of thematic blocks: socio-economic conditions, scientific and technical potential, innovation activity, export activity and the quality of regional innovation policy. The study shows a significant difference between the regions of the Far North of the Russian Federation in terms of the level of innovative development. In five subjects of the Far North of the Russian Federation, the values of the composite innovation index are higher than the average for the Russian Federation. Different positions occupied by regions are also observed in the rankings for individual sub-indices. The results of such ratings make it possible to assess the comparative advantages and disadvantages of specific regions for further consideration in the program documents on their innovative development.
Maria Pitukhina
Abstract:
Nowadays, the potential for international cooperation in the Arctic is concentrated within the framework of such an influential international structure as the Arctic Council, where Russia is presiding over soon in 2021–2023. The article is devoted to international cooperation evaluation of 15 Arctic universities from 7 Arctic Council member-states with a student contingent of at least 3,600 people (2 in the USA, 1 in Iceland, 5 in Russia, 2 in Finland, 2 in Sweden, 2 in Norway, 1 in Canada). It seems possible to evaluate international cooperation potential between Arctic universities through the prism of 10 quantitative indicators, including the number of international students admitted to the university; number of courses taught in English; number of educational programs for international students; a number of foreign scientists invited to the university, etc. We can evaluate both academic mobility within the Arctic universities and vocational education internationalization due to accumulated statistical data.
Natalya Dyadik, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies, Anastasiya Chapargina
Abstract:
The growing interest in environmental problems on the part of society leads to the fact that more and more attention is paid to the activities of enterprises, and the criteria for the greening of their production are becoming more stringent. With the growth of industrial production, the scale of the negative impact on the environment increases, so simply discussing environmental problems becomes insufficient. There is a need for a comprehensive accounting of the environmental performance of organizations and the development of measures to compensate for the resulting environmental damage. The article examines the issues of environmental and economic relations between business and government in the Russian Arctic. The purpose of this study is to form a theoretical approach to solving the problem of greening the Arctic regions based on the analysis of the ecological and economic relations between government and business. Legal and economic instruments for regulating environmental protection in Russia, as well as strategic documents for the development of the Russian Arctic in the field of ecology are analyzed. An assessment of the environmental and economic responsibility of companies operating in the Russian Arctic is carried out on the basis of non-financial reporting data. The results of the analysis show that the presented non-financial information is not transparent enough, and the level of business responsibility is rather low. To solve the problem posed, the authors propose a theoretical approach to building a "green" partnership, which allows finding a compromise between the interests of the state and business. The formation of an integrated ecological and economic approach in the state regulation of environmental protection activities will allow reaching a point of bifurcation in the relationship between government and business and thereby leveling the anthropogenic load on the ecosystem of the territory.
Anton M. Maksimov, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research named after N.P. Laverov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kristina O. Malinina, Tatyana A. Blynskaya
Maria A. Pitukhina, Ivan V. Radikov, Vladimir A. Volokh, Saint Petersburg State University, State University of Management
Aleksandr V. Krutikov, The Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, Olga O. Smirnova, Lina K. Bocharova
Yury F. Lukin, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
S.V. Popkova, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, L.S. Zarubin
Arctic and North, Volume 39, pp 110-126; https://doi.org/10.37482/issn2221-2698.2020.39.110

Oleg V. Uzkiy, Arkhangelsk Administration Of The Arkhangelsk Region Governor And Government
Arctic and North, Volume 38, pp 91-104; https://doi.org/10.37482/issn2221-2698.2020.38.91

Victoria V. Tevlina, Marianne N. Soleim, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway
Published: 30 September 2019
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 36, pp 114-120; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2019.36.143

Ekaterina Kochemasova, Information and Analytical Center “Science” of the RAS, Valeriy Zhuravel, Natalia Sedova, Institute of Europe of the RAS, Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Published: 1 June 2019
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 35, pp 158-169; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2019.35.158

Elena Gianesin, Organizing Committee of the International Snow Sculpture Festival
Published: 1 March 2019
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 34, pp 165-170; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2019.34.165

Kjell Olsen, UiT — The Arctic University of Norway
Published: 1 March 2019
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 34, pp 44-56; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2019.34.44

Elena Tereshchenko, Murmansk Arctic State University
Published: 1 December 2018
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 33, pp 56-65; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2018.33.56

Anton Maksimov, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research named after N.P. Laverov of the RAS, Anna Ukhanova, Tatiana Smak, The Public opinion research center
Published: 1 December 2018
Journal: Arctic and North
Arctic and North, Volume 33, pp 157-177; https://doi.org/10.17238/issn2221-2698.2018.33.157

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