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Gregory D. Poore, Emily R. Ko, Ashlee Valente, Ricardo Henao, Kelsey Sumner, Christopher Hong, Thomas W. Burke, Marshall Nichols, Micah T. McClain, Erich S. Huang, et al.
Published: 11 December 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02957

Abstract: Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading indication for antibacterial prescriptions despite a viral etiology in the majority of cases. The lack of available diagnostics to discriminate viral and bacterial etiologies contributes to this discordance. Recent efforts have focused on the host response as a source for novel diagnostic targets although none have explored the ability of host-derived microRNAs (miRNA) to discriminate between these etiologies. Methods: In this study, we compared host-derived miRNAs and mRNAs from human H3N2 influenza challenge subjects to those from patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Sparse logistic regression models were used to generate miRNA signatures diagnostic of ARI etiologies. Generalized linear modeling of mRNAs to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes allowed analysis of potential miRNA:mRNA relationships. High likelihood miRNA:mRNA interactions were examined using binding target prediction and negative correlation to further explore potential changes in pathway regulation in response to infection. Results: The resultant miRNA signatures were highly accurate in discriminating ARI etiologies. Mean accuracy was 100% [88.8–100; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)] in discriminating the healthy state from S. pneumoniae pneumonia and 91.3% (72.0–98.9; 95% CI) in discriminating S. pneumoniae pneumonia from influenza infection. Subsequent differential mRNA gene expression analysis revealed alterations in regulatory networks consistent with known biology including immune cell activation and host response to viral infection. Negative correlation network analysis of miRNA:mRNA interactions revealed connections to pathways with known immunobiology such as interferon regulation and MAP kinase signaling. Conclusion: We have developed novel human host-response miRNA signatures for bacterial and viral ARI etiologies. miRNA host response signatures reveal accurate discrimination between S. pneumoniae pneumonia and influenza etiologies for ARI and integrated analyses of the host-pathogen interface are consistent with expected biology. These results highlight the differential miRNA host response to bacterial and viral etiologies of ARI, offering new opportunities to distinguish these entities.
Daria N Shalaeva, Dmitry A Cherepanov, Michael Y Galperin, Andrey V Golovin, Armen Y Mulkidjanian
Published: 11 December 2018
eLife, Volume 7; doi:10.7554/elife.37373

Abstract: The ubiquitous P-loop fold nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPases) are typically activated by an arginine or lysine 'finger'. Some of the apparently ancestral NTPases are, instead, activated by potassium ions. To clarify the activation mechanism, we combined comparative structure analysis with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Mg-ATP and Mg-GTP complexes in water and in the presence of potassium, sodium, or ammonium ions. In all analyzed structures of diverse P-loop NTPases, the conserved P-loop motif keeps the triphosphate chain of bound NTPs (or their analogs) in an extended, catalytically prone conformation, similar to that imposed on NTPs in water by potassium or ammonium ions. MD simulations of potassium-dependent GTPase MnmE showed that linking of alpha- and gamma phosphates by the activating potassium ion led to the rotation of the gamma-phosphate group yielding an almost eclipsed, catalytically productive conformation of the triphosphate chain, which could represent the basic mechanism of hydrolysis by P-loop NTPases.
Subhashis Chatterjee, Ankur Shukla
Published: 11 December 2018
by Wiley
Journal of Software: Evolution and Process; doi:10.1002/smr.2150

Abstract: This paper presents a unified approach to model the reliability growth of software with imperfect debugging and coverage factor. Existing testing coverage‐based software reliability growth models considered that faults present at a particular fault location are detected with certainty during the testing process. Practically, it is very difficult to detect all software faults. To overcome this limitation, a revised software reliability growth model has been developed with the assumption that detection of the faults at a particular fault location is not definite. Furthermore, a new method to model the imperfect debugging phenomenon has been incorporated in the proposed study. A revised model ranking method has been developed to improve the accuracy of model ranking, which is mainly extension of existing normalized criteria distance method. Change point analysis has been done with the effect of different environmental factors on the models' parameters. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Emily Nordmann, Carolina Kuepper-Tetzel, Louise Robson, Stuart Phillipson, Gabi Lipan, Peter McGeorge
Published: 11 December 2018
Abstract: This paper provides practical recommendations to help promote effective strategies for the use of lecture capture for students and staff. We draw on cognitive and educational psychological research to place lecture capture within the framework of self-regulated learning. For students, we suggest that the importance of attendance and effective note-taking should be reinforced, as well as specifying how lecture capture can best be used as a catch-up or revision aid. For staff, we highlight the need to provide guidance for students and to adopt a context-dependent approach to lecture capture based on pedagogical considerations, rather than all-or-nothing. Regarding the issue of the relationship between lecture capture and attendance, we suggest the focus should move to a more nuanced discussion of why students fail to attend lectures and how they are using lecture capture. Finally, we discuss other concerns commonly raised by staff related to lecture capture. Our student guidance is available for dissemination in infographic form at https://osf.io/e9cqu/.
Małgorzata Proćków, Elżbieta Kuźnik-Kowalska
Published: 11 December 2018
Folia Malacologica, Volume 26, pp 271-273; doi:10.12657/folmal.026.027

Raquel Gardini Sanches Palasio, Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães, Roseli Tuan
Published: 11 December 2018
Folia Malacologica, Volume 26, pp 221-229; doi:10.12657/folmal.026.019

Nathalie M. Enk, Annette P. N. Kutter, Claudia Kuemmerle‐Fraune, Nadja E. Sigrist
Published: 11 December 2018
by Wiley
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine; doi:10.1111/jvim.15365

Abstract: Background Correlation of plasma fibrinogen concentration (fibrinogenClauss) with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters has not been investigated in dogs. Objectives To determine the correlation between plasma coagulation tests and fibrinogenClauss with ROTEM parameters and to evaluate their ability to predict bleeding in dogs. Animals Ninety‐seven dogs with concurrent determination of fibrinogenClauss and fibrin polymerization test (FIBTEM) analysis. Methods Signalment, pretreatment, clinical signs of bleeding, fibrinogenClauss, plasma coagulation test results, hematocrit, platelet count, FIBTEM, extrinsic (EXTEM) and intrinsic (INTEM) activated ROTEM assays were retrieved retrospectively. Correlations between fibrinogenClauss and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCFFIBTEM) and between prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and ROTEM parameters were determined. Dogs were further assigned to groups with or without clinical signs of bleeding. The prognostic significance of significantly different parameters to predict bleeding was evaluated. Results FibrinogenClauss showed strong correlation with MCFFIBTEM (r = 0.860, n = 97, P < .001). PT showed strong correlation with EXTEM clotting time (CTEXTEM) (r = 0.839, n = 53, P < .001), and aPTT was strongly correlated with INTEM CT (CTINTEM) (r = 0.664, n = 31, P < .001). Platelet count, PT/aPTT, EXTEM clot formation time (CFTEXTEM), MCFEXTEM, EXTEM maximum clot elasticity (MCEEXTEM), and CTINTEM were significantly different between groups. A CTINTEM >149 seconds was 100% sensitive to detect bleeding. Conclusions and Clinical Importance The MCFFIBTEM can be used to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen on hemostasis as an alternative to determination of fibrinogenClauss. In addition, CTEXTEM and CTINTEM are strongly correlated with PT and aPTT, respectively.
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 50, pp 153-153; doi:10.1363/psrh.12082

Nadia Meyta M D-Iii Farmasi
Published: 11 December 2018
Abstract: Banyak terdengar gerakan #2019GantiPresiden yang sangat viral di media sosial dan gerakan tersebut memecah masyarakat menjadi 2 kubu yaitu pro dan kontra. Dalam gerakan ini masyarakat bebas menyampaikan pendapatnya, akan tetapi masyarakat dalam menyampaikan pendapatnya harus mematuhi ketentuan-ketentuan hukum yang berlaku di Indonesia, dan dengan adanya gerakan #2019GantiPresiden jangan sampai kita terpecah karena perbedaan pendapat dan politik. Dan harus dilakukan secara damai dan demokratis. Karena kita adalah saudara dan kita mempunyai Dasar Negara yaitu Pancasila yang memiliki lima elemen dasar yang menjadi karakter dan kepribadian utama bangsa Indonesia dan juga merupakan ideologi nasional. Walaupun kita berbeda-beda pendapat kita harus tetap satu.
Sabine Ferneborg, Måns Thulin, Sigrid Agenäs, Kerstin Svennersten-Sjaunja, Peter Krawczel, Emma Ternman
Journal of Dairy Research pp 1-3; doi:10.1017/s002202991800078x

Abstract: This research communication describes how different detachment levels (0.48, 0.3 and 0.06 kg milk/min) at the quarter-level affect milk flow profiles and overall milking efficiency in automatic milking systems. We hypothesized a higher detachment level would result in greater mean flow rates without affecting the volume of harvested milk per cow during 24 h compared to lower detachment levels. The data suggest milk flow decreased to a rate below the overmilking limit within the 6-s delay time required for termination in all treatments, but the duration of overmilking was shorter for the greatest detachment level compared to the other treatments. We conclude that setting a detachment level at a greater milk flow rate reduces the duration of overmilking without affecting the amount of milk harvested when applied to cows in mid-lactation during quarter-level milking. We also suggest that the steepness of the decline phase of the milk flow curve might have a larger effect than the actual detachment level on the duration of overmilking.
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