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Sciprofile linkNaoki Taniguchi, Mitsuharu Hosono, Shintaro Kuwauchi, Hiroshi Yasumoto, Kohei Kawazoe
Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery; doi:10.5761/atcs.oa.19-00261

Abstract: Purpose: We investigated the utility of trunk muscle cross-sectional area to predict length of hospitalization after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). Methods: Adult AS patients who underwent isolated AVR at a single institution were studied. The cross-sectional area of the erector spinae muscles (ESM) at the first and second lumbar vertebrae and that of the psoas muscle (PM) at the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae were measured on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Each was indexed to body surface area. Risk factors for prolonged postoperative hospitalization (>3 weeks) were assessed using multivariate regression analyses. Results: Of 56 patients (mean age 76 ± 9 years; 25 men), 20 (35.7%) patients required prolonged hospitalization. A smaller indexed ESM cross-sectional area at the first lumbar vertebra (per 1 cm/m2, odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57–0.88, P <0.01) and lower preoperative serum albumin level (per 0.1 g/dL, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70–0.99, P <0.05) were shown as independent predictors. Indexed PM cross- sectional area was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The cross-sectional area of the trunk muscles can be used to identify patients at risk for prolonged hospitalization after AVR for adult AS.
Sciprofile linkYoshie Imai, Chiemi Onishi, Takae Bando
Palliative Care Research, Volume 15, pp 1-8; doi:10.2512/jspm.15.1

Abstract: 本研究は,終末期がん患者を受け持った看護学生の体験を明らかにすることを目的とした.高齢者看護学実習にて終末期がん患者を受け持った看護学生3年生15名に面接調査を実施した.終末期がん患者を受け持った学生の体験は【苦しんでいる患者がいるのに何もできず情けない】【終末期と怖気づかずに非力ながらも自分から関わっていく】【日常生活のなかで生死を目の当たりにする】【患者が生きている今日1日をしっかりと支えていく】【クリティカルな状態にある患者を看るにはまだまだ不十分さが残ると自覚する】【最期まで患者らしく人生を生き切れるようにする】のカテゴリーで構成された.学生の体験は,終末期にあるがん患者の状況から,自身のケアのあり方に対峙し,患者らしさを引き出す大切さを学ぶ体験となっていた.患者の持つその人らしさの視点を広げることは,対象の持つ特性を加味した終末期ケアを促すことになることが推察された.
Sciprofile linkTakaomi Kobayashi, Tadatsugu Morimoto, Kazumasa Maeda, Yu Toda, Hirohito Hirata, Tomohito Yoshihara, Masaaki Mawatari
Spine Surgery and Related Research; doi:10.22603/ssrr.2019-0090

Abstract: Introduction: The transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach is typically performed for the treatment of upper cervical tumor and instability but has not been performed for the treatment of upper cervical epidural abscess (UCEA). We report the first case of UCEA successfully treated with a transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach. Technical Note: A 62-year-old man who had medical histories of tracheotomy with intubation and dermatopathy due to radiation therapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented with neck pain and limb weakness. The imaging examination revealed bone erosion of C2–C4 vertebrae and abscess at the level of C2–C4, supporting a diagnosis of UCEA. The transcervical approach could not be used for treatment; therefore, the transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach was used successfully to perform decompression, debridement, and iliac bone grafting. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature pertaining to the use of the transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach. The approach can be invasive and cause some complications. However, no fatal complications have been reported, and all patients demonstrated a favorable neurological outcome with reduced neurological deficits. Conclusions: This case and subsequent literature review suggest that the transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach may be effective for the improvement of neurological outcomes without fatal complications in patients with UCEA. There may be an increasing number of patients with UCEA requiring the transoral mandibular tongue-splitting approach due to the increasing prevalence of immunocompromized status and the aging population.
V A Likhanov, Sciprofile linkA V Rossokhin
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012207

Abstract: The problems of using compressed natural gas in diesel as an alternative fuel and reducing the content of harmful substances in exhaust gases are considered. At the same time, the problems of formation and burning of soot particles in the diesel cylinder during its operation on natural gas and their influence on the combustion process and flame characteristics are considered separately. The results of bench tests on the impact of the use of compressed natural gas on the effective performance, environmental performance and fluidity of exhaust gases are presented. The parameters of the combustion process and heat dissipation characteristics are considered, the values of the mass content of soot in the engine cylinder depending on the angle of rotation of the crankshaft are calculated. The optimal values of the effective parameters, characteristics of the combustion process, toxicity and smokiness of exhaust gases during the operation of diesel on compressed natural gas are determined. Conversion of the considered diesel from oil diesel fuel to compressed natural gas allowed to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases by 17.0%, soot in 25 times, carbon dioxide by 10.1%.
Gregory P. Williams, David J. Marmion, Aubrey M. Schonhoff, Asta Jurkuvenaite, Woong-Jai Won, David G. Standaert, Jeffrey H. Kordower, Sciprofile linkAshley S. Harms
Acta Neuropathologica pp 1-20; doi:10.1007/s00401-020-02126-w

Abstract: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in oligodendrocytes accompanied by inflammation, demyelination, and subsequent synapse and neuronal loss. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in MSA. However, recent work has highlighted the important role of the immune system to the pathophysiology of other synuclein-related diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we investigated postmortem brain tissue from MSA patients and control subjects for evidence of immune activation in the brain. We found a significant increase of HLA-DR+ microglia in the putamen and substantia nigra of MSA patient tissue compared to controls, as well as significant increases in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in these same brain regions. To model MSA in vivo, we utilized a viral vector that selectively overexpresses α-syn in oligodendrocytes (Olig001-SYN) with > 95% tropism in the dorsal striatum of mice, resulting in demyelination and neuroinflammation similar to that observed in human MSA. Oligodendrocyte transduction with this vector resulted in a robust inflammatory response, which included increased MHCII expression on central nervous system (CNS) resident microglia, and infiltration of pro-inflammatory monocytes into the CNS. We also observed robust infiltration of CD4 T cells into the CNS and antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the draining cervical lymph nodes. Importantly, genetic deletion of TCR-β or CD4 T cells attenuated α-syn-induced inflammation and demyelination in vivo. These results suggest that T cell priming and infiltration into the CNS are key mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in MSA, and therapeutics targeting T cells may be disease modifying.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012145

Abstract: The paper deals with a distributed approach for optimization problems based on the use of bioinspired algorithms. This class of algorithms allows us to split solutions into independent subsets and process it in separate streams. One of the main problems is a decomposition and subsequent convolution of the solution. The problem becomes more complex in those cases when several decomposition levels are required. From the point of view of computing power, the simultaneous processing of parallel threads requires significant CPU time and RAM resources. In this regard, the use of several compute nodes that interact via network interfaces contributes to an increase in computational resources and an enhance fault tolerance of the system. The paper proposes the distributed subsystem for NP-complete optimization problems solving, which allows to split a set of input data into subsets in an automated mode, distribute subtasks between computational nodes, and collect the results to solve the original problem. To confirm the system performance, a software implementation was developed in the Java and the message broker RabbitMQ to ensure the interaction of software agents with each other. A series of experiments were carried out, in which studies were conducted with several simultaneously running tasks and agents.
E A Muravyova, F F Abdrafikova
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012167

Abstract: We have developed control system for a fermentation unit process based on a fuzzy controller. The objects under control are fermentation tanks located at "Bashspirt" Joint-Stock Company. The process of saccharifiedwort fermentation is carried out by yeast. The task was to improve the process of fermentation of saccharifiedwort by yeast and replace the outdated control system with a newer and more modern one. In this regard, a fuzzy controller system has been designed to control the process of fermentation unit capable of controlling the following twelve output parameters: valve position for supplying wort to six fermentation tanks and for supplying yeast to six fermentation tanks. Twelve control output parameters control the following seven input parameters: the fill level of the prefermenter, the fill level of six fermentation tanks. The output parameters are controlled on the base of the information obtained from the wort and yeast input level sensors. The introduction of an automatic control system that takes into account the basic parameters of a multi-connected object and is capable of controlling the entire process of the fermentation unit allowed to solve the following problem: stabilization of the input parameters and the output process parameters control.
V A Likhanov, A N Kozlov, M I Araslanov
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012211

Abstract: Stable operation of the diesel engine at all speeds is provided by the adjustment of the fuel equipment, the structural parameters of the combustion chamber, the physical and chemical properties of the fuel, etc. To increase the range of operating speeds of the engine and increase its injectivity, studies are being conducted aimed at optimizing the processes of fuel combustion, improving the adjustments of the fuel equipment, shape and size of the combustion chamber. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of the diesel fuel combustion process in a 2F 10.5/12.0 diesel cylinder at rated load at various speed modes of operation with a fixed mechanism for controlling the cycle fuel supply. When conducting a laboratory study, measurements were made of hourly fuel and air consumption in all modes of operation. The diesel was installed on a loading stand with a weight mechanism, with which the torque measurement was carried out. The results of indexing the working process of the diesel engine, the characteristics of heat. Calculation of heat release rate and gas temperature indicator was carried out by the CNIDI method.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012193

Abstract: The article deals with the assessment about service life of welds for offshore oil and gas facilities. Research covered offshore fixed platforms (OFP) of the core type. It is noted that to date, any studies have not been undertaken on the service life of reconditioned (repaired) OFP welds. Through specialized software systems StructureCAD and SolidWorks, models of offshore platforms were built and maximum amplitudes of alternating stresses acting in welds in the Black Sea were established. As results of the tests and processing observed data, the endurance limits of the repaired welds were calculated, which amounted to approximately 13 MPa (1885.49 psi). We also obtained characteristic points of the dependence of the number of cycles to failure N on the values of the amplitude of the alternating stresses σa. The experiment made it possible to create fatigue diagrams for restored welds of offshore fixed platforms. Using the example of a T-type welded joint, it was shown that the service life of a restored weld is much lower than the service life of a new one.
D A Rastorguev, Sciprofile linkA V Zotov, R R Dema
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 734; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012133

Abstract: The article considers an example of a combined approach in the technological operation designing. The features of this approach are considered when choosing and calculating the design and technological parameters of the operation. The proposed method combines the use of the analytical and experimental studies results with soft computing. The example of multi-stage iterative designing of the cladding operation shows how to simplify it. The application of neural network and fuzzy modeling is considered in terms of expanding the possibilities of working with data obtained from analytical and experimental studies. Combining neural network and fuzzy modeling makes it possible to dispense with a minimum amount of data to obtain working dependencies. Such a combined application of the methods provides high accuracy of output data forecasting. Due to the high generalizing ability, the possibility of adaptation and adjustment, the proposed approach allows to expand technological capabilities in the design of operations, to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of production.
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