(searched for: doi:10.12688/*)
Wellcome Open Research; doi:10.12688/wellcomeopenres
F1000Research Channels; doi:10.12688/f1000research.channels.303
Wellcome Open Research, Volume 4; doi:10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15061.2
Abstract: Background: Malaria control heavily relies on insecticide-based interventions against mosquito vectors. However, the increasing spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat. The extent to which such resistance, notably metabolic resistance, influences the development of the Plasmodium parasite and its impact on overall malaria transmission remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigated whether glutathione S-transferase-based resistance could influence Plasmodium falciparum development in Anopheles funestus. Methods: Anopheles funestus females were infected with P. falciparum gametocytes and midguts were dissected at day 7 post infection for detection/quantification of oocysts. Infection parameters were compared between individuals with different L119F-GSTe2 genotypes, and the polymorphism of the GSTe2 gene was analyzed in infected and uninfected mosquito groups. Results: Overall, 403 An. funestus mosquitoes were dissected and genotyped. The frequency of the L119F-GSTe2 resistance allele was significantly higher in non-infected (55.88%) compared to infected (40.99%) mosquitoes (Fisher's exact test, P Conclusion: Altogether, these results suggest that GSTe2-based metabolic resistance may affect the vectorial competence of resistant An. funestus mosquitoes to P. falciparum infection, by possibly increasing its permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.
Gates Open Research; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres
F1000Research, Volume 8; doi:10.12688/f1000research.20310.1
Abstract: Background: Even though extensive studies on the prevalence of periodontal diseases in various populations worldwide have been carried out, data for the Egyptian population is limited. The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the severity of periodontal disease and its correlation with different risk factors. Methods: Periodontal examination was performed on 343 adults attending the outpatient clinics of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, as well as three private clinics. Socio-demographic data, brushing frequency, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: It was found that 58.9% of participants had calculus deposits. The prevalence of periodontitis was 89.8%, where 70.8% of participants had stage I and 15.2% had stage II, while only 4.4% and 2.05% suffered from stage III and stage IV, respectively. Calculus was positively correlated with age, grains, and sugar in drinks and negatively correlated with socioeconomic status, education level, brushing frequency and milk. Calculus was not correlated with gender and BMI. Periodontitis was positively correlated with age, carbohydrates other than bread, grains, crackers, and caffeinated drinks, while negatively correlated with gender, socioeconomic status, brushing frequency. Periodontitis was not correlated with BMI or education level. Conclusion: The present study clarifies that age, brushing frequency, carbohydrates and caffeinated drinks consumption are significant factors influencing the prevalence and the severity of periodontal diseases.
Wellcome Open Research, Volume 4; doi:10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15469.1
Abstract: Background: Enteric fever is an acute febrile-illness caused by infection with the human-restricted Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi. Controlled human infection models (CHIM) of S. Typhi and Paratyphi infection are used to accelerate vaccine development and to better understand host-pathogen interactions. The primary motivations for participants to take part in these studies are unknown. We studied participant motivations, attitudes and the factors influencing CHIM study participation. Methods: Participant surveys were nested in six enteric fever CHIM studies conducted at a single centre in Oxford, UK, between 2011 and 2017. All eligible participants received one invitation to complete an anonymous, self-administered paper or online survey on either day 28 or 60 after challenge. A descriptive analysis was performed on these pooled data. All studies were included, to minimize selection bias. Results: Survey response rates varied from 33.0%-86.1%, yielding 201 participants. In the cohort, 113/198(57.0%) were educated to bachelor’s level, 61.6% were employed, 30.3% were students and 4.6% were unemployed. The most commonly cited motivations for CHIM study participation were a desire to contribute to the progression of medicine (170/201; 84.6%); the prospect of financial reimbursement (166/201; 82.6%) and curiosity about clinical trials (117/201; 57.2%). The majority of respondents (139/197; 70.6%) reported that most people advised them against participation. Conclusion: Motivation to participate in a CHIM study was multi-factorial and heavily influenced by internal drivers beyond monetary reimbursement alone. High educational attainment and employment may be protective factors against financial inducement; however, further research is needed, particularly with CHIM studies expanding to low-income and middle-income countries.
F1000Research, Volume 8; doi:10.12688/f1000research.20523.1
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different bonding agents on bond-strength to demineralized enamel after remineralizing treatments and resin infiltration. Methods: Buccal enamel of 120 bovine incisors was polished and then were divided into five experimental groups: SE (sound enamel); DE (demineralized enamel); AS (demineralized enamel immersed in artificial saliva for eight weeks); NaF (demineralized enamel treated with 0.05% sodium fluoride solution (one minute) for eight weeks); Ic (demineralized enamel infiltrated with a low-viscosity resin (Icon-DGM). These groups were subdivided according to adhesive system used: self-etching adhesive Adper Easy One (3M/ESPE) and etch-and-rinse adhesive Single Bond (3M/ESPE). The composite resin blocks were fabricated using a Teflon matrix. A thermomechanical cycling machine was used to carry out the artificial aging of the specimens and thus were sectioned into sticks. The microtensile tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Data (in MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (5%). Results: Significant differences were found for both factors tested and interactions (p Conclusions: Resin infiltration did not affect the bond strength of demineralized enamel for both adhesive systems tested. For etch-and-rinse adhesive, no differences were observed for the tested groups. For self-etching adhesive, only the resin-infiltrated group showed similar bond strength to sound enamel. Both etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems can be used in resin-infiltrated enamel, if a composite restoration needs to be further performed. In enamel that has undergone the de/remineralization process, the use of a total-etch adhesive might be preferable for the restorative procedure.
F1000Research, Volume 8; doi:10.12688/f1000research.20099.1
Abstract: Background: Salivary nitric oxide plays an important role as an antibacterial agent in the oral cavity. Here, we analyze salivary nitric oxide, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) scores and the salivary flow rate in smokers and non-smokers which has not been done previously. Methods: A cross sectional study included 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. Their OHI-S results were categorized as “good,” “medium,” or “bad.” Unstimulated saliva samples were collected, and their nitric oxide concentration was measured using the Griess method. Results: The salivary flow rate in smokers was lower, at 0.30 ml/minute, compared to non-smokers who had a salivary flow rate of 0.33 ml/minute. This was statistically insignificant. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of nitric oxide between smokers and non-smokers (p < 0.05). Smokers had higher concentrations than non-smokers (185.4 µM Vs 114.60 µM). In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.305) between the concentration of salivary nitric oxide level and the OHI-S results. Conclusions: It was concluded that salivary nitric oxide concentration was higher in smokers, and the oral hygiene condition of smokers was poor.
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13074.1
Abstract: Dog-mediated rabies continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in low- and middle-income countries despite being an entirely vaccine-preventable disease. WHO and partners have launched a global campaign to reach zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. The primary tools for reaching this target are mass dog vaccination to control and interrupt transmission in domestic dog populations that maintain infection, and appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies-exposed persons to prevent the fatal onset of disease. Models have been developed to assess the feasibility, impact and cost-effectiveness of these measures. From these models, we argue that the 2030 target of zero human rabies deaths is achievable, but will require concerted effort, engagement and investment. A proposed Gavi investment in human rabies vaccines has potential to drive progress towards the 2030 target; however, concomitant investment is needed to scale up mass dog vaccination or this target will be missed. Predicted economic benefits of mass dog vaccination vary according to national PEP provisioning and access to care. Integrated Bite Case Management can enhance surveillance and rationalize PEP use, but needs adapting to and integrating within local health systems and international reporting systems to improve PEP accountability, monitor impacts and support verification of disease freedom. Modelling is required for projecting more realistic and geographically specific timelines for achieving targets, in line with the implementation of interventions. The greatest risk to the ‘Zero by 30’ strategy is the limited long-term cross-sectoral or targeted financing to support countries to deliver and sustain mass dog vaccination.