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Sciprofile linkA. Maleah Holland, Ahmed S. Qazi, Kristen N. Beasley, Hannah R. Bennett
Published: 24 April 2019
by AOSIS
Journal of Insulin Resistance, Volume 4; doi:10.4102/jir.v4i1.47

Abstract: Background: Exogenous ketone salts (KS) have been administered as treatment for various health conditions; however,
the
safety of chronic supplementation in a healthy population has yet to be explored.Aim: This
study
examined
the
safety of KS supplementation for 6 weeks in healthy, young adults and determined
the
effects of KS on blood ketone levels.Setting: Data collection occurred in a laboratory at
Augusta
University.Methods: Twenty-three men and women (aged 18–35 years old) supplemented with KS or a placebo (PLA) twice per day for 6 weeks in a randomised, double-blinded, PLA-controlled design. Baseline and post-intervention measures included body mass index (BMI), resting blood pressure and
heart
rate, questionnaires assessing mood and energy, urinalysis, and venous blood measures, including comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), lipid panel, and complete blood count (CBC). In addition,
the
participants consumed
the
assigned supplement during
the
baseline and post-intervention visits; blood ketone levels were assessed immediately before and after 30 and 60 min post-supplementation.Results: Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) after supplementing with KS for 6 weeks but not PLA. All other health parameters remained unchanged by KS supplementation, including BMI, resting
heart
rate, urinalysis, CMP, lipid panel, and CBC. After acute administration of KS but not PLA, blood ketone levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.001) 30 and 60 min after supplementation at both baseline and post-intervention visits.Conclusion: Chronic KS supplementation seems safe, significantly elevates blood ketone levels 30 and 60 min after supplementation and may lower blood pressure. Future explorations should determine
the
success of KS supplementation as a strategy to combat hypertension.
Varghese George, Gaston Kapuku, Santu Ghosh, Patricia Hall, William Strong, Frank Treiber, David Pollock, Jennifer Pollock, Ryan Harris, James Halbert, et al.
Journal of Environment and Health Science, Volume 5, pp 15-23; doi:10.15436/2378-6841.19.2039

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Donald Cozzens
Published: 1 January 2017
American Catholic Studies, Volume 128, pp 83-84; doi:10.1353/acs.2017.0004

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Journal of Translational Medicine, Volume 13; doi:10.1186/s12967-014-0364-1

Abstract: Abroma
augusta
L. (Malvaceae) leaf is traditionally used to treat diabetes in India and Southern Asia. Therefore, current
study
was performed to evaluate
the
protective effect of defatted methanol extract of A.
augusta
leaves (AA) against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in experimental rats. Antidiabetic activity of AA extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was measured in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rat. Fasting blood glucose level (at specific interval) and serum biochemical markers (after sacrifice) were measured. Redox status, transcription levels of signal proteins (NF-κB and PKCs), mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway (Bad, Bcl-2, caspase cascade) and histological
studies
were performed in kidneys and
hearts
of controls and AA treated diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed
the
presence of taraxerol, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in
the
AA. T2D rats showed significantly (p < 0.01) elevated fasting blood glucose level. Alteration in serum lipid profile and release of membrane bound enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, which ensured
the
participation of hyperlipidemia and cell membrane disintegration in diabetic pathophysiology. T2DM caused alteration in
the
serum biochemical markers related to diabetic complications. T2DM altered
the
redox status, decreased
the
intracellular NAD and ATP concentrations in renal and myocardial tissues of experimental rats. Investigating
the
molecular mechanism, activation PKC isoforms was observed in
the
selected tissues. T2D rats also exhibited an up-regulation of NF-κB and increase in
the
concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in
the
renal and cardiac tissues.
The
activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in renal and myocardial tissues of
the
T2D rats. However, Oral administration of AA at
the
doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight per day could reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, membrane disintegration, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation and prevented
the
activation of oxidative stress induced signaling cascades leading to cell death. Histological
studies
also supported
the
protective characteristics of AA. Results suggest that AA could offer prophylactic role against T2DM and its associated reno- and cardio- toxicity.
Mehrdad Behnia, Sherry Powell, Houman Tammadon, Masud Behnia
Published: 1 October 2012
Chest, Volume 142; doi:10.1378/chest.1388645

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Maria José Sanches Marin, Sciprofile linkFlávio Henrique Da Silva Santana, Maria Yvette Aguiar Dutra Moracvick
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, Volume 46, pp 103-110; doi:10.1590/s0080-62342012000100014

Abstract: Considering
the
prevalence of arterial hypertension among
the
elderly,
the
present
study
analyzes their perception of health needs, in a qualitative way, from focal groups with elderly users of Family Health Units. Data analysis was performed according to
the
hermeneutic-dialectical perspective and resulted in three nuclei of meaning: recognizing
the
possibility of having access to basic health care together with
the
desire to consume services of greater complexity and understanding
the
shortcomings of
the
State; attachment and welcoming as fundamental elements in
the
feelings of support and security and autonomy permeated by
the
tranquility to deal with
the
disease and
the
difficulties imposed by conditions inherent to
the
subjects' life style . Therefore, it is understood that
the
Family Health Strategy has been complying with its role in terms of
the
access to
the
healthcare system and regarding
the
professional-user attachment. However, health care continues to be centered on
the
disease rather than
the
individual. Descriptors: Aged; Hypertension; Health care; Health of
the
elderly; Family health RESUMEN Considerando la alta incidencia de hipertensión arterial en ancianos, este estudio analiza su percepción sobre las necesidades de salud, de forma cualitativa, a partir de grupos focales, con ancianos usuarios de Unidades de Salud de Familia. En análisis de datos, según perspectiva hermenéutico-dialéctica, se elaboran tres núcleos de sentido: Reconocimiento de la posibilidad de acceso a atención básica concomitante al deseo de consumo de mayor complejidad y la comprensión de las fragilidades del Estado; Vínculo y recepción como elemento fundamental en el sentimiento de amparo y seguridad y Autonomía atravesada por la tranquilidad de lidiar con la enfermedad y las dificultades impuestas por las condiciones inherentes al modo de vida de los sujetos . Se entiende así que la Estrategia Salud de la Familia viene cumpliendo su papel en el sentido de brindar accesos y del vínculo profesional-usuario. Mientras tanto, el cuidado de salud continúa centrado en la enfermedad. Descriptores: Anciano; Hipertensión; Atención a la salud; Salud del anciano; Salud de la familia INTRODUCTION
The
growth of
the
elderly Brazilian population has caused deep changes in society. This impact, which will probably be even more extensive in
the
future, affects
the
economy,
the
labor market, family relationships, and
the
health system. Prospects indicate that
the
elderly population will account for about 15% of
the
total Brazilian population in 2020, far above
the
4% in 1940. Brazil, in 2015, will be ranked as
the
sixth country with
the
largest elderly individuals (1) . Aged individuals have specific physiological, psychological and social frailties, due to
the
losses that occur throughout life, which make them susceptible to health state alterations, and their problems are marked by their diversity, chronicity and complexity. In this context of
the
fast demographic change and vulnerability of
the
elderly, there is a need to organize healthcare services in new ways, so it is possible to deal with an epidemiological profile that is marked by
the
predominance of chronic-degenerative diseases, which demand long term care with emphasis on managing risk factors. Among
the
chronic ailments, cardiovascular diseases are
the
main cause of death in
the
elderly, as they may cause impairment, dependence, and autonomy loss, thus accounting for a high economic and social cost. Among
the
cardiovascular diseases,
the
most prevalent is Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), which increases progressively with age (2) . In countries of
the
Americas and
the
Caribbean, chronic diseases cause up to 75% of deaths, of which cardiovascular diseases account for about 30%. In Brazil, cardiovascular diseases account for over 250,000 deaths per year, and SAH is involved in almost half (3) . Epidemiologic
studies
have shown that higher arterial hypertension increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and that by reducing
the
systolic and/or diastolic pressure levels there is a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (4) . In Brazil,
the
Ministry of Health estimates that 35% of
the
population over 40 years of age has arterial hypertension (AH), which, in absolute numbers, refers to 17 million individuals with
the
disease. Among
the
elderly,
the
prevalence is 50% of
the
population, and about 75% of those people seek
the
national health system ( Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) to receive primary care (5) . SAH is considered
the
most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. However,
the
lack of appropriate management is associated with complications that often affect
the
elderly, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease,
heart
failure, and chronic renal insufficiency, besides accounting for 40% of early retirement and work absenteeism cases (6) . In this context,
the
healthcare for elderly individuals with hypertension should be considered a priority by healthcare services, particularly in primary care, aiming at an appropriate management. It is emphasized that care for
the
elderly implies to offer services with a structure that permits appropriate accessibility and welcoming, respecting
the
limitation and relevant proportions of
the
elderly (1) . Literature shows that few
studies
address elderly care in primary healthcare, particularly in
the
Family Health Strategy, because it is a modality that only recently has become a priority of public policies (7) .
The
consideration of how
the
elderly should be cared for at
the
primary healthcare network recalls
the
concept of health needs, which has been addressed as a way of expanding
the
view healthcare for people, families, and
the
community with
the
purpose to overcome
the
care model centered on
the
biological aspects and cure of diseases. In this perspective, it is highlighted that, due to
the
range of
the
health concept proposed in
the
institutionalization of
the
SUS (national health system),
the
activities that respond to
the
health needs should focus not only on
the
disease, but on
the
determinants of
the
health/disease process (8) . They do, however, add that in
the
operational field
the
healthcare projects have associated
the
health needs to
the
consumption of a service, usually a medical appointment. Based on
the
expanded view of
the
health needs and aiming at a better understanding of its meaning, health needs are classified into four broad groups. First, they are
the
good life conditions , because one's lifestyle translates into different needs, and
the
external factors respond for determining
the
health/disease process. Then, there are
the
aspects regarding accessibility to technologies that improve and prolong life; in this case,
the
value determined for each technology should be defined by each person's need, in each moment.
The
other aspects explored by
the
author are related to forming effective attachments between
the
user and
the
health system team or professional; this attachment should be understood, at this time, as a continuous trust relationship with
the
healthcare professional.
The
next domain about health needs is associated with
the
growing level of autonomy that each individual has in their way of living, which involves more than information and education (9) .
The
taxonomy of health needs has
the
role of helping health workers/teams/services/network to listen better to
the
people that seek health care , making their needs
the
center of their intervention and practices (8) . In this sense,
the
need represents
the
problem that needs solving. It is also admitted that reflecting about health needs and how work is guided in this field requires an understanding of how human needs are created and fulfilled socially and
the
relationship between health work and
the
system of needs (10) . Therefore, we believe it is important to know
the
perception that elderly hypertensive patients have about their health needs, with a view to establish intervention strategies that meet their own expectations. Thus, we propose to analyze
the
perception that elderly hypertensive individuals have about their health needs. METHOD This qualitative
study
was performed with elderly individuals with arterial hypertension, living in areas covered by
the
Family Health Strategy (FHS) of Marília.
The
city of Marília is located in
the
mid-west region of
the
state of São Paulo, and has a population of approximately 220,000 people. Today,
the
city counts with 31 Family Health Units (FHU), which, in
the
area they cover, are
the
entrance door to
the
health system. Each unit deals with
the
health risks and ailments that occur in its area. Generally,
the
FHUs in Marília meet
the
minimum requirements necessary for their implementation, in compliance with
the
Ministry of Health, regarding its physical structure, minimum composition of
the
team, and
the
development of basic national programs, organizing
the
teamwork centered on users' needs, which are discussed in weekly meetings, and performing monthly meetings with
the
community.
The
appointment schedules are planned according to spontaneous demand, with local appointments with
the
physician, dentist and nurse, home visits to impaired users, and activity groups. These units are established in areas where
the
population has more socio-economic needs, caring for approximately 96,000 people, which is about 44% of
the
Marília population. For data collection, a draw was performed to select four FHUs, each from one region of Marília, as follows: North - FHU Vila Nova; South - FHU Santa
Augusta
, East - FHU Aeroporto (airport), and West - FHU Jardim Marília. Data were collected from focal groups, which reveal
the
subjectivity of
the
subjects, who express their
Lisa L. Moore
Published: 1 January 2010
Eighteenth-Century Studies, Volume 44, pp 99-104; doi:10.1353/ecs.2010.0010

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Robert Scott Davis
Published: 1 January 2010
Quaker History, Volume 99, pp 1-14; doi:10.1353/qkh.0.0033

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Juliana Lʼheureux
Home Healthcare Nurse: The Journal for the Home Care and Hospice Professional, Volume 27, pp 114-119; doi:10.1097/01.nhh.0000346315.54078.be

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 January 2009
Appalachian Heritage, Volume 38, pp 101-103; doi:10.1353/aph.0.0224

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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