Ophthalmology Retina; doi:10.1016/j.oret.2019.11.006
Abstract: Immunotherapy with atezolizumab, a checkpoint inhibitor targeting the programmed cell death 1 axis has shown promising results for the treatment of certain metastatic cancers. Atezolizumab-associated acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) with retinal venulitis is a newly reported immune-related adverse event which further expands the range of adverse effects associated with checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We describe the clinical course and imaging findings of a similar AMN-like retinopathy following treatment with atezolizumab. Retrospective case series Three patients treated with atezolizumab for metastatic breast cancer (n=1) and non-small-cell lung cancer (n=2) respectively. Inclusion criterion was a clinical diagnosis of AMN-like retinopathy with or without retinal vasculitis following atezolizumab administration. Clinical course and multimodal retinal imaging including color photographs, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, near-infrared reflectance, and fluorescein angiography were investigated. Three patients (1 woman and 2 men; mean age, 51 years) experienced the acute onset of reduced visual acuity and paracentral scotomas 2 weeks after their first infusion of atezolizumab. Visual symptoms corresponded to focal areas of pericentral photoreceptor disruption in all cases. In 1 patient imaged with fluorescein angiography, focal segments of retinal venulitis were detected. After treatment cessation, incomplete visual recovery was related to persistent photoreceptor damage. All patients succumbed to their cancer within 6 months following the onset of retinopathy. To our knowledge, there are 3 previously published cases of atezolizumab-associated AMN with retinal vasculitis. This series of 3 similar cases strengthens the association of programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition with this rare form of retinopathy which was termed: Anti-PD-L1 associated retinopathy. This immune-related adverse event seems to be a consistent occurrence in the second week post-administration with lasting structural and functional deficits seen after treatment cessation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms may include loss of tolerance in an immune-privilege organ and subsequent development of T-cell-driven inflammation. In this emerging field, expanding the spectrum and pathogenesis of immune-related adverse events is essential to define strategies for prevention, early detection and appropriate management.
Materials & Design; doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108320
Abstract: Nano materials have various promising properties to concrete material. However, the poor dispersion of nano materials remains to be a big challenge which impairs the target performances and thus increases the economic cost. In this study, we focused on one of the most widely used nano materials, nano-SiO2 and investigated the influence of its dispersion on the early age hydration of cement pastes. A recently developed method was applied to chemically graft polycarboxylate superplasticizer onto nano-SiO2 particles to produce well dispersed particles with the shell core structure ([email protected]). Dispersity of [email protected] in deionized water (DI water) and in simulated pore solution of cement pastes was carefully characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) techniques. The effects of nano-SiO2 dispersion on the early age hydration of cement pastes were investigated. The results showed that with good dispersion only 0.5% by mass of nano-SiO2 can significantly accelerate hydration. The retarding effect unintentionally caused by PCE was observed to influence particularly on the length of induction period rather than other stages of hydration. BNG model was used in the end to quantitatively analyze and shed more lights on the influence of nano-SiO2 on the kinetics of C3S hydration.
Published: 15 November 2019
Understanding China’s School Leadership pp 163-197; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-0749-6_6
Abstract: In China, instructional leadership is not a theme that has only recently emerged. In fact, instructional leadership has long been placed in the center stage of China’s school leadership and management, and it has been regarded as a key factor to promote school improvement.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.126439
Abstract: Studies in mammals proved dietary organic selenium (Se) being superior to inorganic Se regarding effects on growth performance, antioxidative status, immune response, and Se homeostasis. However, the picture of possible effects of different Se sources and – levels can be expanded. The present field study evaluated the effects on weight gain, hematological and selected biochemical variables as well as plasma concentrations of vitamin E (vitE), total Se and selenobiomolecules in piglets throughout the suckling period. Piglets were monitored from birth to 38 days of age (d). The mother sows’ diets were enriched with L-selenomethionine (SeMet-0.26 and -0.43 mg Se/kg feed) or sodium selenite (NaSe-0.40 and -0.60 mg Se/kg feed) from 1 month prior to farrowing until the end of lactation period. Piglets received pelleted feed supplemented with Se similarly to the sows’ diets from one week of age. Selenite at 0.40 mg Se/kg (NaSe-0.40) represents a common Se source and -level in pig feed and served as control diet. From 24d, piglets in SeMet-groups had higher mean body weight (BW) compared with piglets from sows fed NaSe-0.40. Furthermore, from five-d and above, piglets from sows fed NaSe-0.60 had significantly higher BW than offspring from sows fed NaSe-0.40. Neonatal piglets in group SeMet-0.43 had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) concentrations compared with piglets from sows fed with NaSe-0.40. Neonatal and 5d-old piglets in group SeMet-0.26 showed higher gamma-glutamyl transferase activity than piglets in group NaSe-0.40. From five d and above, group NaSe-0.60 excelled with increased specific hematological variables culminating at age 38d with increased Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MC hemoglobin (MCH) as well as increased activities of aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase compared with the other groups. Generally, offspring in the SeMet groups had higher total Se-concentrations in plasma than those from sows fed selenite, and showed a dose-response effect on plasma Se-concentrations. Furthermore, SeMet-fed piglets had higher plasma levels of the selenoproteins (Sel) glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and SelP as well as selenoalbumin. Plasma vitE levels were significantly negatively correlated with RBC throughout trial period. Maternal supplementation with SeMet during gestation influenced hematology and clinical biochemistry in neonatal piglets in a different way than in offspring from sows receiving selenite enriched diets. Growth performance was positively influenced by both dietary Se source and Se level. Higher plasma levels of GPx3 observed in piglets receiving SeMet probably improved the protection against birth or growth related oxidative stress. These might prime the piglets for demanding situations as indicated by higher weight gain in offspring from sows fed with SeMet-supplemented diets. Our results on some enzyme activities might indicate that piglets fed...
Published: 15 November 2019
Understanding China’s School Leadership pp 199-229; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-0749-6_7
Abstract: As one of school leadership key practices, the “optimizing internal management” was initially set out by The Professional Standards for Principals of Compulsory Education Schools (MOE, 2013a) and The Professional Standards for Principals of Senior High Schools (MOE, 2015), and was more specifically described in the Management Standards for Compulsory Education Schools (MOE, 2017). According to above-mentioned RHDs, this leadership key practice consists of two prongs of requirements for school internal management
Advances in Therapy pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s12325-019-01139-6
Abstract: This study evaluates the clinical effects of the stepwise anterior vitrectomy on the prevention of positive vitreous pressure (PVP) during penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). PKP in conjunction with stepwise anterior vitrectomy was performed on 15 eyes of 15 patients under retrobulbar anesthesia. A preset vitrectomy trocar-cannula was inserted into the vitreous cavity before PKP. During the opening of the anterior chamber, intermittent vitrectomy and corneal incision expansion were performed alternately to keep the lens or artificial intraocular lens (IOL) and iris flat until the entirety of the pathological cornea had been dissected. The main outcome measures include visual acuity, crystalline lens rise (CLR), corneal curvature and diopter, and corneal endothelial cell loss. All surgical procedures were performed successfully without any PVP-related intraoperative complications. The mean time of the stepwise vitrectomies was 3.1 ± 0.7 s, the duration of each vitrectomy was 8.1 ± 5.3 s, and the duration of the total surgery was 60.5 ± 5.3 min. The anterior segment reaction was mild and the shape of the pupil remained normal 1 day after surgery. The mean preoperative and mean 3-month postoperative CLR values were 0.48 ± 0.09 mm and − 0.16 ± 0.04 mm, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean preoperative endothelial cell density in donor buttons was 2570 ± 171 cells/mm2, and the mean 6- and 12-month postoperative endothelial cell density in donor buttons was 2207 ± 127 cells/mm2 and 2000 ± 198 cells/mm2, respectively. The novel and stabilized PKP procedure, performed in conjunction with the stepwise anterior vitrectomy, effectively avoided the PVP during open-sky surgery. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900021227.
Materials & Design; doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108361
Abstract: A one-step heat treatment comprising isothermal holding in the two-phase region for different time periods and subsequent quenching contributed to the development of a ferrite and martensite dual-phase structure in TiMo microalloyed steels with different carbon and microalloying element contents. Irrespective of the Ti/Mo atomic ratio, a dual precipitate morphology, namely interphase precipitation and random precipitation, was found in the ferrite matrix. Furthermore, under the fixed carbon content, harder ferrite grains were obtained in the steel with a high [Ti]/[Mo] atomic ratio. This could be explained by the fact that a large volume fraction of tiny-sized carbides formed within the ferrite matrix when the [Ti]/[Mo] atomic ratio was increased. In addition, several microalloyed steels with different [Ti]/[Mo] atomic ratios listed in highly-cited patents were also retrieved and analyzed to support the above deduction.
Published: 15 November 2019
Understanding China’s School Leadership pp 1-40; doi:10.1007/978-981-15-0749-6_1
Abstract: The differences between school leadership in China and in other countries, especially in Western countries, can be largely attributed to their different sources of school leadership knowledge and different external and internal institutional environment for school leadership. To understand how China’s school leadership unfolds in day-to-day practice and what knowledge underpins its leadership practice, it is essential to figure out the sources of China’s school leadership knowledge and to examine the educational administration system and the school leadership system of China.
Data in Brief; doi:10.1016/j.dib.2019.104816
Abstract: Vegetation above treeline constitutes one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate warming and other drivers of Global Change. Given the panorama of such an uncertain future facing these plant communities, it is critical to know how they respond to environmental changes and improve the knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on their distribution. Recently, with the impressive development of trait-based approaches, relevant progress has been made to better understand the relationships between environmental conditions and plant communities. In this data paper, we describe data on abundances of 327 alpine plant species across 430 subplots of 2.4 m × 2.4 m in three mountain ranges (Sierra de Guadarrama and Pyrenees in Spain, and the Central Andes in Chile). We provide data on different environmental variables that represent variation in abiotic conditions and operate at different spatial scales (e.g., climatic, topographic and soil conditions). Data on six plant functional traits are also shown, which were measured on ten individuals of each species, following standard protocols. We provided the dataset as tables in the supplementary material. This information could be used to analyse the relationship between the alpine vegetation and changes in environmental conditions, and ultimately, to understand ecosystem functioning and guide conservation strategies of theses threatened and valuable ecosystems.
Clinical Optometry, Volume 11, pp 145-149; doi:10.2147/opto.s220615
Abstract: Sub-Foveal Choroidal Thickness In Healthy Nepalese Population