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Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Deepak K Raut, Anita Khokhar
Published: 21 September 2018
Journal of family medicine and primary care, Volume 7, pp 791-795

Abstract: HIV counseling and testing services are a key entry point in prevention of HIV infection, treatment, and care of people with HIV. Evaluation of counseling, testing, and referral services help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of services delivered by providers by improving any deficiencies in availability, accessibility, and acceptability of testing and counseling services. The objective of this study was to evaluate the integrated counseling and testing centers (ICTC) in New Delhi. The evaluation study was conducted among ICTCs during 2014-2015. Twenty ICTCs of New Delhi were selected on the basis of population proportion to the size of clients catered. The study tool was pretested structured tool for evaluating HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The evaluation tool consists of an assessment of components including the availability of infrastructure, laboratory services, referral services, and staff availability. Counseling sessions were also observed for assessing content and quality. Means and proportions were calculated. Twelve (60%) ICTCs had dedicated counseling rooms ensuring privacy for the clients. Waiting space was reported to be adequate in 16 (80%) ICTCs. Space within counseling room was observed to be adequate in 8 (40%) ICTCs. Counselors of both sexes were present in 12 (60%) ICTCs. Both external and internal quality assurance was observed in all ICTCs. Standard operating procedures were followed in 15 (75%) ICTCs. On observation of the counseling sessions, it was found that 67.4% of male counselors and 67.2% of female counselors addressed all the issues of content of counseling. ICTCs lack waiting area and adequate space in counseling room and required staff personnel. Records maintenance and laboratory quality control maintained by ICTCs were found to be adequate. The counseling rooms lack privacy that may compromise the confidentiality of clients. Few components of counseling need improvement.
Jordan T. Sutton, Kalavathy Rajan, David P. Harper, Stephen Chmely
Published: 21 September 2018
Abstract: Generating compatible and competitive materials that are environmentally sustainable and economically viable is paramount for the success of additive manufacturing using renewable materials. We report the successful application of renewable, modified lignin-containing photopolymer resins in a commercial stereolithography system. Resins were fabricated within operable ranges for viscosity and cure properties, using up to 15% modified lignin by weight with the potential for higher amounts. A four-fold increase in ductility in cured parts with higher lignin concentration is noted as compared to commercial SLA resins. Excellent print quality was seen in modified lignin resins, with good layer fusion, high surface definition, and visual clarity. These materials can be used to generate new products for additive manufacturing applications and help fill vacant material property spaces, where ductility, sustainability, and application costs are critical.
Sezen Çimen Polat
Published: 21 September 2018
Pedagogical Research, Volume 3; doi:10.20897/pr/2664

Easton R White, Alan Hastings
Published: 21 September 2018
Abstract: Seasonality is an important feature of essentially all natural systems but the consequences of seasonality have been vastly underappreciated. Early work emphasized the role of seasonality in driving cyclic population dynamics, but the consequences of seasonality for ecological processes are far broader. In ecological systems, seasonality may include variations in temperature, precipitation, or other processes. Seasonality is typically not explicitly included in either empirical or theoretical studies. However, many aspects of ecological dynamics can only be understood when seasonality is included, ranging from the oscillations in the incidence of childhood diseases to the coexistence of species. Further, studies of phenology and global climate change only make sense in the context of seasonal dynamics. Our goal is to outline what is now known about seasonality and to set the stage for future efforts. We review the effects of seasonality on ecological systems in both laboratory and field settings. We then discuss approaches for incorporating seasonality in mathematical models, including Floquet theory. We argue, however, that these tools are still limited in scope and more approaches need to be developed. We demonstrate the range of impacts of seasonality on ecological systems and show the necessity of incorporating seasonality to understand ecological dynamics.
Shuheng Shen, Xutian Chai, Dong Luo, Yanrong Wang, Zhipeng Liu
Published: 21 September 2018
Abstract: Background: Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a highly nutritious, tannin-containing, and tetraploid forage legume. Due to the lack of detailed transcriptomic and genomic information on this species, genetic and breeding projects for sainfoin improvement have been significantly hindered. Methods: In this study, a total of 24,630,711 clean reads were generated from 14 different sainfoin tissues using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and deposited in the NCBI SRA database (SRX3763386). From these clean reads, 77,764 unigene sequences were obtained and 6,752 EST-SSRs were identified using denovo assembly. A total of 2,469 primer pairs were designed, and 200 primer pairs were randomly selected to analyze the polymorphism in five sainfoin wild accessions. Results: Further analysis of 40 sainfoin individuals from the five wild populations using 61 EST-SSR loci showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 15, and the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.55 to 0.91. Additionally, by counting the EST-SSR band number and sequencing the three or four bands in one sainfoin individual, sainfoin was confirmed to be autotetraploid. This finding provides a high level of information about this plant. Discussion: Through this study, 61 EST-SSR markers were successfully developed and shown to be useful for genetic studies and investigations of population genetic structures and variabilities among different sainfoin accessions.
Jan H. Jensen
Published: 21 September 2018
Abstract: Life is essentially an organised network of chemical reactions (metabolic pathways) that can create copies of itself given a source of energy. How was this complex reaction network formed from the simple molecules that were present on the early Earth? I will answer this question by simulating how simple reaction networks evolve starting from different combinations of building blocks and reaction conditions. Computer simulations will allow me to search many more combinations than is possible experimentally, thereby increasing the chances of finding reaction networks that resemble those found in modern cells. Finding a plausible explanation for how life originated on Earth will not only have profound implications for how we view ourselves and other species, but also give us a much better idea of how likely life is to have evolved on other planets.
Charline Rangé
Published: 21 September 2018
by HAL
Abstract: A paraître dans Baroin C., Chauvin E., Seignobos C. (dir), Les insécurités dans le bassin du lac Tchad
Jens Ingensand, Jean Christophe Foltête, Stéphane Cretegny, Nicolas Blanc, Sarah Composto
Published: 21 September 2018
Abstract: This paper describes a method that uses georeferenced landscape pictures extracted from open picture collections for the determination of the population's interest in spatial features. The automated method takes into account the coordinates of the camera position as well as the azimuth angle, the focal length and the crop factor in order to calculate a field of view using a digital terrain model (DTM). This field of view can thereafter be used for the determination of interest in spatial features. In a case study involving more than 3'000 georeferenced pictures we investigate the potential of the method.
Clément Albert, Anne Dutfoy, Laurent Gardes, Stéphane Girard
Published: 21 September 2018
by HAL
Abstract: We propose a new estimator for extreme quantiles under the log-generalized Weibull-tail model, introduced by Cees de Valk. This model relies on a new regular variation condition which, in some situations, permits to extrapolate further into the tails than the classical assumption in extreme-value theory. The asymptotic normality of the estimator is established and its finite sample properties are illustrated both on simulated and real datasets.
Henri Guenancia
Published: 21 September 2018
by HAL
Abstract: Let $(M,\omega)$ be a compact K\"ahler manifold with negative holomorphic sectional curvature. It was proved by Wu-Yau and Tosatti-Yang that $M$ is necessarily projective and has ample canonical bundle. In this paper, we show that any irreducible subvariety of $M$ is of general type. Moreover, we can extend the theorem to the quasi-negative curvature case building on earlier results of Diverio-Trapani. Finally, we investigate the more general setting of a quasi-projective manifold $X^{\circ}$ endowed with a K\"ahler metric with negative holomorphic sectional curvature and we prove that such a manifold $X^{\circ}$ is necessarily of log general type.
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