Published: 23 January 2020
Electronics Letters, Volume 56, pp 69-71; doi:10.1049/el.2019.2557
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 785-785; doi:10.1653/024.102.0419
Abstract: List of Corporate and Sustaining Members
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 725-730; doi:10.1653/024.102.0409
Abstract: Insect pests, including caterpillars, cause losses in maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae) which is one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the management of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith & Abbot (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with transgenic and conventional maize genotypes. The experiments were conducted in the field in summer crops from the seasons 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 in a randomized complete block design with sub-subdivided plots represented by: control (no control), chemical control (methomyl + diflubenzurom), Integrated Pest Management–spinosade, and biological control (Trichogramma pretiosum Riley; Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) with 3 maize genotypes (Impact VIP 3, P3862 HX, and BM 3061) and 4 replications. Control and reduction of S. frugiperda damage were higher in the Impact VIP 3 corn genotype. The crop yield was higher (11,838.59 kg per h-1), and the damage to the ears was lower in the biological control with T. pretiosum.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 738-746; doi:10.1653/024.102.0411
Abstract: Mexico is among the most important blackberry producers in the world. In this crop, thrips damage is associated with poor fruit set. The objectives of this study were to identify the main thrips species associated with the flowers of cultivated blackberries, and to determine the resistance level of 13 field-collected populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), to the insecticides malathion, bifenthrin, and spinosad in the states of Michoacán and Jalisco, Mexico. Verification of F. occidentalis was conducted by morphology and PCR amplification of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) partial gene using LCO and HCO primers The susceptibility of adult thrips to insecticides was determined using residual contact exposure on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Fabaceae) leaf sections dipped into aqueous solutions of 8 different concentrations of malathion, bifenthrin, and spinosad. The morphological identification of thrips from 8 different sampling zones confirmed that the main thrips species associated with blackberry flowers was F. occidentalis. However, Retanathrips funestus (Hood), Frankliniella insularis (Franklin), Frankliniella tolucensis Watson, Taenothrips frici (Uzel), and Isoneurothrips australis Bagnall (all Thysanoptera: Thripidae) also were found. Most of the evaluated populations of F. occidentalis showed significant differences from the susceptible population in terms of the level of resistance to bifenthrin, malathion, and spinosad. The resistance ratios (RR50) for malathion varied from 36 to 2,458, followed by 4 to 974, and 2 to 248 in bifenthrin and spinosad, respectively. These results suggest the need to establish insecticide resistance management programs, particularly in zones that resulted in the highest levels of insecticide resistance.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 786-787; doi:10.1653/024.102.0420
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 767-774; doi:10.1653/024.102.0415
Abstract: The titles and publication details of 270 scientific publications and reports by Fred D. Bennett are here assembled in approximately chronological order. They began in 1951 and ended in 2012. Fred is known worldwide as a specialist in biological control, a former director of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, and in 1986 to 1993 a Graduate Research Professor of the University of Florida.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 731-737; doi:10.1653/024.102.0410
Abstract: Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (fall armyworm) is a pest native to the Americas that affects a variety of crops. Its control is based on chemical insecticides. However, this practice has been associated with changes in the susceptibility of pests to various insecticides. The use of plant products represents an eco-friendly alternative. The objective of this work was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the chloroform extract of Senna crotalarioides (Kunth) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) to control S. frugiperda. The chloroform extract of S. crotalarioides caused significant larval mortality, and reduced pupal weight and adult emergence. The analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the presence of 22 compounds in the chloroform extract of S. crotalarioides leaves, with the straight-chain aliphatic fatty alcohol 1-octacosanol as the main component. This study revealed that the leaves of S. crotalarioides synthesize long chain alcohols, which increased the mortality of S. frugiperda in its larval stage, including the pupal stage. The extract also caused a decrease in the S. frugiperda pupal weight. The potential use of the chloroform extract obtained from S. crotalarioides and its principal chemical constituent is proposed as a promising alternative to control S. frugiperda.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 701-707; doi:10.1653/024.102.0405
Abstract: The biological control agent, Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (salvinia weevil), is being used for management of the highly invasive fern Salvinia molesta Mitchell (Salvinaceae) in Louisiana and Texas, USA. The weevils and plants are transported from the nurseries and rearing facilities to the field release sites in plastic totes. Despite the increased transport of weevil-infested plants during the warmer months, limited data exist on the impact of heat stress and survivability of adult C. salviniae. Therefore, research was conducted to determine temperatures inside totes during summer transport, and to determine the upper temperature threshold for adult weevil survival. Field data demonstrated that temperatures within the totes were capable of exceeding 35 °C, and the type of lid used to secure plant material influenced internal temperature. In addition, there were no differences in temperature within the totes. Growth chamber trials determined the upper lethal time to kill 50 and 90% of the test population (ULt50 and ULt90) at 35 °C was 27.5 and 42.8 hours, respectively, while at 40 °C, the ULt50 and ULt90 was 15.0 and 25.0 hours, respectively. As the temperature increased to 50 °C, the calculated ULt50 and ULt90 values were 5.0 and 11.0 minutes, respectively. These data provided evidence that C. salviniae mortality occurs more rapidly as the temperature increases, especially > 45 °C, and that extreme temperatures can occur within transportation totes.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 684-690; doi:10.1653/024.102.0402
Abstract: Four predatory spider species, Leucauge venusta (Orchard) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), Lycosa pseudoannulata (Boeset) (Araneae: Lycosidae), Larinioides cornutus (Clerck) (Araneae: Araneidae), and Tetragnatha shikokiana (Yaginuma) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae), were used to control Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the laboratory and greenhouse, and their longevity without food was observed. For the laboratory experiment, the spiders' feeding capabilities were checked at 1, 4, 8, and 16 h of exposure in a 10 mL vial containing 50 five-d-old whiteflies. For the greenhouse experiment, the preys' feeding ability was recorded at 24 and 48 h, with 100 five-d-old adult whiteflies in a screened cage. Individual spiders were kept in the lab in 10 mL vials, and their survival time was recorded every 5 h. Of the 4 spider species, L. pseudoannulata was the most active in the lab and consumed an average of 3.00 ± 0.22, 6.17 ± 0.27, 9.67 ± 0.43, and 13.50 ± 0.49 at 1, 4, 8, and 16 h of the bioassay, followed by L. venusta, L. cornutus, and T. shikokiana. However, in the greenhouse experiment, L. venusta consumed the greatest number of whiteflies, with an average of 24.66 and 51.33 (out of 100) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, followed by L. pseudoannulata, L. cornutus, and T. shikokiana. The maximum longevity was recorded for L. venusta with 26.67 h, followed by T. shikokiana, L. pseudoannulata, and L. cornutus without prey. All spider species killed and consumed adult whiteflies in both experiments, which suggests that they are a controlling tool in the natural ecosystem. The results from our experiment will contribute to the biological control of whitefly.
Florida Entomologist, Volume 102, pp 708-712; doi:10.1653/024.102.0406
Abstract: Exophthalmus cupreipes Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult weevils were detected feeding on young leaves and shoots of Persian limes (Citrus latifolia [Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka] Tanaka; Rutaceae) in commercial plantations in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco, Mexico. Weevil damage to foliage is apparently not significant enough to cause production losses. However, there are reports of related species included in the Exophthalmus genus complex that are considered primary pests of agriculturally important citruses. This study complements the original description by Champion (1911) for adults of both sexes, and provides images of external and internal structures useful for its identification. Moreover, field observations of damage on citrus are presented, and the potential importance as a pest is discussed.