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Published: 17 February 2020
by MDPI
Insects, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/insects11020127

Abstract: The development of integrated pest management strategies becomes more and more pressing in view of potential harmful effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and human health. A promising alternative strategy against Delia radicum is the use of trap crops. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis and subsp. chinensis) is a highly sensitive Brassicaceae species previously identified as a good candidate to attract the cabbage root fly away from other crops. Here, we carried out multi-choice experiments both in the laboratory and in field conditions to measure the oviposition susceptibilities of different subspecies and cultivars of Chinese cabbages as compared to a broccoli reference. We found large differences among subspecies and cultivars of the Chinese cabbage, which received three to eleven times more eggs than the broccoli reference in field conditions. In laboratory conditions, the chinensis subspecies did not receive more eggs than the broccoli reference. We conclude that D. radicum largely prefers to lay eggs on the pekinensis subspecies of Chinese cabbage compared to the chinensis subspecies or broccoli. Some pekinensis cultivars, which received over ten times more eggs than broccoli in the field, appear especially promising candidates to further develop trap crop strategies against the cabbage root fly.
Monica M Lahra, Rodney Enriquez
Communicable Diseases Intelligence, Volume 44; doi:10.33321/cdi.2020.44.9

Carola Schröder, Christin Burkhardt, Sciprofile linkGarabed Antranikian
Published: 17 February 2020
ChemTexts, Volume 6, pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s40828-020-0103-6

Abstract: Extremophiles are microorganisms that love extreme conditions, such as high temperatures up to the boiling point of water or low temperatures down to below the freezing point. Moreover, some extreme microbes prefer to live in acidic or alkaline environments, under high pressure or high salinity. Three extremophilic species are presented in this article: Lacinutrix algicola, a psychrophilic bacterium that grows at temperatures between 0 and 25 °C, Anaerobranca gottschalkii, a thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium growing optimally at 50–55 °C under alkaline conditions, and Pyrococcus furiosus, a famous hyperthermophilic archaeon that prefers 100 °C for growth. These extraordinary microorganisms are examples of extremophiles that possess remarkable adaptation mechanisms and additionally produce unique enzymes called extremozymes. These robust biocatalysts can be applied in various biotechnologic processes to enable substrate conversions under extreme process conditions. Due to their unusual properties, extremophiles and extremozymes will play a pivotal role in the development of modern circular bioeconomy.
Sciprofile linkGiuliano Borille, Patrícia M A Neves, Gustavo P Filho, Roy Kim, Gabriele Miotto
Aesthetic Surgery Journal; doi:10.1093/asj/sjaa051

Abstract: Background The loss of the umbilical vertical axis, causing a horizontal shape deformity after liposuction, is a current aesthetic issue. The use of energy devices, such as LASER and VASER, has been advocated as an option for improving skin retraction, but no data are available on the prevention of umbilical sagging. Objective To describe a technique for preventing umbilical deformities after medium definition liposuction using suction-assisted liposuction (SAL). Methods Over a period of 36 months, 62 patients underwent medium definition liposuction with direct needle fixation of the umbilical stalk to prevent horizontal umbilical deformities. All patients underwent surgery performed by a single surgeon (G.B.). All patients underwent objective measurements of the umbilical shape before and after the procedure, using digital image measurements by Mirror Image software, version 6.0 (Fairfield, NJ). Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics V26. The mean age of the patients was 28.8 years. The follow-up evaluation was performed 2 weeks and 9 months postoperatively. Results Over a period of 36 months, sixty patients (96.7%) who underwent abdominal etching liposuction showed maintenance of (n=9 /14.5%) or improvements in the umbilical shape 9 months postoperatively (n=51/82.2%, P<0.05). Two patients (3.2%) had worsening of the umbilical shape after surgery despite suture fixation. Conclusions Horizontal shape deformities of the umbilicus after liposuction can be improved by using direct needle fixation of the umbilical stalk. The approach has been shown to be effective, safe, and reproducible for the prevention of umbilical sagging in selected patients.
Monica M Lahra, Rodney P Enriquez
Communicable Diseases Intelligence, Volume 44; doi:10.33321/cdi.2020.44.3

Published: 17 February 2020
by MDPI
Religions, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/rel11020090

Abstract: This Special Issue of Religions is about the encounter between thought experiments and theology
Sciprofile linkKwang-Yul Kim, Beom-Seok Kim
Climate Dynamics pp 1-19; doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05169-7

Abstract: East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation has changed significantly due to regional warming. In this study, effect of regional warming on the EASM summer precipitation is investigated during 1979–2018 with a particular emphasis on the frontogenesis. The frontogenetic function shows that change in circulation and temperature distribution associated with regional warming is fairly consistent with precipitation change. Specifically, changes in temperature gradient and deformation, both in terms of its magnitude and direction with respect to thermal gradient, result in cross-frontal circulation change with respect to its position and magnitude; this, in turn, is closely linked with EASM precipitation change. Due to warming, frontal circulation has weakened except in the mature stage, when the front is over the Kuroshio Current. From a slightly southward shifted position, the northward migration of the front is more precipitous than in the past reaching its northern-most latitude earlier by ~ 2 weeks. On the other hand, the southward migration has become slightly sluggish. In association with the frontogenesis, large-scale precipitation is more strongly affected north of ~ 30° N. South of ~ 25° N, precipitation change is due largely to convective precipitation.
Mariana Umekita Shirozaki, Raquel Assed Bezerra Da Silva, Fábio Lourenço Romano, Léa Assed Bezerra Da Silva, Andiara De Rossi, Sciprofile linkMarília Pacífico Lucisano, Michel Reis Messora, Magda Feres, Arthur Belém Novaes Júnior
Progress in Orthodontics, Volume 21, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s40510-020-00307-7

Abstract: The objective was to analyze clinical, microbiological, and immunological periodontal parameters in patients in corrective orthodontic treatment. Twenty-eight patients were selected. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), width of keratinized gingiva, levels of 40 bacterial species, and of 3 cytokines (IL-1β, MMP-8, and TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were evaluated at T0, before orthodontic treatment; T1, 6 months; and T2, 12 months post-treatment. Non-parametric, Friedman, Wilcoxon, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were used for statistical analyses, with the significance level of 5%. No significant difference was found for the width of keratinized gingiva, but PI presented a significant increase at T1 and T2 (p < 0.05) when compared with T0. The percentage of sites with BOP increased significantly from T0 to T1 (p < 0.05); however, at T2, the values decreased and did not differ anymore from T0 (p > 0.05). In the microbiological analysis, red complex pathogens were in significantly greater proportions in T2 compared with T0 (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the cytokine levels between the periods but there was a positive correlation between BOP and IL-1β (r = 0.49 p = .01) and TNF-α (r = 0.39 and p = .05). In conclusion, corrective orthodontic treatment caused clinical periodontal alterations regarding biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding, with alteration of periodontopathogens.
Joshua Shore, Sciprofile linkIan Janssen
Injury Epidemiology, Volume 7, pp 1-5; doi:10.1186/s40621-020-0233-8

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between engagement in multiple risk behaviours (MRB) and concussion amongst youth. This was a cross-sectional study that used survey data collected from 3059 students in grades 6–10 (approximate ages 11–15 years) from Ontario, Canada. Students reported whether or not they had a medically diagnosed concussion within the previous 12 months and the frequency that they participated in several risky behaviours including fighting, bullying, smoking, drinking alcohol, using illicit drugs, drinking caffeinated beverages, not using protective equipment, and having unsafe sex. Responses to the risky behavior items were used to create a MRB score. The association between MRB and concussion was explored using logistic regression that controlled for several confounding variables. Approximately 10.7% of students reported that they had a medically diagnosed concussion within the past year. A dose-response relationship was found between MRB and concussion among students in grades 9–10, while in grades 6–8 students only those in the highest MRB quartile had an increased likelihood of concussion. The relative odds for concussion in the highest versus the lowest MRB quartile were 4.67 (95% confidence interval: 2.33, 9.35) in grades 9–10 students and 2.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.90, 4.56) in grades 6–8 students. Engagement in MRB may be an important etiologic component of adolescent concussion. Future studies should address whether behavioural interventions designed to decrease engagement in MRB reduce the risk of concussion and other injuries.
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