Refine Search

New Search

Advanced search

Results: 115,036,718

Page of 11,503,672
Articles per Page
by
Arvind Kumar Saxena, R. K. Singh, H. C. Joshi, Ajai Kumar
Published: 16 January 2019
Applied Optics, Volume 58, pp 561-570; doi:10.1364/ao.58.000561

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Steffen L. Jørgensen, Marc Stegger, Eglé Kudirkiene, Berit Lilje, Louise L. Poulsen, Troels Ronco, Teresa Pires Dos Santos, Kristoffer Kiil, Magne Bisgaard, Karl Pedersen, et al.
Published: 16 January 2019
mSphere, Volume 4; doi:10.1128/msphere.00333-18

Abstract: Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) presumed to be zoonotic and to represent an external reservoir for extraintestinal infections in humans, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causing urinary tract infections. Comparative genomics has previously been applied to investigate whether APEC and human ExPEC are distinct entities. Even so, whole-genome-based studies are limited, and large-scale comparisons focused on single sequence types (STs) are not available yet. In this study, comparative genomic analysis was performed on 323 APEC and human ExPEC genomes belonging to sequence type 95 (ST95) to investigate whether APEC and human ExPEC are distinct entities. Our study showed that APEC of ST95 did not constitute a unique ExPEC branch and was genetically diverse. A large genetic overlap between APEC and certain human ExPEC was observed, with APEC located on multiple branches together with closely related human ExPEC, including nearly identical APEC and human ExPEC. These results illustrate that certain ExPEC clones may indeed have the potential to cause infection in both poultry and humans. Previously described ExPEC-associated genes were found to be encoded on ColV plasmids. These virulence-associated plasmids seem to be crucial for ExPEC strains to cause avian colibacillosis and are strongly associated with strains of the mixed APEC/human ExPEC clusters. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct branches consisting of exclusively closely related human ExPEC which did not carry the virulence-associated plasmids, emphasizing a lower avian virulence potential of human ExPEC in relation to an avian host. IMPORTANCE APEC causes a range of infections in poultry, collectively called colibacillosis, and is the leading cause of mortality and is associated with major economic significance in the poultry industry. A growing number of studies have suggested APEC as an external reservoir of human ExPEC, including UPEC, which is a reservoir. ExPEC belonging to ST95 is considered one of the most important pathogens in both poultry and humans. This study is the first in-depth whole-genome-based comparison of ST95 E. coli which investigates both the core genomes as well as the accessory genomes of avian and human ExPEC. We demonstrated that multiple lineages of ExPEC belonging to ST95 exist, of which the majority may cause infection in humans, while only part of the ST95 cluster seem to be avian pathogenic. These findings further support the idea that urinary tract infections may be a zoonotic infection.
Matias Koivurova, Lutful Ahad, Gianluca Geloni, Tero Setälä, Jari Turunen, Ari T. Friberg
Published: 16 January 2019
Optics Letters, Volume 44, pp 522-525; doi:10.1364/ol.44.000522

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Kyohei Marume, Seiji Takashio, Michio Nakanishi, Leon Kumasaka, Shigefumi Fukui, Kazuhiro Nakao, Tetsuo Arakawa, Masanobu Yanase, Teruo Noguchi, Satoshi Yasuda, et al.
Published: 16 January 2019
Circulation Journal; doi:10.1253/circj.cj-18-0852

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Neurologia medico-chirurgica, Volume 59, pp 1-12; doi:10.2176/nmc.si.2019-0000

Julieta Pedrana, Alejandro Travaini, Juan Ignacio Zanón, Sonia Cristina Zapata, Alejandro Rodríguez, Javier Bustamante
Published: 16 January 2019
Wildlife Research; doi:10.1071/wr18085

Makoto Mizunami, Sho Hirohata, Ai Sato, Ryoichi Arai, Kanta Terao, Misato Sato, Yukihisa Matsumoto
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 286; doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2132

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sarah A. Jelbert, Rachael Miller, Martina Schiestl, Markus Boeckle, Lucy G. Cheke, Russell D. Gray, Alex H. Taylor, Nicola S. Clayton
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 286; doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2332

Abstract: Humans use a variety of cues to infer an object's weight, including how easily objects can be moved. For example, if we observe an object being blown down the street by the wind, we can infer that it is light. Here, we tested whether New Caledonian crows make this type of inference. After training that only one type of object (either light or heavy) was rewarded when dropped into a food dispenser, birds observed pairs of novel objects (one light and one heavy) suspended from strings in front of an electric fan. The fan was either on—creating a breeze which buffeted the light, but not the heavy, object—or off, leaving both objects stationary. In subsequent test trials, birds could drop one, or both, of the novel objects into the food dispenser. Despite having no opportunity to handle these objects prior to testing, birds touched the correct object (light or heavy) first in 73% of experimental trials, and were at chance in control trials. Our results suggest that birds used pre-existing knowledge about the behaviour exhibited by differently weighted objects in the wind to infer their weight, using this information to guide their choices.
Xingru Chen, Feng Fu
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 286; doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2406

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
James Skelton, Andrew J. Johnson, Michelle A. Jusino, Craig C. Bateman, You Li, Jiri Hulcr
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 286; doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2127

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Page of 11,503,672
Articles per Page
by