Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and diuretic effect of Moroccan fresh bee pollen in rats
Abstract: Aim: This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and diuretic effect of Moroccan aqueous extract of fresh bee pollen (AEFBP) in normal rats. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the extracted bioactive compounds was assessed using liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ ESI-MSn). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing power were used to assess the antioxidant properties of the extract, together with the determination of total phenols and flavonoids. To assess the diuretic effect, 20 normal rats were divided into five groups: The first was a control group administered by distilled water (10 mL/kg body weight), the second group received furosemide (10 mg/kg body weight), the third group received 100 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP, the fourth group received 250 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP, and the fifth group received 500 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP for 30 days. Toward the end of this experiment, urine output was measured, and plasma and urine were sampled to analyze creatinine, potassium, chloride, and sodium levels. Results: N1,N5,N10-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine is a spermidine derivative and was the main compound in this sample, in a total of 19 compounds identified, including flavonoids, glucoside flavonoids, and methylated derivatives. Force feeding with the AEFBP induced a significant increase in urine output and urinary electrolyte levels with a dependent dose-effect without changes in plasma electrolytes, whereas furosemide decreased plasma potassium. Conclusion: Moroccan fresh bee pollen extract contains flavonols and spermidines that induce a potential antioxidant activity related to significant diuretic effect without changes in plasma composition.
Keywords: antioxidant activity / diuresis / fresh bee pollen / liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry / phenolamides
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