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The Current Role and Prospects of Electrophysiological Research Methods in Ophthalmology. Literature Review

V. N. Kazajkin, V. O. Ponomarev, A. V. Lizunov, A. E. Zhdanov, ,
Published: 27 December 2020
Ophthalmology in Russia , Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-669-675

Abstract: Electrophysiological research today remains an important method for the objective assessment of the functional state of the components of the visual analyzer.There are methods, for example, OCT, that can objectively assess the structural and anatomical integrity of the retina, however, only indirectly shows functional activity. The undoubted advantage of EFR is the ability, excluding the subjectivity of the subject, to perform a functional topographic assessment of the malfunction of all systems of the visual analyzer. Private electrophysiology of the vision organ is represented by a variety of methods for recording the electrobiological activity of the cells of the visual analyzer: ERG, EOG, VEP, mfERG (multifocal electroretinography), and each option is directed to a separate part of it, therefore, to complete the picture, in particular in research works on animal models may use several techniques. In general, the limitation of EFR is its complexity and many confounding factors that can affect the result, ranging from stimulation parameters to the state of the patient himself. At the same time, the main area of prospective use of electrophysiological research is differential diagnosis, preclinical toxicology and scientific and experimental models. However, in recent decades, the active introduction of registration methods, including the appearance of multifocal electroretinography, as well as changes in the conditions of electrophysiological studies, open up new possibilities for the future evolution of the method. Classical methods for evaluating EFR data, taking into account the growth of data flow, do not provide detailed qualitative and quantitative information about the state of the visual analyzer. This leaves the possibility and the need for the study, optimization and algorithmization of the assessment data of the differentiated criteria inherent for a particular ocular pathology. EFRs require simpler and more adapted protocols for clinical practice, allowing a strictly differentiated approach to the smallest anatomical and functional changes, based on open databases and modern adaptation based on artificial intelligence.
Keywords: adaptation / evolution / functional / visual / Electrophysiological / Multifocal Electroretinography / Differentiated / EFR

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