An Insight into the Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus in Africa
Published: 11 May 2022
Abstract: Hepatitis viruses (hepatotropic viruses) are classified into five kinds, denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and E, each with its own unique genotypes, clinical implications, and geographic distribution. Viral hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that can resolve on its own or proceed to cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer. Hepatitis A, B, and C infections are the most common types of infectious viral hepatitis. Over the previous five decades, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has exhibited an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income nations. HBV genotype variation is thought to be crucial in regulating disease development, infection outcome, antiviral therapy response, and illness prognosis. HBV is divided into ten genotypes (A-J) and roughly 40 sub-genotypes, correlated with different geographic distributions, transmission routes, and disease progression. The goal of this study was to figure out the current status of HBV prevalence and genotype distribution in West African countries. HBV genotypes A, D, and E have been reported the most widely prevalent genotypes in Africa so far, while there are limited reports of genotypes B and C. HBV genotype A is shown to be more prevalent in Africa than on other continents, implying that it has an African origin. Genotype D has been found across Africa, particularly in the Mediterranean and North African regions. Except in Africa, HBV genotype E infection is extremely rare, even when infection with this genotype has been recorded outside of Africa, it has virtually always been in African origin people. Within Africa, HBV genotype E is abundant and broad across the continent, reaching from Senegal's west coast to Namibia's southwestern tip and eastward to the Central African Republic. These epidemiological findings and differences have important implications for the immunization, antiviral therapy, and clinical outcomes of HBV on a national and regional level.
Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus / antiviral / genotypes / Diversity / African / HBV / extremely / continent
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