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An Insight into the Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus in Africa

Abstract: Hepatitis viruses (hepatotropic viruses) are classified into five ‎kinds, denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and E, each with its ‎own unique genotypes, clinical implications, and geographic ‎distribution. Viral hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that ‎can resolve on its own or proceed to cirrhosis or hepatocellular ‎cancer. Hepatitis A, B, and C infections are the most common ‎types of infectious viral hepatitis. Over the previous five ‎decades, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has exhibited an ‎intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income nations. ‎HBV genotype variation is thought to be crucial in regulating ‎disease development, infection outcome, antiviral therapy ‎response, and illness prognosis. HBV is divided into ten ‎genotypes (A-J) and roughly 40 sub-genotypes, correlated with ‎different geographic distributions, transmission routes, and ‎disease progression. The goal of this study was to figure out ‎the current status of HBV prevalence and genotype distribution ‎in West African countries. HBV genotypes A, D, and E have ‎been reported the most widely prevalent genotypes in Africa so ‎far, while there are limited reports of genotypes B and C. HBV ‎genotype A is shown to be more prevalent in Africa than on ‎other continents, implying that it has an African origin. ‎Genotype D has been found across Africa, particularly in the ‎Mediterranean and North African regions. Except in Africa, HBV ‎genotype E infection is extremely rare, even when infection ‎with this genotype has been recorded outside of Africa, it has ‎virtually always been in African origin people. Within Africa, ‎HBV genotype E is abundant and broad across the continent, ‎reaching from Senegal's west coast to Namibia's southwestern ‎tip and eastward to the Central African Republic. These ‎epidemiological findings and differences have important ‎implications for the immunization, antiviral therapy, and clinical ‎outcomes of HBV on a national and regional level.‎
Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus / antiviral / genotypes / Diversity / African / HBV / extremely / continent

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