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Assessing preconception nutrition readiness among women of reproductive age in Bantul, Indonesia: findings from baseline data analysis of a cluster randomized trial

Yhona Paratmanitya, Siti Helmyati, Detty S Nurdiati, Emma C Lewis, Hamam Hadi
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics) , Volume 8, pp 68-79; doi:10.21927/ijnd.2020.8(2).68-79

Abstract: ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Pemenuhan gizi pada masa prakonsepsi merupakan hal yang penting untuk memastikan kehamilan yang sehat, namun banyak wanita di negara-negara berkembang yang belum menyadari pentingnya hal tersebut. Informasi tentang kesiapan gizi prakonsepsi pada wanita usia subur, khususnya di negara berkembang, masih terbatas.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui kesiapan gizi prakonsepsi pada calon pengantin wanita di IndonesiaMetode: Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari studi cluster randomized trial untuk meningkatkan status besi ibu hamil di Kabupaten Bantul, Yogyakarta, yang melibatkan 173 calon pengantin wanita. Data antropometri, asupan makan, dan pengetahuan tentang gizi prakonsepsi dikumpulkan oleh enumerator yang terlatih, yaitu mahasiswa di Fakultas Kesehatan, Universitas Alma Ata, dengan melakukan kunjungan ke rumah responden. Data kadar Hemoglobin (Hb) diperoleh melalui kuesioner. Kesiapan gizi prakonsepsi diukur menggunakan 10 indikator, yang meliput: (1) Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT); (2) Lingkar Lengan Atas (LILA); (3) kadar Hb; (4) asupan energi; (5) asupan protein; (6) asupan kalsium; (7) asupan zat besi; (8) asupan folat; (9) pengetahuan tentang gizi prakonsepsi; dan (10) konsumsi suplemen zat besi dan/atau asam folat. Skor kesiapan akan berkisar antara 0-10.Hasil: Tidak ada satupun responden yang dapat memenuhi seluruh indikator kesiapan gizi prakonsepsi. Sebanyak 26% responden dapat memenuhi 2 indikator, dan median skor-nya adalah 3 (2.0-4.0). Kadar Hb, IMT, dan LILA merupakan 3 indikator terbanyak yang dapat dipenuhi, sementara asupan kalsium, zat besi, dan folat merupakan 3 indikator yang paling sedikit dapat dipenuhi oleh responden.Kesimpulan: Peningkatan kesadaran akan pentingnya mempersiapkan gizi prakonsepsi pada calon ibu merupakan hal yang sangat diperlukan. Program intervensi gizi kedepannya sebaiknya sudah dimulai sejak masa prakonsepsi, bukan hanya fokus pada kehamilan. KATA KUNCI: Indeks Massa Tubuh; asupan makan; prakonsepsi; wanita usia subur ABSTRACTBackground: Proper nutrition during preconception is essential to ensuring a healthy pregnancy, however, women in developing countries may not be aware of its importance. Information is limited regarding nutrition readiness prior to conception among women of reproductive age in these settings.Objectives: To examine nutrition readiness prior to conception among premarital women living in Indonesia.Methods: This study was part of a cluster randomized trial which aimed to improve the iron status of pregnant women in Bantul District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 173 premarital women were included in the study. Data were collected on anthropometry, dietary intake, and knowledge about preconception nutrition by trained nutrition students of the University of Alma Ata, and taking place in the participant’s home. Hemoglobin level data were obtained based on answers to a questionnaire. Preconception nutrition readiness for pregnancy was determined based on 10 indicators, including: (1) body mass index (BMI); (2) mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC); (3) hemoglobin (Hb) level; average daily intakes for (4) energy, (5) protein, (6) calcium, (7) iron, and (8) folic acid; (9) level of knowledge about preconception nutrition; and (10) folic acid and/or iron supplement consumption. Preconception nutrition readiness scores ranged from 0-10.Results: No study participants met all 10 indicators for preconception nutrition readiness. One-quarter (26.0%) of participants could only meet 2 indicators, and the median score was 3.0 (2.0-4.0). Hb level, BMI, and MUAC were the 3 indicators met most by participants, while iron, folic acid, and calcium intake were the least met indicators.Conclusion: Raising awareness about preconception nutritional preparation among women of reproductive age is urgent. Future nutrition intervention programs should target the preconception period. KEYWORDS: Body mass index; dietary intake; preconception; women of reproductive age.
Keywords: Protein / Indonesia / Bantul / Hal Yang / merupakan hal / pada calon / Preconception nutrition readiness

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