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Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Guidance and Follow-up of Thoracic Needle Biopsies and Thermal Ablations

Maya Abrishami Kashani, Adrienne E. Campbell-Washburn, Mark C. Mbch Murphy, Onofrio A. Catalano, Shaunagh MBCh McDermott,

Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for the guidance and follow-up of percutaneous minimally invasive interventions in many body parts. In the thorax, computed tomography (CT) is currently the most used imaging modality for the guidance and follow-up of needle biopsies and thermal ablations. Compared with CT, MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast, lacks ionizing radiation, and allows functional imaging. The role of MRI is limited in the thorax due to the low hydrogen proton density and many air-tissue interfaces of the lung, as well as respiratory and cardiac motion. Here, we review the current experience of MR-guided thoracic needle biopsies and of MR-guided thermal ablations targeting lesions in the lung, mediastinum, and the chest wall. We provide an overview of MR-compatible biopsy needles and ablation devices. We detail relevant MRI sequences and their relative advantages and disadvantages for procedural guidance, assessment of complications, and long-term follow-up. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of CT and MR for thoracic interventions and identify areas in need of improvement and additional research.
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging / lung needle biopsy / lung ablation / cryoablation / microwave ablation / computed tomography

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