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A Frequency-Domain Spoofing Attack on FMCW Radars and Its Mitigation Technique Based on a Hybrid-Chirp Waveform

Abstract: This article presents a novel spoofing device capable of injecting false target information into a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar. The spoofing device uses a radio frequency (RF) single-sideband (SSB) mixer to introduce a frequency shift to the incoming RF signal transmitted by the victim radar and retransmits the modulated RF signal. The modulated RF signal resembles a false target. Upon down-conversion on the receiver chain of the victim radar, the modulated RF signal creates an illusion of a real target in the radar signal processing system. The frequency shift can be adjusted to vary the range of the spoofed target. The theory of the spoofing mechanism was developed, and a 5.8 GHz prototype was built for experimental validation. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the proposed spoofing device to inject a false target at any arbitrary range. A hybrid-chirp FMCW approach was proposed and verified as a countermeasure to distinguish a real target from a spoofed target to mitigate the RF-spoofing attack.
Keywords: Radar / Chirp / Sensors / Mixers / Jamming / Radio frequency / Baseband

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