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Clinical picture of pulmonary plague observed in the paediatric wards of antananarivo

, Randriamanga Lovasoa, Karol Mihary Soa, Aurélien Mioramalala Sedera, Robinson Annick Lalaina

Abstract: Introduction: In Madagascar, plague is a highly contagious acute endemic infectious disease. The diagnosis of the most severe form of pneumonic plague remains difficult in children, hence the objectives of the present study; which is to identify the clinical signs of this clinical form in children and to describe its epidemiological and evolutionary profile. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in four pediatric wards in Antananarivo during the urban pneumonic plague outbreak from September 2017 to January 2018. Those cases were defined as children aged 0-15 years old suspected of having plague with positive RDT and PCR, and they were defined as children aged 0-15 years old with negative RDT and PCR. Results: Fifty-two cases of pneumonic plague were identified, half of which (50%) were under 24 months of age. A male predominance was noted with a sex ratio of 1.23 and 86.54% of the patients were from urban areas. Several clinical signs were found but none was specific for pneumonic plague: cough (59.62% p: 0.5), dyspnea (3.85% p: 0.16), chest pain (3.85% p: 0.26%), hemoptysis (7.69% p: 0.17), vomiting (9.62% p: 0.14), diarrhea (11.54% p: 0.45), altered general condition (38.46% p: 0.24%). Two deaths were noted (3.8%). Conclusion: No specific clinical warning signs have been identified in childhood pneumonic plague. In the event of an epidemic of urban pneumonic plague, any bacterial pneumonia should at least initially include active treatment against Yersinia pestis.
Keywords: children / signs / old / RDT / PCR / pneumonic plague / treatment / noted

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