Smoking-induced microbial dysbiosis in health and disease
Abstract: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of cancer, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, but the precise mechanisms by which such risk is mediated remain poorly understood. Additionally, smoking can impact the oral, nasal, oropharyngeal, lung and gut microbiome composition, function, and secreted molecule repertoire. Microbiome changes induced by smoking can bear direct consequences on smoking-related illnesses. Moreover, smoking-associated dysbiosis may modulate weight gain development following smoking cessation. Here, we review the implications of cigarette smoking on microbiome community structure and function. In addition, we highlight the potential impacts of microbial dysbiosis on smoking-related diseases. We discuss challenges in studying host–microbiome interactions in the context of smoking, such as the correlations with smoking-related disease severity versus causation and mechanism. In all, understanding the microbiome’s role in the pathophysiology of smoking-related diseases may promote the development of rational therapies for smoking- and smoking cessation-related disorders, as well as assist in smoking abstinence.
Keywords: cancer / cardiovascular physiology / COPD / metabolites / Microbial dysbiosis / Smoking
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