Secondary glaucoma after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) injection in patients with retinal disorder: A retrospective study
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the rate of secondary glaucoma after intravitreal (IV) dexamethasone implant (ozurdex) 0.7 mg injection in a retinal disorder over a clinical treatment period of 2 years in a tertiary eye care center. Methods: Retrospective study based on the records of patients receiving IV ozurdex 0.7 mg implant for T/t of cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic macular edema (DME), macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion/branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO/BRVO), and choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) at a tertiary eye care hospital for 2 years with 6 months of follow-up. The post-T/t intraocular pressure (IOP) and antiglaucoma medication (AGM) required was recorded at day 1, 1 week, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months and analyzed for secondary IOP spike or ocular hypertension defined as IOP >21 mmHg at any point in time. The patients with pre-existing glaucoma and lost to follow-up were excluded. Results: A total of 102 eyes of 80 patients were included in the study. The mean baseline IOP was 14.40 + 2.97 mmHg, post-injection was 15.01 + 3.22 mmHg at day 1, 15.15 + 3.28 mmHg at 1 week, 15.96 + 3.62 mmHg at 1 month, 16.26 + 3.95 mmHg at 2 months, 15.41 + 3.33 mmHg at 3 months, 15.38 + 3.28 mmHg at 4 months, and 14.27 + 2.69 mmHg at 6 months. No significant difference was seen from baseline IOP at day 1 (P = 0.163), 1 week (P = 0.086), and 6 months (P = 0.748). Statistically significant difference was seen at 1 month (P = 0.0009), 2 months (P = 0.0001), 3 months (P = 0.023), and 4 months (P = 0.026). The mean IOP peak at 2 months recovered to baseline by 6 months subgroup IOP trend shows a similar variation and the results are consistent with the studies in the literature. About 19/102 (18.62%) eyes showed an IOP spike post-T/t. The maximum was seen at 2 months; 16 eyes showed a rise in the range 22–25 mmHg; 8 in the range 26–30 mmHg; and 1 eye had 34 mmHg and required multiple AGM—no surgical intervention was needed. Conclusion: A secondary IOP spike post-IV ozurdex 0.7 mg seen in 18.62% of the cases require AGM. The IOP monitoring should be meticulously performed for the variations and secondary IOP spike management to prevent irreversible damage to the optic nerve and visual field.
Keywords: IV ozurdex / http / xmlns / webservices.ovid.com/mrws/1.0 / eye / retinal / post T/t
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