Self-Efficacy, Positive Future Outlook and School Burnout in Spanish Adolescents
Abstract: Background: Environmental and personal circumstances during adolescence cause changes affecting students, their wellbeing, performance, self-efficacy, motivation, and aspirations for the future. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between burnout, self-efficacy, and outlooks by student gender and age, and determine the influence of self-efficacy on burnout and outlooks for the future. Methods: The sample was made up of 1287 high school students. The instruments used to collect data were The Control—Individual Protective Factors Index to evaluate self-efficacy, the Positive Outlook—Individual Protective Factors Index for aspirations, and finally, for burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results: The results showed that the cynicism and exhaustion dimensions of burnout correlated negatively with self-efficacy and outlooks. On the contrary, the academic efficacy dimension showed a positive correlation with self-efficacy. In addition, the gender and age variables were related to burnout. Student self-efficacy was related to burnout and outlooks for the future, where youths with the highest levels of self-efficacy were those who had the most positive outlooks for the future and the least school burnout. Conclusions: Given the academic changes that impede commitment, self-efficacy, and outlooks for the future of youths, the design of intervention programs directed at improving adolescent self-efficacy would lower burnout levels and raise their outlooks.
Keywords: school burnout / self-efficacy / outlooks for future / adolescents
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